1998 - LETNIK 13
POVZETKI ŠTEVILKE 3-4

Dr. Marjan Blažič

PSIHOFIZIČNE ZNAČILNOSTI UČENCEV KOT DOLOČILNICA IZBIRE UČNEGA MEDIJA

PSYCHO-PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PUPILS AS DETERMINERS OF THE CHOICE OF TEACHING MEDIA

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK 371.68:159.955 UDC 371.68:159.955
DESKRIPTORJI: učni medij, spoznavni stil, predznanje, motivacija
DESCRIPTORS: teaching media, cognitive style, previous knowledge, motivation
POVZETEK - Ker psihofizične značilnosti učencev pomembno prispevajo k odločitvam učitelja o ustrezni izbiri učnega medija, v razpravi analiziramo nekatere fiziološke in psihološke dejavnike. Med slednje uvrščamo razvojno stopnjo umskih in drugih sposobnosti, kognitivni stil, kognitivno strukturo, učne navade, motivacijo za učenje in osebnostno-čustvene posebnosti. Ugotavljamo, da so glede na konkretnost otrokovega mišljenja in glede načina spoznavanja sveta razločki med učenci veliki. Pomembno je, da učitelj identificira spoznavni stil učenca in spoznanje integrira v svojo strategijo učnega dela. ABSTRACT - The article tries to analyse some of the physiological and psychological factors, because it is the psycho-physical characteristics of pupils which relevantly contribute to the decision on the part of the teacher when choosing a suitable teaching media. The psychological factors include the developmental level of mental and other abilities, the cognitive style and structure, learning habits, motivation for learning and special personality and emotional characteristics. Important differences among pupils have been established regarding the concreteness of child's thinking and his way of learning about the world. The teacher should be able to identify the pupil's cognitive style and integrate it into his/her teaching strategy.

Dr. Jana Bezenšek

NEKATERI VIDIKI VLOGE OČETA V ENORODITELJSKIH OČETOVSKIH DRUŽINAH

FATHER'S ROLE IN ONE-PARENT FAMILIES

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK 173 UDC 173
DESKRIPTORJI: oče samohranilec, nepopolna družina, otrok, razveza, ločitev, smrt, mati
DESCRIPTORS: nursing-father, incomplete family, child, divorce, separation, death, mother
POVZETEK - Avtorica v svojem prispevku razpravlja o novi vlogi očeta, v kateri se le-ta znajde zaradi ločitve oz.razveze od matere skupnega otroka ali pa zaradi njene smrti, kar seveda ne povzroči samo nastanek novega tipa družine, ampak pred očeta - samohranilca postavlja številne nove in predvsem zahtevne naloge. ABSTRACT - The paper presents the new role of the father who has found himself in such a situation as a result of separation, divorce or even mother's death of the common child, which of course does not only give rise to a new family type but sets before the father numerous new and quite demanding challenges.

Dr. Janja Črčinovič Rozman

UPOŠTEVANJE POPULARNE GLASBE V UČNEM PROCESU

POPULAR MUSIC IN EDUCATION

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK 372.878 UDC 372.878
DESKRIPTORJI: popularna glasba, mladina, prosti čas, preference, popularna glasba v izobraževanju
DESCRIPTORS: popular music, young, spare time, preferences, popular music in education
POVZETEK - Razvoj zvočnih medijev je povzročil dostopnost glasbe na vsakem koraku in prenasiče-nost z njo. Mladi, še zlasti dekleta, največ prostega časa preživijo ob poslušanju glasbe. Le- ta je pogosto stimulans za sprostitev in zabavo ali pa zvočna kulisa ob pisanju nalog in učenju. Izsledki raziskave med mariborskimi osmošolci so nam med drugim razkrili, da jih večina daje prednost tuji zabavni glasbi in da je zanimanje za slovensko zabavno glasbo zelo skro-mno. Slabo ločijo stile v pop glasbi, med besedili pa jih močno pritegnejo humoristična. Če se želimo v šoli približati mladim in njihovim interesom, moramo pouk dopolnjevati s praktičnimi in teoretičnimi sestavinami popularne glasbe. ABSTRACT - In the case of pop music the selection of the best that the entertainment industry has to offer is intertwined with social and business components. The young, especially girls, spend most of their time listening to music, which is often a stimulant for relaxation and entertainment and provides the background for studying or doing homework. The findings of the survey of the Maribor eighth-graders have revealed that the majority prefer foreign popular music, but are strongly attracted by the lyrics of a more humorous nature. If our schools' objective is to reach the young and meet their interests, schools should integrate theoretical and practical elements of popular music into their teaching.

Dr. Ivan Gerlič

INFORMACIJSKA DRUŽBA IN SODOBNA ŠOLA, VZROČNO-POSLEDIČNA RAZMERJA

INFORMATION SOCIETY AND MODERN SCHOOL A CAUSE-RESULT RELATIONSHIP

Pregledni članek Review
UDK 681.3 UDC 681.3
DESKRIPTORJI: informacijska družba, izobraže-valni sistem, izobraževalna tehnologija, računalnik v izobraževanju, multimedija
DESCRIPTORS: information society, education system, education technology, computers in education, multimedia
POVZETEK - Članek prikazuje problematiko potreb informacijske družbe in njenega izobraževalnega sistema. Poudarja potrebo po informatizaciji tega sistema in uvajanju sodobnih učnih metod in oblik dela, ki jih ta tehnologija omogoča. Prikazan je tudi vpogled v rezultate slovenskega projekta Računalniško opismenjevanje, ki se v tem smislu izvaja v Sloveniji. ABSTRACT - The article discusses the needs of information society and its education system. It emphasises the need for this system to be improved and modernised by the implementation of information technology, as well as the need for the implementation of modern teaching approaches and work patterns made possible by this technology. The article also provides an insight into the results of the project called "Achieving computer literacy", which was carried out in Slovenia.

Dr. Amand Papotnik

PROUČEVANJE IN RAZISKOVANJE PROBLEMOV S PODROČJA OKOLJSKE VZGOJE V POVEZANOSTI S TEHNIČNO VZGOJO

STUDY AND RESEARCH OF THE PROBLEMS IN THE FIELD OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION IN CONNECTION WITH TECHNICAL EDUCATION

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 372.862:502/504 UDC 372.862:502/504
DESKRIPTORJI: tehnični, tehnološki, organizacijski in ekološki problemi, teoretična in praktična zna-nja, sposobnosti, spretnosti in delovne navade
DESCRIPTORS: technical, technological, organisational and ecological problems, theoretical and practical knowledge, abilities, skills and working habits
POVZETEK - Pri načrtovanju in izbiranju stvarnologičnih vsebin tehnike in tehnologije se je treba posebno posvetiti včlenjenosti vsebin s področja okoljske vzgoje. Izbira teh vsebin sestoji iz procesa planiranja in analiziranja oziroma ovrednotenja doseženih učinkov in rezultatov, ki se kažejo na področju doseganja čustveno-vrednostnih, spoznavnih in dejavnostnih ciljev. V okviru izbrane vzgojno-izobraževalne strategije (npr. projektna naloga) morajo učenci pridobivati, uporabljati, poglabljati in utrjevati ustrezna teoretična in praktična znanja, razvijati sposobnosti, spretnosti in delovne navade z možnostjo in sposobnostjo korelacije in transfera na teoretično in praktično raven problemov in sestavin okoljske vzgoje. Pri tem gre za poučevanje in učenje v ožjem smislu, ki ga lahko opredelimo kot pridobivanje novih znanj, vedenj, dejavnosti in spretnosti na področju okoljske vzgoje in okoljskih problemov. Učenje v širšem smislu pa se kaže kot ohranjanje dejavnosti v spominu in kot ponovni priklic znanja, vedenj in dejavnosti, ki so v medsebojni povezanosti tehničnih, tehnoloških, varstvenih, organizacijskih in okoljevarstvenih problemov in zakonitosti. ABSTRACT - When planning and selecting the concrete subject matter of technical education, we must also take into account the contents of environmental education. Selecting the different contents consists of the processes of planning, analysing and/or evaluating the achieved effects and results observed in the area of reaching emotional, value, cognitive and actional goals. Within the framework of the selected educational strategy (for example the project task) the students must acquire and strengthen their theoretical and practical knowledge, develop their abilities, skills and working habits, with the possibility of correlating and transferring them to the theoretical and practical level of problems and elements of environmental education. This implies teaching and learning in the narrow sense, which can be classified as acquiring new knowledge, tasks and skills necessary for solving problems in the area of environmental education.

Dr. Tatjana Ferjan

RAZSTAVA KOT OBLIKA INOVATIVNEGA UČENJA

EXHIBITION AS AN EXAMPLE OF AN INNOVATIVE LEARNING METHOD

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 37.036 UDC 37.036
DESKRIPTORJI: razstava, aktivnost učencev, uspešnost učenja
DESCRIPTORS: exhibition, student activity, learning achievement
POVZETEK - V članku razpravljamo o razstavi kot metodi učenja. Razstava omogoči boljše razumevanje snovi in aktivnost učencev. ABSTRACT - The article treats the exhibition as a method of learning. The exhibition enables better understanding of subject matter and greater activity on the part of the students.

Mag. Matjaž Duh

NEKATERI VIDIKI UPORABE SODOBNIH MEDIJEV PRI LIKOVNI VZGOJI

THE QUALITY OF MEDIA IN ART EDUCATION

Referat na znanstvenem posvetovanju Conference paper
UDK 372.87 UDC 372.87
DESKRIPTORJI: vizualni medij, likovno delo, reprodukcija
DESCRIPTORS: visual media, a work of art, reproduction
POVZETEK - S pojmom kvalitete medija pri likovni vzgoji označuje avtor kvaliteto posrednika, torej informacijo o likovnih delih in ne kvalitete umetniškega dela. Originalne umetnine so učencem dostopne le redko, zato učitelji pri likovno-vzgojnem delu uporabljajo reprodukcije umetniških del na različnih nosilcih vizualnih informacij. Ugotavljamo, da je pri pedagoškem delu treba upoštevati, da mediji brez aktivnega odnosa med subjekti vzgoje ne dajejo dobrih učnih rezultatov, in da še tako dobra kopija ne more nadomestiti originalnega likovnega dela. ABSTRACT - The concept of quality regarding the media used in art education is applied by the author to denote the quality of the intermediary, i.e. the quality of the information about the work of art, and not the quality of the work of art itself. Original masterpieces are only rarely accessible to the pupils, therefore a teacher of art has to rely on reproductions of works of art supplied by the various carriers of visual information. It has been established that in the teaching process no satisfactory results can be achieved without an active relationship between the subjects of education and that even the best possible reproductions cannot replace an original work of art.

Mag. Dragan Potočnik

SODOBNI POUK ZGODOVINE - PRIMER OBRAVNAVE TEME KMEČKI UPORI

MODERN APPROACH TO TEACHING HISTORY - WITH THE PEASANTS' UPRISINGS THEME AS AN EXAMPLE

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 93:371.3 UDC 93:371.3
DESKRIPTORJI: zgodovina, vrednote, aktualizacija, kmečki upori
DESCRIPTORS: history, values, topicalization, peasants' uprisings
POVZETEK - Sestavek govori o sodobnem pouku zgodovine. Kako poiskati in realizirati vzgojne vrednote, kako izvajati komparacije, korelacije in aktualizacije, kako narediti pouk zanimiv, kako ga posodobiti, povezati z življenjem ter kako poskrbeti za bolj nadarjene učence, predstavljamo na primeru obravnave teme Kmečki upori. ABSTRACT - The article talks about a modern approach to teaching history: how to find and present educational values, how to compare, correlate and bring the topics up to date, how to make lessons interesting, how to modernise and connect them with life and how to cater for the gifted students. All the above is explained on hand of the theme of peasants' uprisings.

Mateja Horvat

POMEN KONSTRUKTIVNEGA REŠEVANJA ŠOLSKIH KONFLIKTOV

THE IMPORTANCE OF CONSTRUCTIVE CONFLICT SOLVING IN SCHOOLS

Referat na znanstvenem posvetovanju Conference paper
UDK 316.6:37.012.371 UDC 316.6:37.012.371
DESKRIPTORJI: komunikacija, konflikt, medosebni odnosi, reševanje konfliktov, metode reševanja konfliktov, socialna klima
DESCRIPTORS: communication, conflict, interpersonal relations, conflict solving, methods of conflict solving, social climate
POVZETEK - Konflikti so nekaj povsem običajnega v medosebnih odnosih. Sami po sebi ne prinašajo negativnih posledic. Kakšne so posledice konfliktov je odvisno od tega, kako na konflikte reagiramo in jih rešujemo. V šoli je pomembno, da si prizadevamo za konstruktivno reševanje konfliktov, saj le konstruktivno rešeni konflikti prinašajo zadovoljivo rešitev za vse udeležence, konflikte trajno razrešijo in tako zmanjšujejo psihično napetost. Vsem udeležencem omogočajo, da zadovoljijo svoje potrebe, pri tem pa ne ovirajo drugih pri zadovoljevanju potreb. Od tega, ali so potrebe posameznikov zadovoljene ali ne je odvisna njihova motivacija za funkcioniranje v skupini in za uresničevanje skupinskih ciljev. ABSTRACT - Conflicts are a common occurrence in interpersonal relations. Conflicts as such do not bring about negative consequences. The latter depend on our reaction to the conflicts and how we solve them. In the school it is important that we strive to solve conflicts constructively, because only in this way can all the conflict participants be satisfied, permanent solutions be reached and psychical stress be reduced. When solving conflicts in a constructive way, every conflict participant can fulfill his individual needs while not obstructing others in satisfying theirs. It is the fulfillment of individuals' needs that the motivation for successful functioning in a group and for reaching common goals depends on.

Irena Adlešič

RAZREDNA KLIMA UČENCEV OSNOVNE ŠOLE

CLASSROOM CLIMATE IN PRIMARY SCHOOL

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 37.06 UDC 37.06
DESKRIPTORJI: učenci osnovne šole, razredna klima, spreminjanje razredne klime
DESCRIPTORS: pupils of primary school, classroom climate, improving classroom climate
POVZETEK - V članku poročamo o raziskavi razredne klime pri učencih osnovne šole. Učenci težijo k zviševanju razredne klime na področju zadovoljstva in povezanosti ter zniževanju na področju napetosti, tekmovalnosti in težavnosti. Četrtošolci zaznavajo razredno klimo bolj pozitivno kot sedmošolci, predvsem zaznavajo višje zadovoljstvo in povezanost in nižjo težavnost šolskega dela. Razlikujejo se tudi v željah, saj si sedmošolci želijo manj tekmovalnosti in težavnosti šolskega dela kot četrtošolci. Dekleta zaznavajo nekoliko bolj pozitivno razredno klimo. Postavljajo si tudi višje cilje na področju prijateljskega vzdušja v razredu in nižje na področju napetosti, medsebojnega nasprotovanja. Za ugodno razredno klimo je nujno sistematično delo z razredom. ABSTRACT - The article talks about the classroom climate in primary school. Pupils influence the climate: they tend to increase the level of satisfaction and cohesiveness and decrease friction, competitiveness and difficulties. Classroom climate conditions are perceived more affirmatively by the fourth-graders then the seventh-graders; they namely experience more satisfaction and cohesiveness and less difficulties in their school work. They also differ in their wants and demands: the seventh-graders' wishes express the need for less competitive and less difficult school work than is the case with fourth-graders. It has been discovered that the girls perceive a slightly more positive classroom climate than the boys. The research has also exposed the idea that the girls usually aim high when it comes to establishing a friendly climate within a class and aim a bit lower when it comes to causing friction, i.e. of provoking reciprocal contradictions. In order to achieve a good classroom climate we should work with the class systematically.

Mag. Marjana Erženičnik Pačnik

VRTEC PO MERI OTROKA

CHILD-FRIENDLY KINDERGARTEN

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 373.23/24 UDC 373.23/24
DESKRIPTORJI: predšolska vzgoja, vloga vzgojitelja, potrebe otrok, naloge vrtca
DESCRIPTORS: pre-school education, role of pre-school teacher, children's needs, kindergarten's tasks
POVZETEK - Otroci imajo pravico do prijaznega vrtca, saj se najbolje razvijajo tam, kjer vladata zaupanje in varnost, torej v zdravem in varnem okolju. Zdravo in varno okolje za otroka pomeni, da mu ponujamo najrazličnejše možnosti za komunikacijo z vrstniki in odraslimi, okolje, ki mu omogoča, da se moti, da poskuša, ne da bi bil kaznovan; okolje, kjer besedi hitro in tiho skorajda nista uporabljeni.
Uspešno uresničevanje nalog, načel in ciljev vzgoje v vrtcih, kot so zapisani v Zakonu o vrtcih, je seveda v veliki meri odvisno od pripravljenosti zaposlenih, da intenzivno uresničujejo tiste naloge in cilje, ki spodbujajo dvigovanje in oblikovanje otrokove pozitivne samopodobe in upoštevajo otroka.
ABSTRACT - Children have a right to a child friendly kindergarten, since in a place where there is trust and security, i.e. in a healthy and safe environment, they can develop best. Such an environment can offer the child various opportunities of communication with his peers and with adults, it allows him/her to make mistakes and try out new thing without being punished; it is a place where words like 'quickly' and 'quiet' are almost never used. Successful realization of the goals, principles and tasks of pre-school education as stated in the Law of Pre-school Education depends to a great extent on the willingness of the staff to realize these tasks and goals, which all help to form the child's self-image and are focused on the child.