1999 - LETNIK 14
POVZETKI ŠTEVILKE 3-4

Dr. Martin Kramar

DIDAKTIČNI VIDIKI UČITELJEVEGA VPLIVA NA KVALITETO IZOBRAŽEVALNO-VZGOJNEGA DELA

DIDACTIC VIEWS OF TEACHER'S INFLUENCE ON THE QUALITY OF THE EDUCATIONAL AND INSTRUCTIONAL PROCESS

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK 37.02 UDC 37.02
DESKRIPTORJI: učitelj, učenec, učni proces, kvaliteta učnega dela, didaktični koncept
DESCRIPTORS: teacher, pupil, educational process, quality of teacher's work, teaching concept
POVZETEK - Učitelj kot eden bistvenih dejavnikov v učnem procesu pomembno prispeva h kvaliteti pouka glede na svoje mesto in vlogo, ki jo igra v njem. Na kvaliteto vpliva skupno s številnimi drugimi dejavniki, od katerih pa je odvisen tudi sam.
Učitelj vpliva na kvaliteto učnega procesa s tem, da sodeluje pri oblikovanju didaktičnega koncepta učnega procesa, z usklajevanjem globalnih (specialnih) in delnih (specifičnih) didaktičnih rešitev, z usklajevanjem svojega dela in odločitev z odločitvami in delom drugih subjektov ter s stalnim izboljševanjem svojega dela.
ABSTRACT - Due to the place and the role the teacher plays in the educational process, he can relevantly contribute to its quality. He effects the quality together with many other factors which he himself also depends upon.
The teacher influences the quality of the educational process by participating in the formation of the didactic concept of the educational process, by bringing into line his global (special) didactic decisions with the partial (specific) ones, by accommodating his own work and decisions to the decisions and work of other subjects and by constantly improving the quality of his work.

Dr. Marjan Blažič

UČNI CILJI IN UČNA VSEBINA KOT DOLOČILNICE IZBIRE UČNEGA MEDIJA

TEACHING AIMS AND CONTENTS AS DETERMINERS OF THE CHOICE OF TEACHING MEDIA

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK 371.68 UDC 371.68
DESKRIPTORJI: učni medij, določilnice izbire, učni cilj, učna vsebina
DESCRIPTORS: teaching medium, determiner of choice, teaching aim, teaching contents
POVZETEK - Pri izbiri učnih medijev mora učitelj upoštevati številne determinante, od katerih sta najpomembnejši učni cilji in učna vsebina. Avtor s pomočjo statistične analize preučuje stopnjo vpliva učnega cilja in učne vsebine na izbor učnega medija glede na vrsto šol, glede na nekatere pomembne neodvisne spremenljivke, kot so delovna doba, stopnja izobrazbe, predmetno področje itd. S pomočjo analize variance je proučeval razlike med grupnimi sredinami odgovorov, ki so pojasnjevali stopnjo vpliva z vidika značilnosti opazovanega vzorca. ABSTRACT - When choosing a teaching medium, the teacher must take into consideration numerous determiners of which the two most important ones are undoubtedly the teaching aims and the teaching contents. By applying statistical analysis the author was trying to establish the level of influence of the teaching aims and contents on the choice of the teaching medium with regard to the kind of school and certain other variables, such as years of work, level of education, subject area etc. With the variance analysis he studied the differences between the group mean answers, which explained the level of influence from the aspect of the characteristics of the observed sample.

Dr. Marija Kavkler

RAZUMEVANJE IN OBRAVNAVANJE OTROK Z UČNIMI TEŽAVAMI

THE UNDERSTANDING AND TREATMENT OF CHILDREN WITH LEARNING DIFFICULTIES

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK 376 UDC 376
DESKRIPTORJI: splošne in specifične učne težave, definicije učnih težav, zakonska opredelitev učne pomoči, vrste in oblike učne pomoči
DESCRIPTORS: general and specific learning difficulties, definition of learning difficulties, legislative definition of support teaching, kinds and forms of support teaching
POVZETEK - Uspeh šolskih reform je odvisen tudi od kvalitete učne pomoči, ki so je deležni otroci z učnimi težavami. Otroci z učnimi težavami so zelo heterogena skupina otrok s posebnimi vzgojno-izobraževalnimi potrebami. Učne težave so pogojene z zunanjimi in/ali notranjimi dejavniki. Pri organizaciji učne pomoči otrokom z učnimi težavami moramo upoštevati kontinuum programov, saj se posebne vzgojno-izobraževalne potrebe teh otrok razprostirajo na kontinuumu od občasnih do tistih, ki trajajo vse življenje in od specifičnih do splošnih. Po zakonu (Zakon o osnovni šoli, 1996) predvidene oblike pomoči so primerne za večino otrok z učnimi težavami, niso pa primerne za otroke z izrazitejšimi specifičnimi in splošnimi učnimi težavami. ABSTRACT - The success of a school reform depends among other things also on the quality of teaching support offered to the children with learning difficulties. These children belong to a very heterogeneous group of children with special educational needs. Learning difficulties are conditioned by the child's outer and/or inner factors. When organising support for the children with learning difficulties, we must take into account the continuum of the programmes since the specific educational needs of these children range from the only temporary ones to those, which persist throughout a person's life, and from the specific to the common ones. The Law on Primary Education (1996) provides forms of help suitable for the majority of children with learning difficulties, it does not, however, provide for the children with more expressed specific and common learning difficulties.

Dr. Majda Pšunder

VZGAJANJE ZA SVOBODO NE POMENI VZGAJANJE BREZ OMEJITEV

EDUCATION TOWARDS FREEDOM DOES NOT IMPLY EDUCATION WITHOUT LIMITS

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK 37.01 UDC 37.01
DESKRIPTORJI: vzgajanje, svoboda, sodelovanje, samostojnost, samouveljavljanje, pravila, vrednote, meje, izbira, obveza, prostost
DESCRIPTORS: education, freedom, participation, independence, self-assertion, rules, values, limits, choices, requirements, liberty
POVZETEK - V prvem delu prispevka so zajeta nekatera teoretična razmišljanja o vzgoji in svobodi, ki se začenja v družinskem okolju. Prvi otrokovi koraki so koraki k svobodi. Življenje v družini pomeni življenje v partnerskem odnosu, v katerem je vsak član vreden spoštovanja in v katerem veljajo določena pravila, norme in vrednote. Samouveljavljanje je za življenje v samostojnosti in za svobodo zelo pomembno, pri čemer so možnosti razvoja za svobodo znotraj meja. Drugi del izhaja iz raziskave, ki je opravljena na vzorcu dijakov. Ugotavljali smo samostojnost pri odločanju časa za učenje in zabave, obveznosti pri domačih opravilih, razumevanje besede svoboda in pričakovanja staršev. Mladi smejo sami razporejati čas učenja in prosti čas; svoboda jim pomeni samostojno odločanje in prevzemanje odgovornosti za odločitve. ABSTRACT - The first part of the paper deals with theoretical considerations about education and freedom, both of which originate in the family. The first steps the child makes are the steps towards free-dom. Life in the family is a partnership relation where each member is worthy of respect and where certain rules, norms and values are observed. Self-assertion is an important element of a free and independent life. The possibilities for the development of freedom, however, lie within certain limits. The second part presents the research done on a students' sample. We tried to find out how independent the students were in deciding about their study and free time, about their chores, and what the expectations of their parents were. Young people understand freedom as independent decision-making and taking the responsibility for these decisions.

Dr. Janja Črčinovič-Rozman

VPLIV POZITIVNEGA OZRAČJA V RAZREDU NA SPREJEMANJE GLASBE

THE IMPACT OF A POSITIVE CLASS ATMOSPHERE ON THE RECEPTION OF MUSIC

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK 372.878 UDC 372.878
DESKRIPTORJI: učiteljeve lastnosti, medsebojni odnosi, komunikacija, ozračje, uspešen glasbeni pouk
DESCRIPTORS: teacher's characteristics, mutual relationships, communication, atmosphere, effective music education
POVZETEK - Pozitivno ozračje v razredu, izraženo z emocionalno naklonjenostjo učitelja do posredovane glasbe in otrok, močno vpliva na njihov odnos do glasbenega pouka in na sprejemanje glasbe. Tankočutnost učiteljev na področju medsebojnih odnosov je za uspešno vplivanje na oblikovanje glasbenih sodb in vrednot enako pomembna kot njihovo strokovno glasbeno in didaktično znanje. Med pomembnimi dejavniki, ki vplivajo na pozitivno ozračje in pozitivne sodbe, je tudi glasbena aktivnost učencev. Le-ti so bolj zavzeti za delo, če imajo možnost sodelovanja pri načrtovanju dejavnosti. Pri uveljavljanju enakopravnih odnosov nimajo občutka vsiljevanja vrednostnih sodb o glasbi, temveč si jih ustvarjajo sami. ABSTRACT - The children's attitudes to music edu-cation and their reception of music are greatly influenced by the positive classroom atmosphere as well as by the teacher's affinity for music and children. The teacher's sensitive handling of mutual relationships is equally important for the formation of children's music-related judgements and values as is their professional and didactic knowledge. An important factor which plays a role in creating a positive atmosphere and positive evaluation is the children's musical activity. The children are more motivated for work if given an opportunity for active participation and planning. Provided that the student - teacher relationship is based on mutual respect, the children are not forced to accept the teacher's value judgements about music, but are allowed to form them by themselves.

Dr. Tatjana Ferjan

PROSOJNICE IN POUK

TRANSPARENCIES AND INSTRUCTION

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 371.333 UDC 371.333
DESKRIPTORJI: prosojnica, indirektno opazovanje, samostojno učenje
DESCRIPTORS: transparency, indirect observation, independent learning
POVZETEK - Sestavek govori o didaktično-metodičnih možnostih uporabe prosojnice pri pouku geografije. Avtorica posebej izpostavi prosojnico kot dobro motivacijsko sredstvo in opredeli potek učnega dela ob uporabi tega učnega sredstva, ki omogoča boljše razumevanje učne snovi in pospešuje aktivnost učencev. ABSTRACT - The article presents the possibilities for the use of transparencies in geography lessons. The author believes the transparency to be a good motivational device and talks about the teaching process involving the use of this teaching material, which adds to a better understanding of the teaching contents and accelerates student's activity.

Dr. Amand Papotnik

UČINKOVITO IN USPEŠNO POUČEVANJE IN UČENJE TEHNIKE IN TEHNOLOGIJE Z LEGO KONSTUKCIJSKIMI SESTAVLJANKAMI

EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION AND TECHNOLOGY WITH LEGO CONSTRUCTION ELEMENTS

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 372.862 UDC 372.862
DESKRIPTORJI: strategije za ustvarjanje novega znanja, konstruiranje s sestavljankami, modeli učenja, faze kognitivnega razvoja, asimilacija, akomodacija, sposobnosti, faktorji divergentne produkcije, deduktivno in induktivno sklepanje, tehnično-fizikalne izkušnje, algoritem znanja, zbirke, gradniki, sklopi, znaki in konstrukcije (Lego dacta, Lego system)
DESCRIPTORS: strategies for the creation of new knowledge, construction by means of elements, learning models, phases of cognitive development, assimilation, accommodation, abilities, factors of divergent production, deductive and inductive reasoning, technical/phy-sical experience, algorithm of knowledge, collections, components, aggregates, symbols and constructions (Lego Dacta, Lego System)
POVZETEK - Prispevek obravnava nekaj nadrobnih strategij za ustvarjanje novega znanja, globalno - osrednjo strategijo za konstruiranje s sestavljankami, modele učenja s poudarkom na laboratorijski vaji, temeljne osnove, ki se nanašajo na izboljšanje konstruiranja in spoznanja, ki ilustrirajo pomen uporabe sestavljank legosystem in legodacta. Poudarek je na razvijanju sposobnosti v okviru izbranih strategij ter možnostim za tehnične dejavnosti, ki so pogojene z razvojno stopnjo in z izbiranjem optimalnih dejavnosti. ABSTRACT - The article deals with some detailed strategies for the creation of new knowledge and with the global - central strategy of construction by means of elements. It further describes learning models with special emphasis on laboratory exercises and on basic knowledge which illustrate the reasons for using construction elements. Special stress is given to the devel-opment of abilities within the framework of chosen strategies as well as to the possibilities for technical activities conditioned by the level of development and choice of optimal activities.

Dr. Samo Fošnarič

PROBLEMSKO IZVAJANJE POUKA V SKLOPU UPORABE NOVIH TEHNOLOGIJ

PROBLEM TEACHING WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF NEW TECHNOLOGIES

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 371.3 UDC 371.3
DESKRIPTORJI: učenje, ergonomija, problemski pouk, izobraževalna tehnologija
DESCRIPTORS: learning, ergonomy, problem teaching, educational technology
POVZETEK - Današnji znanstveno-tehnični razvoj je tako hiter, da je potreba po tesnejšem sodelovanju človeka in stroja nujna. To sodelovanje se širi tudi v šolski prostor, še posebej v tisti njegov segment, kjer je delo problemsko naravnano. To zahteva od učitelja temeljito načrtovanje prostora, njegove opreme ter učnih sredstev, vključujoč v to izbiro najnovejšo tehnologijo.
Avtor poskuša v članku odgovoriti na vprašanje, kako pristopiti k problemskemu pouku, ki sloni na uporabi novih tehnologij.
ABSTRACT - Modern scientific and technical development is taking place with such speed that the need for a closer collaboration of man and machine is but urgent. Such a collaboration is entering the school setting, especially the part dealing with problem oriented work. The teacher is thus required to organise and prepare the necessary space, suitable equipment and teaching aids with great care and include in his choice the latest technology.
The author tries to answer the question of how and in what manner to approach problem instruction based on modern technology.

Mag. Dragica Haramija

POMEN VZGOJITELJA V PREDŠOLSKEM KNJIŽNEM IZOBRAŽEVANJU

ROLE OF THE EARLY YEARS LITERARY EDUCATION

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 372.882 UDC 372.882
DESKRIPTORJI: vzgojni program, predšolski otrok, književna vzgoja
DESCRIPTORS: educational programme, the pre-school child, literary education
POVZETEK - Vzgojiteljice imajo pomembno vlogo pri izbiri otrokovih aktivnosti, kajti v vrtcih nimamo obvezujočega načrta dela, kakor je to v osnovnih in srednjih šolah. Vzgojiteljice glede na svoje afinitete izberejo umetniško področje in načrtujejo aktivnosti.
Pri analizi dnevnikov dela v vrtcu smo ugotovili velike razlike pri zastopanosti različnih umetniških disciplin. Vzgojiteljice večinoma ne posežejo za novejšo literaturo, ampak berejo otrokom iz leta v leto iste tekste.
ABSTRACT - Early years teachers play an important role in the choice of child's activities because the kindergartens do not follow a compulsory curriculum as do primary and secondary schools. Thus the early years teacher can choose an artistic area of her liking and then plan the activities accordingly.
The analysis of notes of daily work in a kindergarten has shown that different artistic activities are represented very differently. The early years teachers do not use the most recent literature and tend to read to the children the same texts year after year.

Simona Napast

UČENJE TUJEGA JEZIKA V PREDŠOLSKEM OBDOBJU

TEACHING FOREIGN LANGUAGE AT AN EARLY AGE

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 372.880 UDC 372.880
DESKRIPTORJI: tuj jezik, predšolsko obdobje, učna načela, didaktični pristop
DESCRIPTORS: foreign language, pre-school period, teaching principles, didactic approach
POVZETEK - Ali je štirileten otrok dovolj zrel za učenje tujega jezika? Zagotovo, saj je predšolsko obdobje zlata doba, v kateri je otrok najbolj priprav-ljen za učenje in dovzeten za neznano, novo. Je radoveden in spontan, kar mu kasneje koristi v nadalj-njem življenju, da se lahko razvije v inteligentno, odprto in komunikativno osebnost.
Učenja naj ne vodi zapoved: "Moraš", saj bo le neprisiljeno, igrivo ozračje največ doprineslo k razvijanju otrokovega znanja. Spoštujmo otroke kot osebnosti in ne iščimo v njih zgolj napak pri usvajanju novega. Pomagajmo jim raje, da se bodo znali odprto pogovarjati s svetom. Le tako bomo vzgojili samozavestne in razgledane otroke v pravem pomenu besede.
ABSTRACT - Is a 4-year old child ready to learn a foreign language? YES - the pre-school period is a golden opportunity to start because this is the time when the child is most susceptible to the unknown and new. He is curious and spontaneous by nature, which helps him to develop into an intelligent, open and communicative personality later on.
But learning should not be a MUST. Only an unforced and playful atmosphere can contribute to better results. We should not be looking for mistakes but rather help children to talk to the world. In this way we can bring up and educate confident and well-rounded children.

Jerica Laznik Mokotar, Karolina Teršek

ANALIZA MNENJ VZGOJITELJIC IN UČITELJIC RAZREDNEGA POUKA O NOVI DEVETLETKI

ANALYSIS OF OPINIONS OF PRE- AND PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHERS ABOUT THE NEW 9-YEAR PRIMARY SCHOOL

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 37.014.3 UDC 37.014.3
DESKRIPTORJI: reforma šolstva, devetletna osnovna šola, pedagoški tandem, predšolski otrok, šolski otrok
DESCRIPTORS: school reform, 9-year primary school, teaching team, pre-school child, school child
POVZETEK - Nova šolska zakonodaja prinaša z uvajanjem 9-letne osnovne šole veliko sprememb in novosti, ki so v zadnjem času predmet razprav, polemik in raznih dvomov.
V prispevku želimo predstaviti mnenja vzgojiteljic in učiteljic razrednega pouka o vstopu šestletnih otrok v prvi razred in o skupnem delu v tandemu. Rezultati kažejo, da se večina vzgojiteljic v pripravi na šolo na širšem celjskem področju boji, da bodo v bodočem prvem razredu v tandemu z učiteljico v podrejeni vlogi in da bo le ta prvi razred preveč šolsko naravnan.
ABSTRACT - The introduction of the 9-year primary school has brought about several legislative changes and novelties which have lately become the topic of many discussions as well as a cause of great concern. The paper tries to present the views of pre-school educators and primary teachers on the challenges the 6-year old child entering school will be faced with and on the required joint work of the pre-school educator and the teacher. The results have shown that the majority of pre-school educators in the Celje area involved in the preparation for the coming first grade fear that in the teaching team with the primary teacher they will end up in the inferior position. They also believe that the first year of school will be too school oriented.

Tatjana Jereb Miklavčič

ŠOLSKI OTROŠKI PARLAMENT - IZZIV UČITELJEM IN UČENCEM

SCHOOL CHILDREN'S PARLIAMENT - CHALLENGE FOR THE TEACHER AND PUPILS

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 343.62 UDC 343.62
DESKRIPTORJI: otroški parlament, razredna stopnja
DESCRIPTORS: children's parliament, lower primary school
POVZETEK - Avtorica v članku predstavlja zamisel o šolskem otroškem parlamentu, praktičen potek dela in najbolj zanimiva spoznanja, s posebnim ozirom na razredno stopnjo. ABSTRACT - The article presents the idea of the school children's parliament, the actual working procedures and the most interesting findings focussing primarily on the lower primary level.