1997 - LETNIK 12
POVZETKI ŠTEVILKE 1-2

Dr. Milan Divjak

POUK O ČLOVEKOVIH PRAVICAH V OSNOVNI ŠOLI

HUMAN RIGHTS LESSONS IN PRIMARY SCHOOL

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 372:342.7 UDC 372:342.7
DESKRIPTORJI: mednarodne organizacije, človekove pravice, pouk in vzgoja za človekove pravice, osnovna šola, etika in družba, novi učni načrti
DESCRIPTORS: international organizations, human rights, school lessons and education in human rights, primary school, ethics and society, new curricula
POVZETEK - V prispevku je kratko orisano prizadevanje mednarodnih organizacij, zlasti UNESCA in Sveta Evrope za vzgojo in pouk za človekove pravice, možnosti vključevanja te problematike v nižje in višje razrede OSNOVNE ŠOLE. Podrobno pa je nakazano, kako bi vsa poglavja "etike in družbe" obogatili, poglobili in osmislili s pojmi o človekovih pravicah. Na koncu je dodano priporočilo za izboljšanje vzgoje in pouka za človekove pravice v naših slovenskih šolah. ABSTRACT - The article describes the endeavours of international organizations, above all of UNESCO and the Council of Europe, in the field of education in human rights, and the possibilities of introducing the subject into the lower and higher grades of primary education. It deals in detail with the possibilites of enriching all topics of "ethics and society" by going into more depth and by implementing the concepts of human rights into the subject. The article ends with the suggestions for improving the lessons and education in human rights in Slovene schools.

Dr. Ivan Ferbežer

EVALVACIJA UČNIH PROGRAMOV ZA NADARJENE UČENCE

EVALUATION OF TEACHING PROGRAMMES FOR GIFTED CHILDREN

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK 37.042.2:371.241 UDC 37.042.2:371.241
DESKRIPTORJI: nadarjeni učenci, izobraževalni programi za nadarjene učence, evalvacija učnih programov za nadarjene učence
DESCRIPTORS: gifted children, educational programmes for gifted children, evaluation of teaching programmes for the gifted
POVZETEK - Učni programi za nadarjene učence bodo v družbi morali upravičiti svoje rezultate. Vrednotenje učnih programov je bilo doslej v naši praksi, še bolj pa v teoriji, zanemarjeno. V Sloveniji imamo malo učnih programov za nadarjene učence. Poleg pomanjkanja interesa za to problematiko primanjkuje učinkovitih metod pridobivanja zanesljivih informacij o učinkovitosti učnih programov. Gre za strokovno nedodelanost, ki kliče po teoretski razjasnitvi. Vrednotenje učnih programov za nadarjene se srečuje s specifičnimi težavami, ki jih ne srečamo drugod. Z evalvacijo določamo stopnjo, do katere so doseženi cilji pouka. Glede na to, da so cilji pouka za nadarjene nekoliko drugačni, je taka tudi evalvacija učnih programov. ABSTRACT - The existence of teaching programmes for the gifted has to be justified by the results achieved. The evaluation of teaching programmes has until now been neglected in practice and even more so in theory. In Slovenia, we can find only a small number of teaching programmes for gifted children. Besides the lack of interest for this area, there is also a lack of effective methods for gaining reliable information on the efficiency of teaching programmes. We can talk about a professionally "unfinished state" that calls for theoretical clarification. The evaluation of teaching programmes for gifted children is faced with specific difficulties that we cannot find elsewhere. The evaluation defines the degree to which teaching aims have been achieved. If we consider the fact that the aims of teaching the gifted are different to some extent, the same can be said for the evaluation of the programmes.

Dr. John F. Feldhusen

RAZVOJ TALENTOV KOT MOŽNOST VZGOJE NADARJENIH OTROK

TALENT DEVELOPMENT AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO GIFTED EDUCATION

Pregledni članek Review
UDK 37.04.2:37.03 UDC 37.04.2:37.03
DESKRIPTORJI: nadarjenost, talentiranost, področja talentiranosti, identifikacija talentov, programi za nadarjene
DESCRIPTORS: giftedness, talent, areas of talent, identification of talent, gifted education
POVZETEK - V prispevku so predstavljeni koncepti talentiranosti več avtorjev in nekateri možni programi za pospeševanje razvoja talentiranosti. Na osnovi proučevanja različnih konceptov bi bilo smiselno, zlasti v srednjih šolah, razvijati štiri osnovna področja talentiranosti: akademsko-intelektualno, umetniško, strokovno-tehnično in medosebno-socialno.
Postopki identifikacije nadarjenih za večino teh področij že obstajajo. Nerešen pa ostaja problem vzgojnih prijemov, s katerimi bi uspešno razvijali posebne talente.
ABSTRACT - The article presents the conceptions of talent of several authors and the possibilities of the acceleration of gifted education development. On the basis of research of various conceptions, it would seem sensible, especially in secondary education, to develop the following four basic talent areas: the academic - intellectual, the artistic, the vocational - technical, and the interpersonal one. In the majority of areas talent can well be defined. The problem of educational measures for successful development of special talents, however, remains as yet unsolved.

Dr. Marjan Blažič

MOŽNOSTI RAZVOJA NADARJENIH UČENCEV

POSSIBILITIES OF GIFTED CHILDREN DEVELOPMENT

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 37.04.2:371.39 UDC 37.04.2:371.39
DESKRIPTORJI: nadarjeni učenci, programi, koncepti, učni cilji, ukrepi pospeševanja razvoja
DESCRIPTORS: gifted children, programmes, concepts, learning aims, measures of accelerating development
POVZETEK - Praksa pospeševanja razvoja nadarjenih učencev ima že dolgo zgodovino ter svoje vrhunce, ki so bili povezani z različnimi pedagoškimi koncepti in izobraževalnimi cilji. Da je treba za 2% najbolj nadarjenih in nadaljnjih 10% zelo nadarjenih otrok ustvariti "razširjene oblike izobraževanja", je vedel že nemški razvojni psiholog W. Stern. Zadnja leta so se razvile mnogoštevilne nove možnosti v obliki konceptov, programov in posameznih ukrepov pospeševanja razvoja nadarjenih učencev, kot so: združevanje nadarjenih v homogene skupine ("ability grouping"), časovno pospešeno usvajanjem učne snovi ("acceleration") in obogatitev z novimi učnimi vsebinami ("enrichment"). Osrednje vprašanje, na katerega ni mogoče enoznačno odgovoriti, je, ali je nadarjene sploh mogoče definirati kot homogene skupine, za katere so potrebne kvalitativno drugačne oblike poučevanja in učenja. ABSTRACT - The practice of accelerating the gifted children development has a long-standing history marked by culminations connected with certain teaching concepts and educational aims. W. Stern, a German developmental psychologist, was already aware that for the 2% of the most gifted and for the next 10% of very gifted children "broader educational forms" had to be implemented. Recently, numerous new possibilities in form of concepts, programmmes and individual measures for accelerating gifted children development have been introduced. They are: ability grouping, acceleration and enrichment. An important question, however, remains, as to whether the gifted can ever be defined as homogeneous groups for which qualitatively different teaching and learning forms and approaches have to be implemented.

Dr. Dolfe Rajtmajer

ANALIZA TEKALNIH SPOSOBNOSTI MLAJŠIH OTROK

ANALYSIS OF RUNNING POTENTIAL OF YOUNGER CHILDREN

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK 372.36 UDC 372.36
DESKRIPTORJI: otrokove tekalne sposobnosti, merjenje utripa, napake pri merjenju
DESCRIPTORS: child's running potential, heartbeat measurement, measurement errors
POVZETEK - V fazi proučevanja funkcionalnih sposobnosti mlajših otrok smo testirali manjšo skupino šestinpolletnih otrok obeh spolov. Poleg rezultatov v tekih do 1000 metrov smo določili še kinetiko frekvence srca s pomočjo pulzometra ter približno vrednost napak ročnega merjenja utripa po obremenitvi. ABSTRACT - In the research of functional abilities of younger children, a small group of six and a half year old children of both sexes have been tested. Alongside running scores up to 1 000 metres, the heart frequency kinetics was determined with the help of the pulse measuring instrument, and an approximate error value of manual heartbeat measurement after load was recorded.

Mag. Marija Kavkler

VKLJUČEVANJE ELEMENTOV PEDAGOGIKE MARIE MONTESSORI V NARAVOSLOVJE

IMPLEMENTING MARIA MONTESSORI EDUCATIONAL ELEMENTS IN EARLY SCIENCE

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 371.481 UDC 371.481
DESKRIPTORJI: šestletniki, otroci s posebnimi vzgojno-izobraževalnimi potrebami, naravoslovje, elementi pedagogike Marie Montessori
DESCRIPTORS: six-year old children, children with special educational needs, early science, educational elements of Maria Montessori
POVZETEK - Ob uresničevanju nove šolske zakonodaje bodo v OSNOVNE ŠOLE vstopali šestletniki in integrirani otroci s posebnimi vzgojno-izobraževalnimi potrebami. Obe skupini otrok bosta uspešnejši v nadaljnjem procesu izobraževanja, če bosta imeli na začetku šolanja dovolj priložnosti, časa in ustreznih materialov, da bosta s pomočjo učinkovitih pedagoških postopkov razvili osnovne spretnosti in za nadaljnje izobraževanje potrebna znanja. Z vnašanjem elementov pedagogike Marie Montessori lahko popestrimo proces poučevanja naravoslovja in tudi drugih predmetov ter otrokom omogočimo bolj kakovosten razvoj sposobnosti točnega sprejema informacij, pozornega sledenja navodilom, organizacijskih sposobnosti, spretnosti rok in prstov za izvajanje šolskih veščin itd. ABSTRACT - With the new school legislation, children will be entering school at six, and children with special educational needs will be mainstreamed. Both groups of children can be more successful in the educational process later on if at the beginning of schooling they are offered enough opportunities, time and appropriate materials to develop, with the help of efficient educational measures, the basic skills and knowledge needed for the future. By implementing the teaching elements of Maria Montessori in the process of early science instruction, this goal can be achieved. It will enable the children a qualitatively higher development of the ability of exact information intake, attentive following of instructions, the development of organizational abilities, and motor skills necessary to master school tasks, etc.

Dr. Darinka Sikošek, Saša Krajšek

POTI USTVARJALNEGA UČITELJA KEMIJE PRI PREVERJANJU ZNANJA Z OCENJEVANJEM

WAYS OF CREATIVE CHEMISTRY TEACHER IN KNOWLEDGE ASSESSMENT AND MARKING

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 371.26:372.863 UDC 372.26:372.863
DESKRIPTORJI: kemijsko ravnotežje, preverjanje znanja z ocenjevanjem, mapa preverjalnega znanja, didaktična predloga, miselne osvežitve
DESCRIPTORS: Chemical balance, assessment and marking, assessment folder, teaching preparation, cognitive refreshment
POVZETEK - Prispevek predstavlja primer didaktične inovacije - "miselne osvežitve", uporabljen pri načrtovanju in izdelavi učiteljeve priprave na makrodidaktično komponento preverjanje znanja z ocenjevanjem. Izhajajoč iz Mape preverjalnega znanja didaktičnega sklopa "Kemijsko ravnotežje" avtorici razvijeta didaktično predlogo "miselnih osvežitev". Osrednji poudarek namenjata izdelanemu didaktičnemu gradivu, uporabnemu v posameznih sprostitvenih oziroma preverjalnih korakih. ABSTRACT - The article is an example of a teaching innovation or "cognitive refreshment", used as part of the teacher's planning for the macrodidactic component of knowledge assessment and marking. The assessment for the cluster of "Chemical balance", the two authors developed the didactic model of "cognitive refreshment". The focus of the article is on teaching material that has been developed for the purpose of individual relaxation and assessment needs.

Dr. Amand Papotnik

STRATEGIJE UČNEGA DELA ZA TEHNIKO IN TEHNOLOGIJO V PRVI TRIADI OSNOVNE ŠOLE

TEACHING STRATEGIES FOR TECHNICAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL EDUCATION IN THE FIRST THREE YEARS OF PRIMARY SCHOOL

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 372.862 UDC 372.862
DESKRIPTORJI: tehnika, tehnologija, organizacija dela, ekonomika, strategije, delovna naloga, konstrukcijska naloga, konstruiranje s sestavljankami, projektna naloga, operativni cilji
DESCRIPTORS: technical and technological education, organization of work, economics, strategies, work task, construction exercise, project work, attainment objectives
POVZETEK - Prispevek obravnava strategije učnega dela, ki veljajo za področje tehnične vzgoje oziroma za področje tehnika in tehnologija. To je ime, ki bo veljalo v novi devetletni osnovni šoli, in to v celotni vertikali, pričenši s prvim razredom, kjer bodo vsebine tega področja v okviru spoznavanja okolja.
Strategije so podprte s konkretnimi primeri za nižjo stopnjo.
V drugem delu prispevka je prikazana podrobna učna priprava kot primer - zgled, ne pa kot obvezna "šablona".
ABSTRACT - The paper deals with the strategies of education in the technical area, especially in the area of technical and technological education. Technology will be introduced in the first year of primary education, where it will be integrated into the subject of early science. In secondary schools, the subject will have an independent position.
The author suggests some strategies with concrete examples for primary school use.
The second part of the paper offers a detailed teaching preparation to serve as an example.

Dr. Tatjana Ferjan

DIDAKTIČNI PRISTOPI K VIDEU

DIDACTIC APPROACHES TO VIDEO USE

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 371.86 UDC 371.86
DESKRIPTORJI: video, indirektno opazovanje, pomnjenje, razumevanje uspešnost pouka
DESCRIPTORS: video, indirect observation, memory, understanding lesson effectiveness
POVZETEK - Članek obravnava video kot medij za prenos učnih sporočil oz. kot metodo za spodbujanje skupinskega dela in kot pripomoček za spodbujanje sprememb v posamezniku. Prikazanih je tudi nekaj primerov različnih sodobnih didaktičnih pristopov k videu, ki omogočajo razumevanje snovi in aktivnosti učencev. ABSTRACT - The article treats video as a teaching medium, i.e., as a method for fostering group work and as an aid to encourage changes in an individual. A few examples of various modern didactic approaches to the use of video are presented which enable a better understanding of subject matter and greater activity on the part of the pupils.

Dr. Marko Ferjan

KAKŠEN MANAGEMENT V VRTCE IN ŠOLE?

WHAT KIND OF MANAGEMENT IS APPROPRIATE FOR KINDERGARTENS AND SCHOOLS?

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 373.2:65.012.4 UDC 373.2:65.012.4
DESKRIPTORJI: management, izobraževanje, vzgoja
DESCRIPTORS: management, education, upbringing
POVZETEK - Članek poskuša odgovoriti na nekatera temeljna vprašanja kot so: kaj sploh je management v izobraževanju in vzgoji, ali v naših šolah in vrtcih sploh potrebujemo management, v čem so razlike med vodenjem vrtcev in šol ter gospodarskimi podjetji, kakšno vlogo imajo pri vzgoji ravnatelji. Avtor med drugim opozarja tudi na nekatera etična načela managementa v izobraževanju in vzgoji. ABSTRACT - The article tries to answer some basic questions such as: What is management in education? Do Slovene schools and kindergartens need management at all? How does management in schools and kindergartens differ from management in economic enterprises? What is the role of head teachers? The author also points to the ethical principle of management in the educational field.