1998 - LETNIK 13
POVZETKI ŠTEVILKE 5-6

Dr. Karmen Erjavec

MEDIJSKO OPISMENJEVANJE IN VZGOJA ZA MEDIJE

MEDIA LITERACY AND EDUCATION OF MEDIA IN SLOVENIA

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK 316.77 UDC 316.77
DESKRIPTORJI: vzgoja za medije, medijska pismenost, množični mediji, televizija, otroci
DESCRIPTORS: media education, media literacy, mass media, television, children
POVZETEK - Mediji zavzemajo središčno vlogo v naši družbi. Vzgoja za medije si je pridobila pomembno mesto v izobraževalnem procesu mnogih držav. Kot predmet bo vzgoja za medije v novi slovenski devetletki izpolnila osnovne cilje integriranega poučevanja. Učencem bo omogočila dostop do medijev, naučila jih bo analizirati, kritično ocenjevati in izdelovati raznovrstne komunikacijske oblike (časopis, televizijske in radijske oddaje, brskanje po internetu itd.) Vzgoja za medije bo medijsko opismenjevala učence za kritično in ustvarjalno uporabo sporočil v medijsko zasičeni družbi. Pri predmetu si bodo učenci pridobili znanje in navade, ki jih bodo iz pasivnih potrošnikov izoblikovale v aktivne državljane. Ta članek obravnava vzroke za uvedbo novega predmeta vzgoja za medije v slovensko devetletno osnovno šolo in njegove cilje, rezultate analize navad spremljanja medijev pri slovenskih otrocih, obenem pa predstavlja pomen in smernice medijskega opismenjevanja v slovenski družbi. ABSTRACT - In our society media occupy a central place, and in the educational processes of many countries media education has acquired an important position. In the new Slovene primary school of nine years media education will be a separate school subject fulfilling the basic aims of integrated teaching. It will enable the pupils to access the media, teach them to analyse, critically assess and design various communication forms (newspaper, television and radio broadcasts, internet etc.). Media education will teach media literacy and how to use the information in a media saturated society most critically and creatively. The subject will teach the pupils the necessary knowledge and skills which will help them to develop from passive consumers into active citizens. The article discusses the reasons for the implementation of media education as a new subject into the Slovene primary school, its aims and the results of the analysis of the habits of Slovene children in connection with the media. Finally it presents the role and the guidelines of media literacy in the Slovene society.

Dr. Samo Fošnarič

VLOGA IN MESTO FIZIKALNIH VSEBIN V TEHNIČNEM IZOBRAŽEVANJU OSNOVNE ŠOLE

THE ROLE AND PLACE OF PHYSICS IN PRIMARY SCHOOL TECHNICAL EDUCATION

Pregledni članek Review
UDK 372.853:372.862 UDC 372.853:372.862
DESKRIPTORJI: splošno izobraževanje, strokovno izobraževanje, fizika, tehnična vzgoja, programsko-vsebinsko usklajevanje, praksa
DESCRIPTORS: general education, professional education, physics, technical education, adjustment of programmes and contents
POVZETEK - V današnjem času se vsebine v splošnem in strokovnem izobraževanju neprestano dopolnjujejo ter bogatijo z novimi spoznanji ter tako predstavljajo kompleksno celoto. Zaradi številnih vsebinskih dopolnjevanj pa v mnogih primerih prihaja do prekrivanj določenih vsebin. Posledica tega je neracionalno načrtovanje učenčevega in učiteljevega časa. Zato moramo težiti k vertikalnemu povezovanju ter usklajevanju sorodnih predmetnih področij, kot nakazujejo primeri iz fizike in tehnične vzgoje, ki predstavljata idealno vez relacij teorija - praksa. ABSTRACT - In general and in professional education the contents are nowadays constantly being complemented and enriched by new knowledge. Due to these numerous additions certain contents tend to overlap, which results in an irrational planning of pupil's as well as teacher's time. Therefore we must strive towards vertical integration and adjustment of related subject areas. This can be observed in physics and in technical education and represents the ideal connection in the relation between theory and practice.

Dr. Amand Papotnik, Vilko Grlj

LABORATORIJSKE VAJE PRI MATURITETNI MEHANIKI

LABORATORY EXERCISES AS PART OF THE MATURA SUBJECT OF MECHANICS

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 531/533(076) UDC 531/533(076)
DESKRIPTORJI: učbenik, delovni zvezek, pisne - delovne podloge, cilji, vednosti (informacije), nadrobne strategije, reševanje problemov, reproduktivne in produktivne dejavnosti, divergentna produkcija, modeli učenja
DESCRIPTORS: textbook, workbook, written worksheets, aims, knowledge (information), detailed strategies, problem solving, reproductive and productive activities, divergent production, learning models
POVZETEK - Prispevek obravanava temeljne pedagoške, didaktične in psihološke osnove, ki so nujne za ustrezno, poglobljeno načrtovanje in didaktično oblikovanje učbeniških - pisnih gradiv oziroma podlog za laboratorijske vaje pri strokovno-teoretičnih predmetih in za praktični pouk.
Zahteva, da je potrebno v učbenik vgraditi čimveč raznovrstnih dejavnosti z različnih področij - senzoričnih, praktičnih, izraznih in zlasti miselnih, je podprta s strokovno didaktično teorijo, ob tem pa je predstavljen instrumetarij s kategorijami, sestavinami in vsebinami za didaktično oblikovanje pisnih delovnih podlog za laboratorijske vaje in praktični pouk v šolski delavnici.
ABSTRACT - The contribution deals with the fundamental pedagogical, didactic and psychological bases for appropriate in- depth and sensitive planning, and with the didactic preparation of textbooks, written materials and data for laboratory exercises in technical - theoretical subjects and for practical training. The requirement assuming that it is necessary to incorporate in the textbook as many different activities from various areas (sensorial, practical, expressive, thinking) as possible is supported by the technical didactic theory. The article also presents the necessary instruments with the categories, constituents and contents to be used when designing written worksheets for laboratory exercises and for practical training in the school workshop.

Dr. Marija Kavkler

DOBRA NARAVOSLOVNA POUČEVALNA PRAKSA ZA INTEGRIRANE OTROKE S POSEBNIMI VZGOJNO-IZOBRAŽEVALNIMI POTREBAMI

GOOD TEACHING PRACTICE OF SCIENCE FOR INTEGRATED CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL EDUCATIONAL NEEDS

Pregledni članek Review
UDK 376:371.3 UDC 376:371.3
DESKRIPTORJI: otroci s posebnimi vzgojno-izobraževalnimi potrebami, integracija, naravoslovje, dobra poučevalna praksa
DESCRIPTORS: children with special educational needs, integration, science, successful teaching practice
POVZETEK - Otroci s posebnimi vzgojno-izobraževalnimi potrebami, ki so integrirani v redne osnovne šole, dosegajo največje izobraževalne dosežke pri naravoslovju. Učitelji morajo pripraviti ustrezne pogoje, ki omogočajo tem otrokom uspešno vključitev v proces izobraževanja. Teoretična dognanja se zelo počasi uveljavljajo v pedagoški praksi, zato so v Angliji začeli uvajati raziskovalne projekte, ki prou-čujejo dobro poučevalno prakso. Menijo, da je dobra poučevalna praksa za otroke s posebnimi potrebami tudi dobra poučevalna praksa za vse otroke. V prispevku so predstavljene nekatere značilnosti dobre naravoslovne poučevalne prakse za integrirane otroke s posebnimi potrebami. ABSTRACT - Children with special educational needs who are integrated in mainstream schools, can be quite successful in science. Teachers need to prepare suitable conditions which will enable these children to become successfully integrated. Because theoretical findings and knowledge only slowly find their way into teaching practice, Great Britain started to introduce research projects, which would investigate good teaching practice. They believe that good teaching practice for children with special needs can equally successfully be applied to all children. The article presents some characteristics of good teaching practice of science for the integrated child with special needs.

Nada Pečavar

HIPERKINETIČNI SINDROM

HYPERACTIVE SYNDROME

Pregledni članek Review
UDK 376.5 UDC 376.5
DESKRIPTORJI: hiperkinetični sindrom, vedenjska in kognitivna terapija, modifikacija vedenja
DESCRIPTORS: hyperactive syndrome, behaviourist and cognitive therapy, modification of behaviour
POVZETEK - Članek govori o hiperkinetičnem sindromu. Razdeljen je v dva dela. V prvem imamo opredelitev pojma, opis značilnosti otrok s tem sindromom ter osnovne smernice strokovne obravnave, s kratkim opisom uporabe vedenjske in kognitivne terapije.
V drugem delu je predstavljeno delo z otrokom z omenjeno diagnozo, ki obiskuje šolo s prilagojenim programom. Opisu otroka sledijo področja, na katera smo bili usmerjeni v obravnavi. Na koncu je podrobno prikazan program za modifikacijo vedenja po vedenjski in kognitivni terapiji.
ABSTRACT - The article is about the Attention Deficit Disorder with hyperactivity. It is divided into two parts. The first part deals with the definition of this disorder, describes a typical child with such a disorder, and presents the basic principle of therapeutic treatment. It also gives a short description of the use of the behaviourist and cognitive therapies.
The second part presents the work with a child with the mentioned diagnosis. The description of the child who attends a special school is followed by the description of the areas focused on. The article concludes with a detailed presentation of the modification programme following the behaviour and cognitive therapies.

Dr. Tatjana Ferjan

LITERATURA V SODOBNEM POUKU

LITERATURE IN MODERN TEACHING PRACTICE

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 371.3:372.891 UDC 371.3:372.891
DESKRIPTORJI: literatura, medij, informacije, samostojno učenje, nove poti do znanja, nove vrednote znanja
DESCRIPTORS: literature, media, information, independent learning, new paths to knowledge, new values in knowledge
POVZETEK - Sestavek govori o delu z literaturo pri pouku. Kot primer navaja uporabo zbirke knjig Posegi v naravo in Naravne nesreče. Učenci ob tem spoznajo številne probleme v okolju. Namen uporabe literature pri pouku je uvajanje učencev v samostojno učenje ob množici informacij, ki jih predelajo v zaključke. ABSTRACT - The article discusses the use of literature in class. The example presented is the use of the book collection entitled Posegi v naravo (Intervention in Nature) and Naravne nesreče (Natural Calamities). In this way pupils can become acquainted with numerous issues in their environment. The purpose of literature in teaching practice is to help pupils to develop independent learning strategies in face of the multitude of information which can then be transformed into appropriate conclusions.

Mag. Dragan Potočnik

TURŠKI VPADI NA SLOVENSKO OZEMLJE - PRIMER PROBLEMSKE OBRAVNAVE ZGODOVINSKE TEME

TURKISH INVASIONS IN THE SLOVENE TERRITORY - EXAMPLE OF A PROBLEM ORIENTED HISTORICAL THEME

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 93/99:371.3 UDC 93/99:371.3
DESKRIPTORJI: zgodovinska tema, deskripcija, problemskost
DESCRIPTORS: historical theme, description, problems
POVZETEK - Pouk zgodovine je v praksi še vedno preveč deskriptiven. Premalo je poglabljanja v problematiko učne teme, zato je tudi premalo zgodovinskega razmišljanja. Le problemsko zastavljen pouk usposablja učence za življenje, za razumevanje preteklosti in za sklepanje o prihodnjih dogodkih. Kako se problemsko lotiti pouka zgodovine predstavljamo na primeru obravnavane teme turški vpadi na slovensko ozemlje. ABSTRACT - History lessons are too descriptive. There is no sufficient in depth dealing with the topic, which results in insufficient historical thinking. Only problem oriented lessons can prepare pupils for life, for understanding the past and for predicting future events. How to deal with a history lesson in a problem based way is shown by the example of the theme of the Turkish invasions in the Slovene territory.

Mag. Mihaela Brumen

IGRA KOT SPODBUDA ZA ZGODNJE UČENJE TUJEGA JEZIKA

PLAY AS ENCOURAGEMENT FOR EARLY FOREIGN LANGUAGE ACQUISITION

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 372.880 UDC 372.880
DESKRIPTORJI: učenje tujega jezika, motivacija skupinske, preproste, situacijske učne igre
DESCRIPTORS: foreign language acquisition, motivation of simple, group, and situation learning games
POVZETEK - Pri zgodnjem učenju tujega jezika je osnovni cilj: učence naučiti uporabljati jezik za komunikacijo v vsakdanjem življenju. Pri takšnem pouku so učenci središče dogajanja in jezik uporabljajo pri vsem, kar počnejo. Iz priporočljive učne vsebine išče učitelj aktivnosti, ki vsaki učni skupini najbolj ustreza. Različne igre usmerjajo in razvijajo komunikacijsko kompetenco mladega učenca. To pomeni, uporabljati tuji jezik zraven in namesto maternega jezika in predvsem v njem izražati svoje želje, misli in predstave. Učenec, ki se uči tujega jezika na ta način, pridobi novi jezik s pomočjo izkustva in odkritja, učitelj pa skrbi, da ga uporablja v različnih vsakdanjih situacijah (igrah). ABSTRACT - The main aim of early foreign language teaching is to teach pupils how to use language as a means of communication in every day life. Pupils are in the middle of the teaching process and use language with everything they do. From the recommended teaching contents teachers try to find various activities which would suit every learning group. Different games direct and develop the communication competence of young learners. This means using the foreign language alongside and instead of the mother tongue, with the main goal to express one's wishes, thoughts and ideas in it. The pupil who learns a foreign language in this manner acquires it through experience and discovery. The teacher's responsibility in this process is to provide him/her with the opportunities to use it in various everyday situations.

Marija Šabeder

MOJ PRISPEVEK K DOBRI ŠOLI

MY CONTRIBUTION TO A GOOD SCHOOL

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 37.015.3 UDC 37.015.3
DESKRIPTORJI: učenci, motivacija, timsko delo
DESCRIPTORS: pupils, motivation, team work
POVZETEK - Avtorica razmišlja, kako izboljšati delo v razredu, da bodo zadovoljni dijaki, starši pa tudi učitelji in kaj sama lahko prispeva k bolj kvalitetni šoli, šoli brez prisile. V prispevku predstavlja svoj primer dela v razredu in sicer delo v učnih timih. ABSTRACT - The writer reflects on the quality of work in class. How can it be improved so as to satisfy pupils, parents and teachers? How can she herself contribute to a good school, to a school without any constraints. The article presents her work in class, more specifically work in learning teams.

Aleksandra Rosc

IDENTIFIKACIJA KULTURNO PRIKRAJŠANIH, NADARJENIH OTROK

IDENTIFICATION OF CULTURALLY DEPRIVED GIFTED CHILDREN

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 159.928-053.5 UDC 159.928-053.5
DESKRIPTORJI: nadarjeni učenci, prikrajšani učenci, identifikacija
DESCRIPTORS: gifted pupils, deprived pupils, identification
POVZETEK - V članku avtorica opozarja na pomembnost identifikacijskih postopkov pri kulturno prikrajšanih nadarjenih učencih. Prikazati želi socialno-ekonomske in kulturne razmere družin, iz katerih ti nadarjeni učenci izvirajo in opozoriti na vpliv teh razmer in primanjkljajev pri nadaljnjem razvoju nadarjenosti. Pomembno vlogo pri identifikaciji pripisuje družbi in okolju, v katerem se otrok razvija in katerega del postaja, ter učiteljem, ki s takimi učenci v vzgojno-izobraževalnem procesu neposredno delajo. ABSTRACT - The author discusses the importance of identification procedures for culturally deprived gifted children. She wants to show the socio-economic and cultural conditions of the families the children originate from, and warn about the influence of these conditions and deficits on the further development of their giftedness. An important role in identification is played by the society and the environment, where the child is developing, and by the teachers who work with these children in the educational process

Natalija Mikuletič

BIBLIOMETRIČNA ANALIZA ČLANKOV REVIJE PEDAGOŠKA OBZORJA V LETIH 1995-1997

BIBLIOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF THE ARTICLES IN THE PEDAGOŠKA OBZORJA JOURNAL IN THE YEARS 1995-1997

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 02:05:001.891.32 UDC 02:05:001.891.32
DESKRIPTORJI: članki, kategorije, bibliometrična analiza
DESCRIPTORS: articles, categories, bibliometric analysis
POVZETEK - Prispevek prinaša rezultate bibliometrične analize revije Pedagoška obzorja v letih 1995 do 1997. Analizirani so vsi prispevki, ki so bili objavljeni v tem obdobju. Podrobneje so prikazani prispevki po letih in njihova razvrstitev v kategorije. Analiza avtorjev vključuje vse avtorje, ki so objavili svoje prispevke v tem obdobju, in sicer po številu prispevkov ter procent prispevkov na število avtorjev. V analizo vsebine so vključeni deskriptorji, ki poleg UDK vrstilcev najbolj opredeljujejo vsebino prispevkov. Z analizo citatov kot virov, ki so navedeni ob objavi, pa je podrobneje predstavljena analiza raziskovalne fronte, torej članki oz. publikacije, ki odločilno vplivajo na nastanek novih publikacij, analiza jezika citiranih publikacij ter analiza starosti citatov. ABSTRACT - The article presents the results of the bibliometric analysis of the Pedagoška obzorja journal in the years 1995 - 1997. All the contributions from this period are analysed. They are classified into categories and presented in detail according to the year of publication. The analysis of authors includes all the authors who published their articles during this time. They are analysed according to the number and the percentage of articles they wrote. The content analysis covers the descriptors which, next to the UDK classification, define the content of the articles the most. The analysis of quotations as sources which are published alongside the article represents the analysis of the research frontier in more detail, i.e. the articles or publications which influence the creation of new publications. There is also the analysis of the language used in the quoted publications and the analysis of the quotations' age.