1999 - LETNIK 14
POVZETKI ŠTEVILKE 5-6

Dr. Ivan Ferbežer

INDIVIDUALIZIRANO IZOBRAŽEVANJE NADARJENIH UČENCEV V ZDA

INDIVIDUALIZING EDUCATION FOR GIFTED STUDENTS IN THE USA

Referat na znanstvenem posvetovanju Conference paper
UDK 374.3 UDC 374.3
DESKRIPTORJI: nadarjeni učenci, učni cilji, vsebina, individualizirano poučevanje, evalvacija
DESCRIPTORS: gifted students, co-operative teaching
POVZETEK - Deskriptivna raziskava predstavlja podroben proces individualiziranega izobraževanja nadarjenih učencev v ZDA. Individualizirano izobraževanje vsebuje prilagoditev vsebine, procesa, produkta in učnega okolja po skrbni ocenitvi posameznikovih karakteristik, vrlin in slabosti. Individualizirano poučevanje je preučeno v obeh pogledih, za diagnostično in programsko poučevanje. Pri tem je poudarek na kooperativnem poučevanju, na razvijanju individualnega programa v sodelovanju med nadarjenim učencem, razrednim učiteljem, starši, mentorjem in svetovalcem za nadarjene učence.
Avtor razpravlja o ciljih in nalogah, zasnovanih na potrebah in karakteristikah individualnih nadarjenih učencev. Načrtovanje individualiziranega izobraževanja je zaobseženo s stopenjskim procesom ocenjevanja, zbiranjem podatkov, oblikovanjem ciljev in nalog, razvijanjem načrta programa in evalvacijo.
Zaključek predstavlja končni produkt individualiziranega izobraževalnega načrtovanja kot zavezujoči načrt akcije.
ABSTRACT - The descriptive research presents a detailed process of individualizing education for gifted students in the USA. Individualized education involves adaptation of the content, the process, the product and the learning environment, after careful assessment of the individual strengths and weaknesses. Individualized education is considered to be both diagnostic and prescriptive teaching. Co-operative teaching between the gifted student, the parent, the regular classroom teacher and the teacher of the gifted in developing the individual program was stressed.
Discussed are goals and objectives, based on the individual gifted student's needs and characteristics. Designing and individualized education for gifted students was covered in a step-by-step process involving assessment, compiling the data, forming goals and objectives, developing a program plan and evaluation.
The end product of the individualized education for gifted students is a prescribed plan of action.

Mag. Milena Valenčič Zuljan

ZAZNAVANJE TEMELJNIH DEJAVNIKOV POUKA V ŠTUDENTOVIH POJMOVANJIH POUKA

AWARENESS OF THE TEACHING AREAS IN THE STUDENTS' POINT OF VIEW

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK 371.12 UDC 371.12
DESKRIPTORJI: pojmovanje pouka, lastnosti učitelja, razredna klima, motivacija, didaktično-metodični proces poučevanja, učenci, vsebinski cilji pouka, učiteljeva priprava, poklicni odnosi, poklicna rast
DESCRIPTORS: characteristics of the teacher, class atmosphere, motivation, didactic-methodological pro-cess of teaching, pupils, the teaching point, teacher's planning, professional relationships, professional growth
POVZETEK - Pojmovanja pouka, znanja in učenja, ki se povezujejo z učiteljevim razumevanjem lastne vloge in vloge učencev pri pouku, so po ugotovitvah raziskav študentovih pojmovanj ter modelov učiteljevega poklicnega razvoja bistveni del učiteljeve profesionalne opreme. Pričujoči članek predstavlja ugotovitve raziskave o pojmovanjih pouka pri študentih razrednega pouka na začetku študija.
Raziskava je pokazala, da študenti vidijo dober pouk predvsem skozi učiteljeve osebne in poklicne lastnosti ter razredno klimo in motivacijo, kar smo poimenovali tudi odnosni vidik. Preostale kategorije dobrega pouka - učni cilji, organizacijski vidik, metodični vidik, učenci kot dejavnik pouka ter učiteljeva priprava in poklicna rast, imajo skupaj komaj 37%.
ABSTRACT - Characteristics of the teacher, class atmosphere, motivation, didactic-methodological process of teaching, pupils, the teaching point, teacher's planning, professional relationships, professional growth are basic parts of the teacher's professional attitude. The following paper presents the ideas of teaching from the students' of grade teaching point of view at the beginning of their study.
The research showed that according to students effective teaching is viewed upon through the teacher's personal and professional characteristics, class atmosphere and motivation what we called the attitude aspect. Other factors of effective teaching - aims of the lesson, teaching procedures, using the methods, learners, teacher's planning, professional growth - represent not more than 37%.

Dr. Marjan Blažič, Jasmina Starc

O POVEZANOSTI SPLOŠNE IN POSEBNE DIDAKTIKE

THE CONNECTION OF GENERAL AND SPECIAL DIDACTICS

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK 37.02 UDC 37.02
DESKRIPTORJI: splošna didaktika, posebna didaktika, metodika, interdisciplinarnost, transdisciplinarnost
DESCRIPTORS: general didactics, special didactics, methodology, interdiscipline, transdiscipline
POVZETEK - Avtor v članku opredeljuje in razmejuje splošno in posebno didaktiko ter poskuša določiti medsebojno razmerje. Ugotavlja, da sta obe disciplini v tesni medsebojni zvezi, in da je posebna didaktika glede na proučevalno področje izrazito pedagoška disciplina, glede na način proučevanja pa interdisciplinarno znanstveno področje. Prav interdisciplinarna dimenzija kaže na odprtost posebne didaktike, ki sintetizira in integrira rezultate svoje matične substratne discipline s pedagoško-psihološkimi in drugimi disciplinami. ABSTRACT - The author defines and distinguishes between general and special didactics and tries to determine their relationship. He ascertains that both disciplines are closely interrelated and that special didactics is namely pedagogic discipline according to its research area, while according to its methods it is interdisciplinary scientific area which shows its openness and in this way synthesises and integrates the results of its basic discipline with pedagogo-psychologic and other disciplines.

Dr. Majda Pšunder

ZAKLJUČNI/MATURANTSKI IZLET (EKSKURZIJA)

FINAL EXCURSION

Pregledni članek Review
UDK 379.822 UDC 379.822
DESKRIPTORJI: izlet, ekskurzija, faza priprave, faza izvedbe, faza evalvacije, dogovori, pravila, odgovornosti
DESCRIPTORS: outing, excursion, phase of planning, phase of implementation, phase of evaluation, agreements, rules, responsibilities
POVZETEK - Osnovno izhodišče razmišljanja izhaja iz terminov izlet ali ekskurzija. Skozi faze priprave izvedbe in evalvacije smo skušali konkretizirati pomemben zaključni del vzgojno-izobraževalnega procesa. V raziskavo smo vključili vzorec učencev, staršev in ravnateljev. Vir podatkov so bili anketni vprašalniki. Zastavljene hipoteze smo preverjali z veljavnostjo za vzorce raziskave. Dovolili smo si odločitev in uporabili besedo izlet, ker je največkrat v uporabi in ker je takšna lahko tudi jezikovna opredelitev. Na naslovno razmišljanje smo odgovorili: zaključni in maturantski izlet je ljub dogodek, če je temeljito pripravljen, plodno izveden, vsebinsko bogat in zabaven, predvsem pa dogovorjen v vseh podrobnostih. ABSTRACT - Expressions "outing" and "excursion" were taken into consideration. The important part of educational process is shown through the phases of planning, performance and evaluation. Learners, parents and principals were included into the research by completing questionnaires. Hypotheses were validated according to sample research. We found out that final excursion may be a pleasant event if it is properly planned, performed, content-rich, entertaining and, most important, discussed about in details.

Dr. Alojzija Židan

OPAZOVANJE UČINKOV DRUŽBOSLOVNEGA KURIKULUMA

OBSERVATION OF THE EFFECTS OF CURRICULUM FOR SOCIAL SCIENCE

Pregledni članek Review
UDK 371.13 UDC 371.13
DESKRIPTORJI: družboslovni kurikulum, kurikularna kvaliteta, didaktična kultura, opazovanje, komunikacijsko dejanje
DESCRIPTORS: social science, quality of a curriculum, didactic culture,observation, communicative action
POVZETEK - V prispevku avtorica opozarja na nujno stalno spremljanje doseženih učinkov družboslovnega kurikuluma. Le-ta je za učitelja družboslovja v njegovi izpeljavi vselej izziv. Opazovalna kultura mora postati pomembna sestavina njegove didaktične kulture sploh. ABSTRACT - The authoress points out the need for continuous assesment of the effects of the curriculum for social science which represents a challenge for its teacher. The culture of observation has to become an important part of their didactic culture.

Dr. Tatjana Ferjan

ZBIRKA KNJIG NARAVNA IN KULTURNA DEDIŠČINA V UČNI PRAKSI

THE SERIES OF BOOKS THE NATURAL AND CULTURAL HERITAGE IN THE CLASSROOM PROFESSIONAL PAPER

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 371.48 UDC 371.48
DESKRIPTORJI: naravne znamenitosti, kulturne znamenitosti, narodni park, različni odnosi do dediščine
DESCRIPTORS: natural heritage, cultural heritage, national park, different atttitudes towards the conservation of heritage
POVZETEK - Sestavek govori o študiju in predstavitvi naravne in kulturne dediščine pri pouku. Ob različnih pristopih k obravnavi znamenitosti učenci oblikujejo različne odnose do ohranitve dediščine. ABSTRACT - The paper reports about the study and the presentation of natural and cultural heritage in the classroom. Through various approaches to heritage students can form different relationship to its conservation.

Mag. Marjeta Cerar

KURIKULARNA PRENOVA DOMSKE VZGOJE

THE CURRICULAR RENEWAL IN THE FIELD OF DORMITORY

Referat na znanstvenem posvetovanju Conference paper
UDK 37.018.3 UDC 37.018.3
DESKRIPTORJI: kurikulum, načrtovanje kurikula, dijaški domovi, domska vzgoja, cilji vzgoje, vsebine programa, organizacija dela, zakon o dijaških domovih
DESCRIPTORS: curriculum, planning of the curricu-lum, dormitory (hostels, college) dormitory education, educational goals (aims), contents, school management, legislation of dormitoy education
POVZETEK - Članek govori o kurikularni prenovi na področju dijaških domov (1996-1999) z vidika članice kurikularne skupine za prenovo programa domske vzgoje. Predstavljeni so razlogi, zakaj je delo kurikularne komisije na tem področju, ki ima specifično zgodovino, strokovni razvoj ter specifičen položaj v šolskem sistemu in evropski tradiciji, posebno zahtevno.
Osrednji del članka tvori objava delovnega gradiva iz dela kurikularne komisije, ki opisuje predloge, kako do ciljev, vsebin in organizacije delovanja domov. Ker brez opredelitve v zakonu komisija ne more opraviti dela, ki presega njene pristojnosti, se članek zaključi s predlogom za izdajo zakona o dijaških domovih, ki naj opredeli cilje, organizacijo in vsebino dela. Na podlagi zakonske definicije je odprta pot za načr-tovanje kurikuluma dijaških domov, to pomeni za načrt delovanja javnih dijaških domov in za načrtovanje programa domske vzgoje.
ABSTRACT - The paper deals with the curricular renewal in the field of dormitory (student hostels, college) (1996-1999). It is given from the standpoint of a member of the curricular group for the renewal of the program of dormitory education. It presents the reasons why the work of the curricular committee in this field is required. Dormitory has specific tradition, professional development and specific position in the educational system and European tradition.
The central part of the paper is the publication of the working material from the work of the curricular committee which describes the proposals how to achieve the goals, contents and organisation of the functioning of dormitory. Since the committee cannot perform the work which is beyond its competence without the adequate legal basis, the paper finishes with the proposal to issue a law on dormitory which should define the goals, organisation and contents of work. Based on a legal definition the path to planning the curriculum in dormitory is open, i.e. the plan of activities in public dormitory and planning the program of dormitory education.

Mag. Marjana Erženičnik Pačnik

VPLIV VZGOJITELJA NA NEKATERE VIDIKE RAZVOJA...

THE INFLUENCE OF THE PRE-SCHOOL TEACHER ON SOME ASPECTS OF THE CHILD'S SPEECH

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK 372.46 UDC 372.46
DESKRIPTORJI: predšolska vzgoja, govorni razvoj otrok, vloga vzgojitelja in vrtca, jezik
DESCRIPTORS: pre-school education, development of the child's speaking skills, the role of the pre-school teacher and the kindergarten, language
POVZETEK - Ena izmed zelo pomembnih vzgojnoizobraževalnih zahtev današnjega časa je tudi čim boljša usposobljenost otrok za uspešno sporazumevanje, zlasti besedno. Ker so kritične faze razvoja govora prav v predšolskem obdobju, je potrebno govoru v tem času posvetiti posebno pozornost. Za otrokov govorni razvoj je pomembno, koliko je okolje, v katerem otrok raste, usmerjeno v jezikovno simbolično razlaganje sveta in kakšno vlogo ima jezik v otrokovem spoznavanju sveta. Okolje mora otroka spodbujati, da bo izražal svoje misli, da bo govoril. Z vsakim korakom v jezikovnem razvoju se otrok bolj približa samostojnosti, postaja manj odvisen od odraslih, hkrati pa jezikovni razvoj spodbuja tudi miselni razvoj. Vrtec ima za spodbujanje razvoja otrokovega govora pravzaprav boljše možnosti, kakor jih ima kasneje šola, predvsem zaradi tega, ker otrokov govor v tem obdobju še ni zaključen, v tej starosti je otrok še izredno sugestibilen in elastičen. Da vrtec del teh svojih možnosti tudi izkoristi, so dokazali rezultati našega preizkusa na govorni lestvici, saj so otroci, ki so obiskovali vrtec, dosegali boljše rezultate. ABSTRACT - One of the main tasks set before us today is to enable children to communicate, especialy to communicate in words. Critical periods in the child's development being in pre-school time,special attention should be paid to the development of the speech. The importance the child's enviroment pays to the symbolic interpretation of the world around them by means of language is extremely big, as well as how children express their thoughts in words. The more a child speaks, the more their mental development is stimulated. In the kindergarten the opportunities to learning to speak is at that age not yet completed, children are liable to suggestion and flexible. The results of our research with the speech-scale have proved that pre-school teachers respect and make use of these advantages. The children going to kindergarten achieved better results.

Mag. Dragica Haramija

KNJIŽEVNOST V PREDBRALNEM OBDOBJU OTROKOVEGA RAZVOJA

LITERATURE IN PRE-READING STAGE OF A CHILD'S DEVELOPMENT

Pregledni članek Review
UDK 372.41 UDC 372.41
DESKRIPTORJI: književnost, predbralno obdobje, bralni razvoj
DESCRIPTORS: literature, pre-reading stage, development of reading
POVZETEK - Avtorica ugotavlja, da otroci v večini primerov niso sposobni samostojnega branja do osmega leta starosti. Z vključitvijo posrednika med otrokom in knjigo je otrok postavljen v podrejeni položaj. Poseben problem predstavlja posredovanje književnih del predšolskim otrokom.
V predbralnem obdobju otrok ni samostojen pri izbiri knjig, ki bi jih želel poslušati, in je odvisen od profesionalnih in neprofesionalnih posrednikov.
ABSTRACT - According to the author, children do not possess the reading skill until they are eight.With the inclusion of an intermediary between the child and the book, the child is put into a subordinate position. Mediation of literary works to pre-school children presents a special problem.
During the pre-school period the child is not auto-nomous in choosing the books and is dependent on professional and unprofessional mediators.

Nina Ivanetič

AVTORITETA UČITELJA DANES

AUTHORITY OF THE TEACHER NOWADAYS

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 371.13/.16 UDC 371.13/.16
DESKRIPTORJI: avtoriteta, družbeni odnosi, poslušnost, odgovornost, ustvarjalnost, strah, vrednote, motnje v komunikaciji
DESCRIPTORS: authority, social relationships, obedience, responsibility, creativity, fear, values, communication
POVZETEK - Skoraj vsi učitelji podpirajo demokratično šolo, v kateri bi učitelj imel zdravo avtoriteto, vzgajal pa ne bi pasivno poslušne, ampak odgovorne učence. Iz empiričnih podatkov (ankete) je razvidno, da v praksi manjka predvsem medsebojna komunikacija in da se mnogi učitelji v strahu pred tveganjem še vedno oprijemajo starih represivnih metod po načelu "zmagam <214> zgubiš". Avtorica išče odgovor na vprašanje, kako pomagati mlademu, neizkušenemu učitelju, da se bo v razredu sprostil, znal postaviti prave meje in s pristno interpersonalno komunikacijo dosegel avtoriteto. ABSTRACT - Almost all teachers support demo-cratic school where the teacher has authority and educates not obedient, but responsible students. The empirical data (a questionnaire) show that interpersonal communication lacks in practice and that a lot of teachers from fear of risk-taking still use old repressive "I win <214> you lose" methods. The author gives the answer to the question how to help a young, inexperienced teacher to relax in the classroom, to be able to put the right barriers and to achieve authority with interpersonal communication.

Ante Pajk

RECIMO NASILJU NE

LET'S SAY NO TO VIOLENCE

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 37.04:343.915 UDC 37.04:343.915
DESKRIPTORJI: nasilje, vrste nasilja, strah, ogroženost
DESCRIPTORS: violence, types of violence, fear, risk
POVZETEK - Avtor v svojem prispevku najprej opredeli pojem nasilja, ga razvrsti na tri kategorije (psihološko, telesno, spolno), nato pa išče vzroke in motive za nasilno vedenje otrok ter ustrezne rešitve. ABSTRACT - The author defines the term harassment, puts it into three categories (psychological, physical, sexual), searches causes and motives for violent behaviour of children and suggests solutions.