1998 - LETNIK 13
POVZETKI ŠTEVILKE 1-2

Dr. Cveta Razdevšek Pučko

SAMOOCENJEVANJE - SESTAVINA NOVE DOKTRINE OCENJEVANJA

SELF-ASSESSMENT - ELEMENT OF A NEW ASSESSMENT DOCTRINE

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK 371.26 UDC 371.26
DESKRIPTORJI: samovrednotenje, samoocenjevanje, refleksija, povratna informacija, opisno ocenjevanje
DESCRIPTORS: self-evaluation, self-assessment, reflection, feedback, descriptive assessment
POVZETEK - V procesu spreminjanja ocenjevanja zavzema pomembno mesto usposabljanje učencev za samovrednotenje in samoocenjevanje. V prispevku je samovrednotenje opredeljeno kot lastno presojanje vrednosti dosežkov, kot identifikacija močnih točk in slabosti ter razmišljanje o načrtovanju aktivnosti za izboljšanje rezultatov. Samoocenjevanje je pomembno kot prispevek k oblikovanju odgovornega, vse-življenjskega učenja in kot postopek, ki "odpira vrata" v učenčevo razmišljanje in razumevanje ter tako omogoča učitelju spoznavanje učenčevih spoznavnih procesov.
Predstavljamo nekaj sugestij za izvedbo samoocenjevanja v šolski praksi, opisani so tudi primeri uspešne prakse nekaterih učiteljic, ki v sklopu opisnega ocenjevanja učence vključujejo v proces ocenjevanja tudi v tej obliki. Usposabljanje učencev za samovrednotenje je predstavljeno kot proces, opisane izkušnje dokazujejo, da je ta proces lahko uspešen.
ABSTRACT - Self-evaluation is defined as the evaluation or judgment of the "worth" of one's performance and the identification of one's strengths and weaknesses with a view of improving one's learning outcomes. Student's self-evaluation, involving reflection and inner dialogue, represents for teachers an ideal "window" to student's thoughts and understanding.
Self-evaluation plays an important role within the changes of the assessment in school practice. It is a process, where teachers (and pupils) should gain some positive experiences with self-evaluation. They can include such a way of assessment into their day-to-day practice. The paper presents some examples of self-evaluation procedures as well as some successful experiences of teachers who are practicing descriptive assessment in our schools.

Dr. Majda Pšunder

UČITELJEVO UČINKOVITO VZGOJNO-IZOBRAŽEVALNO DELO

TEACHER'S EFFICIENT EDUCATIONAL PERFORMANCE

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK 37.06 UDC 37.06
DESKRIPTORJI: medsebojno komuniciranje, interpersonalni odnos, stopnje integritete: telesna stopnja, psihična stopnja, stopnja mišljenja, stopnja okolja, vrednostna stopnja, pomoč, spodbuda
DESCRIPTORS: interpersonal communication, interpersonal relation, degrees of integrity: physical, psychical, thinking, environment, help, encouragement
POVZETEK - V prvem delu prispevka podajamo nekatera teoretična izhodišča učinkovitega učiteljevega dela, pri čemer ni bilo osnovno izhodišče usmerjeno v sposobnost podajanja učne snovi in v preverjanje naučenega znanja, ampak predvsem v tisto učiteljevo delo, ki je vezano na komponente medsebojnega vplivanja v vzgojno-izobraževalnem procesu. Poudarjen je pomen interpersonalne komunikacije, neposrednih odnosov, različnosti in edinstvenosti učencev, stopenj identitete, pomoči in pomen spodbude. Drugi del se nanaša na empirične rezultate, ki so nastali po raziskavi sicer nereprezantativnega vzorca učiteljev, ki učijo na razredni stopnji osnovne šole in v srednji šoli (N= 128). Osnovna hipoteza se nanaša na uporabo pozitivne podpore (s konkretizacijo napotkov) učitelja pri učencih in posledično kavzalna povezava pri izgradnji pozitivnega pedagoškega odnosa. Potrjena je hipoteza, da uporaba pozitivne podpore učitelja pri učencih prispeva k ugodnemu medsebojnemu odnosu. ABSTRACT - The paper is divided into two parts. The first part discusses some of the theoretical aspects of effective teaching practice. The emphasis is not on teacher's lecturing ability or on the examination of acquired knowledge, but rather on his activities dealing with the human components of the interactions occurring in the educational process. Special attention is devoted to the role of interpersonal communication, direct relations, particularities and uniqueness of pupils, degrees of identity, help and encouragement. The second part deals with the empirical results of a research of a non-representative group of elementary and high school teachers (N= 128). The basic hypothesis refers to the teacher's positive support (i. e. concretization of instructions) offered to pupils and the cause and result connection in the creation of a positive pedagogical attitude. It has been confirmed that the teacher's positive support and encouragement of pupils contribute to more favorable relations between them.

Mag. Jana Kalin

KAKO POMAGATI MLADIM V NJIHOVEM OSEBNOSTNEM IN VREDNOSTNEM RAZVOJU?

HOW TO ASSIST THE YOUNG IN THEIR PERSONALITY AND VALUE DEVELOPMENT

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK 374.3 UDC 374.3
DESKRIPTORJI: adolescenca, vzgoja za vrednote, vloga učitelja - vzgojitelja, obvezne izbirne vsebine za srednješolce, metode in načini dela z mladimi
DESCRIPTORS: adolescence, value education, teacher's role, compulsory optional contents for secondary school pupils, methods and forms of work with the young
POVZETEK - Učitelji in vzgojitelji se ob srečevanju in delu z mladimi v adolescenci, ki je čas intenzivnega osebnostnega in vrednostnega razvoja, večkrat spra-šujejo o pristopih, metodah in načinih dela z mladimi. Ob zavedanju značilnosti obdobja adolescence in mladih v Sloveniji predstavljamo načela za vzgojo za vrednote in področja, ki spodbujajo vrednostno rast mladih. Predstavljamo konkretne pristope, ki pomagajo učiteljem, vzgojiteljem pri oblikovanju mladega človeka. V drugem delu prispevka smo zbrali odgovore srednješolcev na vprašanje, kako vrednotijo načine dela na tečajih obveznih izbirnih vsebin, ki jih izvajamo na Institutu "Jožef Stefan", v Centru za informatiko in zunajšolsko izobraževanje. Za zbiranje podatkov smo uporabili anketni vprašalnik in intervju z udeleženci tečaja. ABSTRACT - When meeting and working with young in adolescence, a time of intensive personality and value development, teachers and educators are frequently asking about appropriate approaches, methods and other forms of work with the young. Bearing in mind the characteristics of this period of adolescence and of the young in Slovenia, we are presenting principles of value education and areas which encourage the growth of value in the young. Concrete approaches are presented, which can help teachers in the formation of a young person. The second part of the paper brings answers of secondary school pupils to the question of how they value the approach to work in the courses of compulsory optional subjects which are carried out at the Jo(ef ftefan Institute, the Center for Informatics and Education outside School. To gather the necessary data we applied a questionnaire and interviewed the participants of the courses.

Dr. Vladimir Strugar

UČITELJI O DRUŽBENEM POLOŽAJU ŠOLSTVA

TEACHER'S REFLECT ABOUT THE SOCIAL SITUATION OF THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM

Pregledni članek Review
UDK 37.014 UDC 37.014
DESKRIPTORJI: učitelj, družbeni položaj šolskega sistema
DESCRIPTORS: teacher, social situation of the educational system
POVZETEK - Anketirali smo 300 učiteljev osnovnih in srednjih šol, da bi dobili podatke o družbenem položaju šolstva. Na osnovi dobljenih podatkov smo ugotovili, da je družbeni položaj šolstva nezadovoljiv, o čemer je prepričanih 71% učiteljev. Na takšno mnenje vplivajo predvsem pogoji dela, stopnja šole, v kateri učitelji delajo (osnovna, srednja šola) ter delovno okolje (mestno, primestno, vaško-podeželsko). Glede na to, da je neposredno v šolstvu pomemben odstotek prebivalstva (učenci, študentje, učitelji, strokovni sodelavci in drugi), se pričakuje večja družbena skrb za šolstvo, da bi lahko pričakovali boljše stanje. ABSTRACT - A sample of 300 elementary and secondary school teachers were asked about their opinion on the social situation of the educational system. According to the data 71% (percent) of the teachers consider the social situation of the educational system as unsuitable. Their opinion has been influenced above all by working conditions, level of school where the teachers work (elementary, secondary school), as well as their work environment (town, suburb, village). To improve the situation, considering that the educational system directly involves a significant percentage of population (pupils, students, teachers, professional associates, etc.),improved care and interest of the society for the educational system, that is schools expected.

Dr. Tatjana Ferjan

IGRA VLOG IN PROBLEMI V OKOLJU

ROLE PLAYING AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 37.04:502.5 UDC 37.04:502.5
DESKRIPTORJI: igra vlog, problemi v okolju, različni odnosi do okolja, vrednost okolja, okoljska vzgoja
DESCRIPTORS: role playing, environmental problems, different attitudes towards the environment, environmental care, environmental education
POVZETEK - V članku poročamo o problemih v okolju, ki jih obravnavamo z metodo igre vlog. Ob različnih pristopih k obravnavi sprememb v prostoru učenci oblikujejo aktiven odnos do teh problemov in razvijajo ustrezna stališča glede ohranitve lepega okolja za jutrišnji dan. ABSTRACT - The paper reports about environmental problems which are treated with the role playing method. Through various approaches to changes in space pupils can form an active relationship to these problems and develop appropriate attitudes to keep the environment beautiful for the future.

Dr. Alojzija Židan

POSKUS KONCEPTUALIZACIJE ODLOČEVALNE PRAKSE UČITELJA DRUŽBOSLOVJA

CONCEPTUALIZING DECISION MAKING PRACTICE OF A SOCIAL STUDIES TEACHER

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 37.014 UDC 37.014
DESKRIPTORJI: odločevalna praksa, predaktivna odločitev, interaktivna odločitev, profesionalna identiteta, profesionalna kompetenca
DESCRIPTORS: decision making, predicative decisions, interactive decisions, interactive decisions, professional identity, professional competence
POVZETEK - Avtorica prikazuje odločevalno prakso učitelja družboslovja, ki jo tvorijo njegove zelo raznovrstne odločitve. Razmišlja o vprašanju, s kak-šnimi odločitvami ima pri svojem delu opraviti učitelj družboslovja, ko poudarja, da mora biti tudi le-ta nenehni izpričevalec kakovostne kulture odločanja. Pomembna pogojevalka takšne kulture je tudi izobraževalna družbena politika. ABSTRACT - The author presents decision making practice of a social studies teacher, which is made up of his/her most varied decisions. She reflects on the question of what kind of decisions the social studies teacher has to make, and emphasizes the fact that he/she is the bearer of a qualitative decision making culture. An important condition for such a culture is the societal policy concerning education.

Nataša Jarc

VLOGA MLADINSKIH DELAVNIC V RAZVOJU OSEBNIH IN MEDOSEBNIH SPOZNAVNIH SPOSOBNOSTI

THE ROLE OF YOUTH WORKSHOPS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF INTRA- AND INTERPERSONAL COGNITIVE ABILITIES

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 374.1 UDC 374.1
DESKRIPTORJI: socialne igre, medsebojni odnosi, spremembe, prijateljstvo
DESCRIPTORS: social games, mutual relations, changes, friendship
POVZETEK - Avtorica v svojem prispevku poroča o mladinskih delavnicah, ki so jih izvedli z osnovnošolsko populacijo. V prvem delu predstavlja cilje, metode in tehnike dela mladinskih delavnic, v drugem pa poskuša na osnovi empiričnih podatkov odgovoriti, kako so mladinske delavnice vplivale na razvoj osebnih in medosebnih spoznavnih SPOSOBNOSTI pri udeležencih. Ugotavlja, da si mladi želijo druženja, pogovorov in pozornosti odraslih. Mladinske delavnice so nedvomno eden od pomembnejših načinov za izboljšanje odnosov v različnih skupinah. ABSTRACT - The article reports on youth workshops involving primary school population. The first part presents goals, approaches and methods employed in youth workshops, while the second part tries to answer, on the basis of empirical data, how youth workshops influenced the development of intra- and interpersonal cognitive abilities of the participants. It brings the following results: the young wish for the company of the adults, conversations with them and their admiration. Youth workshops are undoubtedly one of the important ways to improve the relationships in different groups.

Darja Kolarič, Zvezdana Ritonja, Martina Žvajker

VPLIV RAZVOJA MOTORIČNO-PERCEPTIVNIH SPOSOBNOSTI NA KVALITETNEJŠE OPISMENJEVANJE IN POMOČ DRUGEGA UČITELJA V PROCESU ZAČETNEGA OPISMENJEVANJA

INFLUENCE OF MOTOR-PERCEPTIVE ABILITIES DEVELOPMENT ON LEARNING TO READ AND WRITE AND OF THE ASSISTANT TEACHER IN THE PROCESS OF EARLY LITERACY DEVELOPMENT

Poročilo Report
UDK 372.45 UDC 372.45
DESKRIPTORJI: proces opismenjevanja, predopismenjevalne aktivnosti, individualizacija pouka
DESCRIPTORS: process of developing literacy, pre-reading and pre-writing activities, individualization of lessons
POVZETEK - Avtorice poročajo o sodelovanju dveh učiteljic v razredu pri procesu začetnega opismenjevanja učencev (večja možnost za pregled nad stanjem v razredu in individualizacijo) in poudarjajo pomen predopismenjevalnih aktivnosti (razvoj motorično-perceptivnih SPOSOBNOSTI) že v predšolskem odbobju. ABSTRACT - The authors describe team work of two teachers in the process of learning to read and write (more opportunity for keeping under control the situation in class and for individualization) and emphasize the importance of pre-reading and pre-writing activities (development of motor-perceptive abilities) during the pre-school period.

Dušan Tomažin

POMEN PLAVANJA V PREDŠOLSKEM OBDOBJU

IMPORTANCE OF SWIMMING DURING THE PRE-SCHOOL PERIOD

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 372.3:797.2 UDC 372.3:797.2
DESKRIPTORJI: predšolski otrok, emocionalno in socialno učenje, plavanje, koordinacija, vzdržljivost
DESCRIPTORS: pre-school child, emotional-social learning, swimming, coordination, endurance
POVZETEK - Namen raziskave je bil ugotoviti smiselnost učenja plavanja v predšolskem obdobju in sicer v starosti od petega do sedmega leta. Glede na to, da zasledimo v literaturi visok odstotek otrok, ki ne znajo plavati in tudi ugotovitve, da spada plavanje v kategorijo SPOSOBNOSTI, ki jih je smiselno začeti učiti že v predšolskem obdobju, smo se v VVZ Krško odločili, da najprej ugotovimo število otrok, ki pred vstopom v šolo že znajo plavati, nato pa smo za vse pripravili plavalni tečaj v obsegu desetih ur. V raziskavi so bili zajeti vsi otroci, ki so v šolskem letu 1996/97 obiskovali pripravo na šolo. Kriterij za uspešno plavalno opismenjevanje pa je bil določen po metodologiji, ki so jo izdelali za osvojitev športne značke "Zlati sonček." Ugotovili smo, da je le nekaj otrok (11%) znalo plavati pred plavalnim tečajem. Na novo je splavalo 80% otrok, ostali pa so le drseli ali pa se tečaja niso udeležili. Navedeni rezultati so spodbudni, saj so otroci v tem obdobju najbolj učljivi in zato ne kaže čakati na šolsko obdobje ali celo na šolo v naravi, kakor večinoma zasledimo v opisanih poročilih osnovnih šol. ABSTRACT - The purpose of the research was to find out whether it makes sense to teach the pre-school children aged five to seven how to swim. In view of the fact that various papers present a high percentage of children who cannot swim as well as the findings that swimming belongs to the category of skills which make sense to start teaching already in the pre-school period, we have decided in VVZ Krško to, first, find out the number of children who can swim before entering school, and then to organize a 10-hour swimming course for all. The research included all children attending the pre-school programme in the school year 1996/97. The criterion for a successful completion of the swimming programme was set by the methodology prepared for winning the sports badge "Zlati sonček" (Little Golden Sun). We found out that before attending the swimming course only a small percentage of children (11%) could swim. During the course 80% of former non-swimmers learned how to swim, the rest learned only to float or did not attend the course. These results are more than encouraging as the children of that age have the greatest ability to learn. Therefore, it is not advisable to wait until the school age or even until the camping programme organized by school, which is the case mostly found in the described reports from primary schools.