1997 - LETNIK 12
POVZETKI ŠTEVILKE 5-6

Dr. Marjan Blažič

DOLOČILNICE, KI VPLIVAJO NA KVALITETO UČNEGA PROCESA OB UPORABI UČNIH MEDIJEV

FACTORS DETERMINING THE QUALITY OF THE TEACHING PROCESS WHEN TEACHING MEDIA ARE APPLIED

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK 371.68:371.3 UDC 371.68:371.3
DESKRIPTORJI: učni medij, učinkovitost, opremljenost, didaktična usposobljenost
DESCRIPTORS: teaching media, efficiency, equipment, didactic qualification
POVZETEK - V okviru preučevanja determinant, ki posredno ali neposredno vplivajo na kvalitativno raven učnega procesa ob uporabi učnih medijev, smo poskušali dobiti odgovore o informiranosti učiteljev o uporabi učnih medijev in strokovni usposobljenosti za delo z njimi, o pogostosti uporabe učnih medijev in o didaktičnih prednostih in omejitvah, ki se kažejo v spremembah mikroartikulacije učne ure. Rezultati kažejo, da je opremljenost šol s sodobnimi učnimi mediji skromna, neustrezna pa je tudi usposobljenost učiteljev osnovnih in srednjih šol za delo s sodobno učno tehnologijo. ABSTRACT - When studying the factors that directly or indirectly determine the quality level of the teaching process when teaching media are applied, we tried to gain information from teachers about their use of teaching media and their professional qualification for work with them, the frequency of use as well as the didactic advantages and limitations resulting from the changes in lesson microarticulation. It has been established that schools are only poorly equipped with modern teaching media, and that primary and secondary school teachers are unsuitably trained for the work with modern teaching technology. The data also reflect the present state of efficiency of our school system.

Dr. Zlatka Cugmas

POMEN KVALITETE OTROKOVE NAVEZANOSTI NA MATER ZA RAZVOJ OTROKOVE SAMOSTOJNOSTI

THE IMPORTANCE OF THE QUALITY OF CHILD'S ATTACHMENT TO THE MOTHER FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF HIS/HER INDEPENDENCE

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK 159.922.7 UDC 159.922.7
DESKRIPTORJI: varnost, avtonomija, iniciativnost, separacija, individualizacija
DESCRIPTORS: security, autonomy, initiative, cooperation, individualisation
POVZETEK - Kot navaja teorija navezanosti, je kvaliteta odnosa med otrokom in materjo pomembno povezana z otrokovo adaptacijo. V članku predstavljam raziskavo, ki sem jo opravila s 96 otroki, ki so obiskovali pripravo za vstop v šolo ali prvi razred osnovne šole. Zanimalo me je, ali je stopnja SAMOSTOJNOSTI pomembno povezana s kvaliteto navezanosti, ki jo otroci izražajo v odnosu do svojih mater. Uporabila sem vprašalnik za matere, ki je poleg vprašanj o demografskih podatkih vključeval ocenjevalno lestvico pogostosti otrokovega samostojnega delovanja in ocenjevalni lestvici otrokovega obnašanja do matere v situacijah, ki so za otroka stresne, kar bi naj odražalo kvaliteto otrokove navezanosti na mater. Rezultati so potrdili pričakovanja, saj je bila stopnja SAMOSTOJNOSTI pomembno povezana z občutkom varnosti, ki so ga v odnosu do matere izražali otroci. ABSTRACT - According to the attachment theory, the quality of the relationship between mother and child is strongly defined by the child's adaptation. The article presents research work carried out on 96 children who attended pre-school classes or the first grade of primary school. We tried to establish whether the autonomy level was connected to the quality of attachment expressed in the child's relationship to his/her mother. A questionnaire was administered to the mothers, which, alongside various demographic data, included an assessment scale of the frequency of child's autonomous action and further two assessment scales of child's behaviour towards his/her mother in situations stressful for the child, which all reflect the quality of child's attachment to her. Results confirmed our expectations and we found the level of autonomy to be relevantly connected to the feeling of security expressed by the child in his/her relationship to the mother.

Mag. Milena Valenčič Zuljan

KAJ IMAJO V MISLIH UČITELJI, KO RAZMIŠLJAJO O INOVIRANJU LASTNE UČNE PRAKSE

WHAT GOES ON IN TEACHER'S MINDS WHEN THINKING ABOUT INNOVATING THEIR TEACHING PRACTICE

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK 37.02 UDC 37.02
DESKRIPTORJI: učiteljeva naklonjenost inoviranju, pedagoško inoviranje, dejavniki (motivi in ovire) učiteljevega inoviranja
DESCRIPTORS: teacher's attitude towards innovation, teaching innovation, factors (motivation and obstacles) of teacher's innovation
POVZETEK - V procesu inoviranja pedagoške prakse sta prisotna dva modela inoviranja: tradicionalni model inoviranja - "od zgoraj navzdol" in inoviranje po modelu akcijskega raziskovanja, ki v večji meri omogoča inoviranje "od spodaj navzgor". Slednji poskuša preseči probleme prvega modela, kjer je bil zanemarjen osnovni nosilec pedagoških inovacij - učitelj.
V pričujočem članku smo posvetili osrednjo pozornost učiteljevemu razmišljanju in doživljanju v procesu inoviranja lastne pedagoške prakse. Zanimalo nas je, kaj učitelje spodbuja k inoviranju in kje doživljajo ovire. Da bi lahko zajeli tudi doživljajsko, čustveno dimenzijo, ki je pomembna v vseh etapah učiteljevega inoviranja, smo kot postopek zbiranja podatkov uporabili intervju in anketo odprtega tipa ter del učiteljev obiskali na šolah, kjer so poučevali.
ABSTRACT - Within the process of teaching practice innovation two innovation models can be observed: the traditional innovation model - from the "top down" and the innovation practice following the action research model, which enables innovation from the "bottom up". The latter tries to overcome the problems of the former, where the basic agent of teaching innovation, i.e. the teacher, has been disregarded.
The article focusses on teacher's thoughts and experiences when innovating his/her teaching practice. We tried to find out what stimulates the teacher towards innovation and where obstacles are experienced. To include the experimental and emotional dimensions, which play an important role in all phases of innovation, we collected data through an interview and an open end questionnaire and we also visited some of the teachers in their schools.

Dr. Amand Papotnik

PROJEKTNA NALOGA NA PROJEKTNIH TEDNIH IN TEHNIŠKIH DNEVIH

PROJECT TASK AS PART OF PROJECT WEEKS AND TECHNICAL DAYS

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 371.3 UDC 371.3
DESKRIPTORJI: učne strategije, projektna naloga, informiranje, planiranje, prototip, konstruiranje, serijska proizvodnja, izvajanje, kontrola, vrednotenje, stopnje Bloomove taksonomije, vednosti, znanja, reševanje problemov, izkušnje, sposobnosti, divergentno mišljenje, projektni teden, tehniški dnevi
DESCRIPTORS: education - training activities strategy, project task, informing, planning, protoype, designing, mass production, performance, checking, evaluation, degrees of Bloom's taxonomy, knowledge, problem solving, experience, abilities, divergent thinking, project week, technological days
POVZETEK - Prispevek obravnava projektno nalogo kot strategijo učnega dela, ki se lahko uporablja v okviru dejavnosti projektnega tedna in tehniških dni in je organizirana od idejne zasnove prek izdelave prototipa, tehniške in tehnološke dokumentacije, izvedbe serijske proizvodnje do analize dela in ovrednotenja izdelka - projekta. Pri taki nalogi lahko sodelujejo učenci več vzporednih oddelkov ali različnih razredov, pri čemer se lahko deli delo med razredi.
Projektna naloga je tista strategija učnega dela, kjer gre za razvoj divergentnega mišljenja, ustvarjalnih sposobnosti, pridobivanja, poglabljanja, utrjevanja in uporabe znanja s področja tehnike, tehnologije, organizacije dela, ekonomike, ergonomije, ekologije, informatike in računalništva, industrijskega oblikovanja itd.
ABSTRACT - The paper deals with the project task as an education - training activities strategy. It can be included into project weeks and technological days.
The project task is organised starting from the conception through protoype, technical and technological documentation, leading to mass production, the analysis of work and evaluation of the product - project. In such a task the pupils of several parallel or different classes can co-operate so that the work is divided among classes.
The project task is an education - training activities strategy which contributes to the development of divergent thinking, creative abilities, the acquisition, development, consolidation and application of knowledge in the area of technology, organisation of work, economics, ergonomics, ecology, information processing and computer science, industrial design etc.

Mag. Alenka Cemič

VZGOJA IN GIBALNA IGRA PREDŠOLSKIH OTROK

EDUCATION AND MOVEMENT GAMES OF PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 159.943-053.4 UDC 159.943-053.4
DESKRIPTORJI: vzgoja, igra, predšolski otrok, pravila igre
DESCRIPTORS: education, games, pre-school children, game roles
POVZETEK - Gibalne igre v malčkovem življenju ne more nadomestiti nobena druga dejavnost, hkrati je to najbolj naravna spodbuda za celovit telesni in osebnostni razvoj predšolskega otroka. V prispevku želimo opozoriti na pomembnost gibalne igre predšolskega otroka za njegov normalni razvoj, ki pa se v današnjem načinu življenja ne upošteva zadosti, ter poudariti razliko v gibalni igri otroka in odraslega. ABSTRACT - In the life of young children nothing can substitute playing games; they are at the same time also the most natural stimulus for complete physical and personality development in the pre-school period. The article emphasizes the importance of movement games for the child's normal growth, which is not sufficiently taken into account in today's way of life. It also points out the differences in movement games of children and adults.

Mag. Darko Hederih

TESTI IN KVIZI ZNANJA - RAZLIKE IN PODOBNOSTI

KNOWLEDGE TESTS AND QUIZZES - DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 371.26 UDC 371.26
DESKRIPTORJI: preverjanje znanja, test znanja, kviz
DESCRIPTORS: knowledge assessment, knowledge test, quiz
POVZETEK - Testi znanja in kvizi so si med seboj v marsičem podobni, med njimi pa so tudi določene razlike. Najpomembnejša je razlika v pripravljenosti oz. referenčnem okviru uporabnikov, v našem primeru učencev. Odsotnost ocenjevanja je ena od prednosti kvizov, vsaj kar zadeva privlačnost za učence. Naslednje razlike so vezane na izbiro in vsebino vprašanj ter način izvedbe. Tako testi kot kvizi dopuščajo izražanje ustvarjalnosti učencev in ne iščejo zgolj faktografskega znanja, zdi pa se, da premalo izkoriščamo možnost, da bi, tako s testi kot kvizi, načrtno in sistematično pridobivali povratne informacije o predznanju učencev. ABSTRACT - While knowledge tests and quizzes bear certain similarities, they also exhibit a few differences, the most relevant being in the preparedness and in the referential frame of the users, in our case pupils. The absence of assessment can be considered as one of the advantages of quizzes because it adds to their attractiveness. Other differences are connected with the choice and content of questions and the way they are carried out. Both allow for the creativity of pupils and do not require factographical knowledge only. It does, however, seem that the opportunity of using tests as well as quizzes to systematically and in a planned way gain feedback information on the pupils' knowledge is not being exploited enough.

Mateja Horvat

OPREDELITEV RAZLOGOV ZA POGOSTO UPORABO IGER PRI POUKU V NIŽJIH RAZREDIH OSNOVNE ŠOLE

DEFINING THE REASONS FOR THE USE OF PLAY IN THE LOWER GRADES OF PRIMARY SCHOOL

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 372.4 UDC 372.4
DESKRIPTORJI: igra, čustveni razvoj, metode dela, motivacija, razvoj osebnosti, socialni razvoj, spoznavni razvoj
DESCRIPTORS: play, emotional development, teaching method, motivation, personality development, social development, cognitive development
POVZETEK - Prispevek sestavljata dva dela. V teoretičnem delu je opredeljena igra in njene prednosti, ki smo jih videli v bogatitvi otrokove osebnosti, skladnosti čustvenega, socialnega in spoznavnega razvoja, v razvoju zavesti o otroku samem, v izpolnjevanju otrokovih nalog, odgovornosti, sprejemanju zmag in porazov, v razvijanju poštenosti in SAMOSTOJNOSTI.
Empirični del zajema predstavitev hipoteze, raziskovalnih problemov, vzorec raziskave in rezultate raziskave, ki smo jo izvedli med učiteljicami prvih in drugih razredov osnovne šole. Potrdili smo zastavljeno hipotezo, da ni najpomembnejši in edini razlog uporabe iger pri pouku le popestritev pouka, saj so učiteljice navedle še številne druge prednosti iger pred drugimi metodami dela v prvih razredih osnovne šole.
ABSTRACT - The paper consists of two parts. The theoretical part defines play and its benefits which can be observed in the enrichment of child's personality, and in the harmony of his/her emotional, social and cognitive growth. Progress can also be seen in child's self-awareness, in the performance of his/her duties, feeling of responsibility, in the acceptance of victories and defeats, in the development of fairness and independence.
The empirical part of the article presents the hypothesis, research problems, the reseach sample and its results. The research was carried out with teachers in the first and second class of primary school. The hypothesis that using games to add to the diversity of the lesson is not the sole and most important reason for their application has been confirmed.Teachers listed numerous other benefits which put play before other teaching methods in the lower grades of primary school.

Katarina Lenarčič

UPORABA DIDAKTIČNE SESTAVLJANKE PRI POUKU

THE USE OF DIDACTIC PUZZLES IN CLASS

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 371.67 UDC 371.67
DESKRIPTORJI: didaktična sestavljanka, tridimenzionalna učila, igra, konstruiranje, integrirani pouk
DESCRIPTORS: didactic puzzles, three-dimensional teaching aids, play, construction, integrated classes
POVZETEK - V prispevku predstavljamo vključevanje didaktične sestavljanke Lego Dacta v delo v razredu. Predstavljamo sestavljanko, način uvajanja le-te v učno delo in ključna vodila pri poučevanju s tridimenzionalnimi učili. Ugotavljamo, da se učenci pri aktivnem delu z didaktično sestavljanko preko igre in raziskovanja veliko naučijo in si razvijejo najrazličnejše sposobnosti. Če želimo, da bodo učenci pri delu aktivni, ustvarjalni in zadovoljni, moramo pri vodenju pouka z didaktično sestavljanko upoštevati nekatera pomembna načela. ABSTRACT - The article presents the application of the Lego Dacta didactic puzzle into lessons. It introduces the puzzle, and how it can be included into lessons. It also presents the key instructions for the use of three dimensional teaching aids. When involved in active work with a didactic puzzle, pupils can learn and develop their abilities through play and discovery. If we want them to be active, creative and satisfied in their work, certain principles must be observed when including didactic puzzles into lessons.

Mag. Dragan Potočnik

VZGOJA KOT PROCES KULTIVIRANJA ČLOVEKOVE NARAVE

EDUCATION AS A PROCESS IN THE CULTIVATION OF HUMAN NATURE

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 37.01 UDC 37.01
DESKRIPTORJI: vzgoja, osebnost, socializacija, družba
DESCRIPTORS: education, personality, socialization, society
POVZETEK - Vzgoja je proces oblikovanja človeka z vsemi njegovimi fizičnimi, intelektualnimi, moralnimi, estetskimi in delovnimi kvalitetami. To je proces, ki poteka trajno in je priprava mladih za življenje v družbi. Z vzgojo želimo zgraditi in oblikovati osebnost, zato mora biti vzgoja nameren, načrtovan in organiziran proces, ki teži k oblikovanju svobodnega človeka, v katerem se harmonično združuje telesna skladnost, lepota in zdravje, duhovno bogastvo, moralna moč in dobrota, estetski smisel za skladno in lepo, kultura dela in tehnična kultura.
Za otrokov osebni razvoj je nujno njegovo vraščanje v določeno skupnost. To pa je hkrati omejevanje njegovega osebnega razvoja. Z ustrezno vzgojo omogočamo vsakemu posamezniku kar najbolj popoln individualni razvoj.
Vzgoja je enoten proces, v katerem bi lahko izpostavili naslednje sestavine: telesna vzgoja, umska, moralno-etična, estetska, vitalna in socialno-psihološka.
ABSTRACT - Education can be characterized as a process which forms the human being shaping all his/her physical, intellectual, moral, aesthetic and work qualities. It is a continuing process of preparing the young for life in the society. Since the purpose of education is to build and form a strong personality, it needs to be a well-planned and organized process directed towards forming a free human being in whom physical harmony, beauty and health, spiritual wealth, moral goodness, aesthetic feeling for harmony and beauty, work culture and technical culture can all be united in a balanced way.
For personal development the child needs to become firmly rooted in a certain community which at the same time poses limitations on this development. Proper education enables each individual most complete individual development.
Education is a uniform process including: physical, intellectual, moral and ethical, aesthetic, vital, social and psychological elements.