1996 - LETNIK 11
POVZETKI ŠTEVILKE 5-6

Dr. Cveta Razdevšek Pučko

MAPA UČENČEVIH IZDELKOV KOT OBLIKA SPREMLJANJA PRI OPISNEM OCENJEVANJU

PORTFOLIO AS A FORM COLLECTING AND RECORDING OF PUPILS' ACHIEVEMENT WITHIN DESCRIPTIVE FORM OF ASSESSMENT

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK 371.26 UDC 371.26
DESKRIPTORJI: mapa učenčevih izdelkov, avtentično ocenjevanje, proces učenja, samorefleksija, samovrednotenje, metakognicija
DESCRIPTORS: portfolio, authentic assessment, recording achievement, learning process, self-reflection, self-evaluation, metacognitioin
POVZETEK - Potreba po odmiku od klasične, psihometrične paradigme na področju preverjanja in ocenjevanja znanja in nekaj bistvenih značilnosti nove paradigme predstavlja okvir za predstavitev enega od tipičnih primerov za avtentične (pristne) oblike preverjanja in ocenjevanja znanja: portfolio ali mapa učenčevih izdelkov.
Opisane so temeljne značilnosti in napotki za vodenje mape učenčevih izdelkov, možne pomanjkljivosti ter bistvene prednosti, med katerimi je poleg avtentičnosti še povezava z učenjem, poučevanjem in ocenjevanjem, možnosti učenca in učitelja za vpogled v proces učenja, možnosti za boljše spoznavanje učenca in njegovih kognitivnih procesov ter dobra podlaga za komunikacijo učitelja in učenca s starši. Vključenost učencev v nastajanje mape poveča občutek (so)odgovornosti za rezultate učenja, spodbuja tudi razvoj refleksije in s tem razvoj metakognitivnih strategij.
ABSTRACT - The assessment paradigm shift, from psychometrics to a model of educational and responsive assessment is discussed as a framework for broader range of different, authentictic forms of assessment.
The portfolio is presented as one of the assessment alternatives, which has a realistic context (is authentic), provides continuous and ongoing information on how students are doing in order to integrate assessment with instruction and learning and to encourage student engagement in learning and his/her responsibility for and control of learning. Including self-reflection, portfolio encourages and develops students' metacognitive skills.
The portfolio can also play the role of an instructional tool, is an "insight into the student's mind" and the most effective aid for communication between teachers, pupils and parents. Some portfolio characteristics, possible problems and design considerations are also discussed within the article.

Dr. Marjan Blažič

DIDAKTIČNI POJEM MEDIJA

DIDACTIC CONCEPT OF MEDIA

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK 371.68:371.3 UDC 371.68:371.3
DESKRIPTORJI: medij, učni medij, prenos didaktičnih funkcij, učne metode, socialne oblike, didaktično polje
DESCRIPTORS: medium, teaching media, transfer of didactic functions, methods and social teaching forms, didactic field
POVZETEK - Pojem medij se pogosto uporablja v družbenem, strokovno-poklicnem in zasebnem življenju. Pri interpretaciji pojma zasledimo v literaturi zelo različne pomene. V okviru našega preučevanja smo navedli in komentirali nekatere pogoste in v literaturi nam dostopne definicije. Na osnovni analize nastajanja in oblikovanja pojmov medij in učni medij smo oblikovali naše razumevanje pojma učni medij, ki smo ga povezali s področjem komunikacije in ustrezno didaktično funkcijo, vse skupaj pa s procesom prenosa didaktičnih funkcij od personalnih na nepersonalne medije. ABSTRACT - The term "medium" is often used in a social, professional and private context. Professional literature gives quite disparate definitions of the term. For the purposes of our research, we quoted and commented on some of the most common and well-known definitions. Analyzing the genesis of the terms "medium" and "teaching medium", we formulated our understanding of "teaching media", which we applied to the area of communication and appropriate didactic function. All of it was then applied to the transfer of didactic functions from the personal to the nonpersonal media.

Mag. Milena Valenčič Zuljan

RAVNATELJ IN UČITELJEVO INOVIRANJE UČNE PRAKSE

HEADMASTER AND TEACHER'S INNOVATIVE TEACHING PRACTICE

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 371.11 UDC 371.11
DESKRIPTORJI: ravnatelj, inoviranje, stil vodenja, učiteljeva inovativnost
DESCRIPTORS: headmaster, innovation, style of management, teacher's innovativity
POVZETEK - Ravnatelj ima v procesu učiteljevega inoviranja pomembno vlogo. Gre za izredno zahtevno in manj raziskano področje, ki se je postopoma spreminjalo od ravnateljeve funkcije organizatorja k spodbujevalcu in sooblikovalcu inovacijam naklonjene zbornične klime. Avtorica v članku poroča o rezultatih raziskave ravnateljevega vpliva na učiteljevo inoviranje. ABSTRACT - In the process of teacher's innovative activity, the headmaster plays an important part. This is an extremely challenging yet poorly researched area, which has gradually changed. Formerly, the headmaster's function was that of an organizer, now he is the person who encourages innovativity and helps to create an innovation friendly atmosphere among his staff. The article reports about research results regarding the headmaster's influence on teacher's innovative activity.

Dr. Milan Polić

ZGODOVINSKI ODNOS DO EKOLOGIJE IN EKOLOŠKEGA IZOBRAŽEVANJA

HISTORICAL RELATIONSHIP TO ECOLOGY AND ECOLOGICAL EDUCATION

Referat na znanstvenem posvetovanju Conference paper
UDK 504(091) UDC 504(091)
DESKRIPTORJI: ekologija, zgodovinski pristop, učni predmeti
DESCRIPTORS: ecology, historical approach, school subjects
POVZETEK - Čeprav se o ekoloških vprašanjih veliko govori in piše, je ekološko-zgodovinski pristop pri tem še zmeraj zapostavljen. Pri pouku zgodovine je zanemarjen ekološki vidik zgodovinskih dogodkov, vendar to velja tudi za odnos zgodovinske znanosti do njenega predmeta. Avtor ugotavlja, da samo z naravoslovnim pristopom ekoloških problemov ni mogoče rešiti. V resne ekološke raziskave je treba vgraditi ekološko-zgodovinski pristop. Zato mora pouk zgodovine med drugim vključevati tudi ekološko-zgodovinski vidik. ABSTRACT - Although ecological problems are widely discussed and written about, the ecological and historical approach to them has so far been neglected. In history lessons, the ecological aspects of historical events have been ignored, which is also true of the relationship of history as a science towards history as a school subject. The author believes ecological problems to be unsolvable applying the naturalistic approach only. Serious ecological research has to incorporate amongst other also the ecological and historical approach.

Dr. Tatjana Ferjan

ŠTUDIJA PRIMERA PRI GEOGRAFIJI

CASE STUDY OF A GEOGRAPHY LESSON

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 372.891 UDC 372.891
DESKRIPTORJI: študija primera, izbor metode, izbor vsebine, samostojno učenje, lastni zaključki
DESCRIPTORS: case study, choosing the method, choosing the content, independent learning, own conclusions
POVZETEK - V sestavku so prikazane študije primera ob računalniškem gradivu, ob strokovni literaturi in raziskovalna naloga. O primeru zbere učenec potrebne podatke, jih analizira in napiše poročilo. Ob tem ga navajamo na raziskovanje, samostojnost, aktivnost in načrtnost. Geografske snovi so za študije primera primerne, pri čemer gre za spoznavanje problematike tako po vsebini kot tudi po metodi dela. ABSTRACT - The article presents case studies using computer material, professional literature and research work. The learner assembles facts about the case, analyses them and writes a report. In this way he learns to do research work, becomes independent, is active and learns to plan. Geographical topics are suitable for case studies, where one becomes familiar with the content of the problem as well as the working method.

Mag. Karmen Kolenc Kolnik

POUK GEOGRAFIJE NA RAZREDNI STOPNJI V ZDA IN NA MADŽARSKEM

GEOGRAPHY LESSON AT PRIMARY LEVEL IN THE USA AND HUNGARY

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 372.891 UDC 372.891
DESKRIPTORJI: spoznavanje družbe, geografske učne vsebine
DESCRIPTORS: social studies, geographical topics
POVZETEK - Šolski predmet spoznavanje družbe je v zadnjih petdesetih letih doživljal številne spremembe. Obenem pa smo v preteklosti poizkušali spreminjati tudi didaktični pristop pri izboru učnih ciljev in vsebin ter pri njihovih metodičnih izpeljavah.
V svetu ta predmet koncipirajo na različne načine. Bodisi kot del interdisciplinarnega predmeta (ZDA) ali pa ga korelirajo z enopredmetnimi povezavami (Madžarska). Obe za predstavitev izbrani državi se med seboj razlikujeta po učnem pristopu in tudi po izboru učnih tem.
ABSTRACT - Social studies as a school subject have in the past 50 years gone through numerous changes. In the past we have also tried to change the didactic approach in deciding about its aims and content as well as its application.
Around the world the subject has been conceived differently. Either as a cross-curriculum subject (USA), or correlated with one subject (Hungary). The two countries chosen for comparison differ in the approach as well as in the selected topics.

Mag. Samo Fošnarič

PROBLEMSKO IZVAJANJE POUKA TEHNIČNE VZGOJE V OSNOVNI ŠOLI

PROBLEM SOLVING IN TECHNICAL EDUCATION AT PRIMARY LEVEL

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 372.862.371.3 UDC 372.862.371.3
DESKRIPTORJI: problemski pouk, tehnična vzgoja v osnovni šoli, didaktično-metodični napotki
DESCRIPTORS: problem lesson, tehnical education in primary school, didactic methodical instructions for the classroom work
POVZETEK - Pogosto je pouk tehnične vzgoje v osnovni šoli šablonski in zato dokaj neustvarjalno usmerjen. Da bi poskušali to "stereotipnost" razbliniti in popolnoma izkoristiti potenciale učencev, moramo korenito spremeniti pristop in samo izvedbo vzgojno-izobraževalnega dela pri omenjenem predmetu. Pretežno enosmerni učni proces je treba spremeniti v dvosmernega, pri tem pa upoštevati številne dejavnike, ki vodijo v nastanek problemske situacije kot ene izmed najvišjih oblik aktivnega ter uspešnega pouka. ABSTRACT - Technical education is in primary school too often carried out as a routine which means that it does not stimulate student's creativity. To overcome such a stereotype situation and to make the best of student's potentials we must fundamentally change the approach towards technical education and the realisation of the educational process within the subject concerned. The one-way teaching process should be transformed into a mutual interaction between the teacher and his students. However a number of factors must be considered that lead to the formation of a problem situation, as one of the highest forms of an active and successful lesson.

Dr. Amand Papotnik

POHIŠTVENA OPREMA ZA ZGODNJE UČENJE TEHNIKE

FURNITURE EQUIPMENT FOR EARLY TECHNICAL EDUCATION

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 372.364 UDC 372.364
DESKRIPTORJI: predšolska ustanova, delovni proces, pohištvena oprema
DESCRIPTORS: pre-school establishment, working process, furniture equipment
POVZETEK - Avtor v svojem prispevku poroča o projektu Ustvarjalni delovni proces v vzgojno-varstvenih organizacijah, ki poteka na Pedagoški fakulteti v Mariboru. V sklopu projekta je nastala tudi prototipna pohištvena oprema, ki so jo v eksperimentalnem kabinetu dlje časa tudi preizkušali. V aktivnosti so bili vključeni tudi otroci iz vzgojno-varstvene organizacije in njihove vzgojiteljice. ABSTRACT - The author reports an Creative Working Process in Training and Nursery Organizations project, which is being held at the Faculty of Education in Maribor. As part of project prototype furniture equipment has been developed, which is being tested in the experimental cabinet over a period of time. Children from the nursery organization and their early years teachers took part in the activities.

Dr. Alojzija Židan

DIDAKTIČNI VZOREC MOŽNE OBRAVNAVE DRUŽBOSLOVNIH VSEBIN "SESTAVINE IN DRUŽBENE NALOGE RELIGIJE"

DIDACTIC PARADIGM OF A SOCIAL STUDIES TOPIC "ELEMENTS AND SOCIAL TASK OF RELIGION"

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 37.017.92 UDC 37.017.92
DESKRIPTORJI: religija, verska dogma, versko prepričanje, kult, sekularizacija, profano
DESCRIPTORS: religion, religious dogma, religious belief, cult, secularization, profane
POVZETEK - Pričujoči tekst je namenjen obravnavi religioznih družboslovnih vsebin. Le-te so zajete v didaktičnem vzorcu, opredeljenem z naslovom "Sestavine religij - družbene naloge religije" pri predmetnem področju sociologija. Avtorica v tekstu izpostavlja, da lahko učenec (še) obogati svoja znanja o religijah, njihovih sestavinah in družbenih nalogah. V didaktičnem vzorcu zajete vsebine lahko tudi navajajo učenca na tolerantno komunikacijsko kulturo. ABSTRACT - The article is about religious social science contents. These are compiled in a didactic structure, defined with the heading "Contents of religions - the social task of religion" at the subject field of sociology. In the article the author emphasizes that the learner may (even) enrich his knowledge about religion, its contents and social task. In the author's didactic structure of compiled contents it is also possible to make the learner familiar with a tolerant communication culture.

Rudi Ballreich

CIRKUŠKA PEDAGOGIKA KOT DOŽIVLJANJE PUSTOLOVŠČINE

ON THE ROPE OVER AN ABYSS

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 37.02 UDC 37.02
DESKRIPTORJI: cirkuška pedagogika, doživljajska pedagogika, notranje ravnotežje, strah
DESCRIPTORS: circus pedagogics, experiential pedagogics, inner balance, fear
POVZETEK - Cirkuška umetnost ima tudi pedagoški pomen. V šoli imamo številne možnosti, da posredujemo odraščajočim otrokom in mladostnikom pustolovska doživetja in gibalne izkušnje. Za to področje vzgoje uporabljamo izraz doživljajska pedagogika. Članek prinaša kratek oris cirkuških dejavnosti, ki jih lahko uporabimo v svojem delu z mladino. Avtor opisuje tri dejavnosti - akrobatiko, žongliranje in lovljenje ravnotežja, ki so zelo koristne za filobate in oknofile. Pri tem tudi pokaže, kako lahko na elementarnem nivoju pedagoško uspešno delujemo proti osiromašenim odnosom in gibalnemu ter doživljajskemu siromaštvu kakor tudi proti strahu pred prihodnostjo. ABSTRACT - There is educational value in circus art. There are many possibilities of offering growing children and adolescents adventurous experience and experience of movement. The term used for this is experiential pedagogics. The text offers a short description of circus activities. Acrobatics, juggling and balancing have a curative effect on philobaths and ocnophiles. The text also shows how at a very elementary level one can successfully counteract the empoverished relationships of today's society and work against motor and experiential poverty as well as against the fear of the future.

Dr. Majda Pšunder

MEDSEBOJNA KOMUNIKACIJA Z UVELJAVLJANJEM RAZLIČNIH STANJ JAZA

RECIPROCAL COMMUNICATION AND THE ASSERTION OF DIFFERENT EGO STATES

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 371.12 UDC 371.12
DESKRIPTORJI: učitelj, učiteljevo vodenje, transakcijska analiza, Harrisovi življenjski položaji
DESCRIPTORS: teacher, teacher's guidance, transactional analyses, Harris' life states
POVZETEK - Po človeški komponenti vodenja, ki je v pedagoškem procesu izjemno pomembno, so za učiteljevo delo in strokovno napredovanje potrebni samorefleksija, dejavni odnosi in varno ozračje. S poskusom transakcijske analize, kjer gre za sistem razumevanja "jaz", postavljamo hipotetično mišljenje, da lahko v različnih medsebojnih dejanjih uveljavimo različna stanja jaza, kar vpliva na kakovost odnosa in komunikacijska razmerja ljudi v komunikacijskem procesu. ABSTRACT - According to the human component of guidance which is extremely important in the teaching process, teacher's work and his professional improvement require self- reflection, active relations and a safe atmosphere. Transactional analysis, which deals with a system of "ego" understanding, sets a hypothesis that in various reciprocal acts different ego states are asserted which influence the quality of the relationship and the communication relationships among people involved in the communication process.

Dr. Zdenka Zalokar Divjak

ANTROPOLOŠKA OSNOVA VZGOJE Z VIDIKA FRANKLOVE LOGOTERAPIJE

ANTHROPOLOGICAL EDUCATIONAL BASIS FROM THE VIEWPOINT OF FRANKL'S LOGOTHERAPY

Pregledni članek Review
UDK 371.4 UDC 371.4
DESKRIPTORJI: svoboda posameznika, vzgoja za odgovornost, usmerjenost v idealno
DESCRIPTORS: freedom for an invidual, education for responsibility, orientation towards perfection
POVZETEK - Sodobno naravnani pedagogi se ogrevajo za večjo demokratičnost in ohlapnost šolskih sistemov. V veliko primerih pa je svobodo posameznika zamenjala predrzna svoboda, ki ne vodi samo v anarhijo, temveč v še posebno vidne patološke pojave današnjega časa: agresijo, depresijo in različne oblike odvisnosti. Frankl je še pred desetletjem napovedal takšen razvoj vedenja otrok in mladostnikov in resnično danes po vrtcih in šolah odkrivamo vse več brutalnega vedenja, samomorov in odvisnosti. ABSTRACT - The modern pedagogues give preference to greater democracy and laxity of the school systems. But the freedom of an individual has in many cases been replaced by an impudent freedom which does not only lead into anarchy, but also into the pathological occurrences of the present time which are especially evident: aggression, depression and various kinds of dependencies. Frankl predicted such a development in behaviour of children and adolescents already ten years ago. In kindergartens and schools we can nowsdays actually establish an increased number of brutal behaviour, suicides and dependencies.

Breda Pinter

MOBILNA SPECIALNO PEDAGOŠKA SLUŽBA

MOBILE SPECIAL EDUCATION SERVICE

Poročilo Report
UDK 376 UDC 376
DESKRIPTORJI: mobilna specialno pedagoška slu-žba, učne težave, učenci, učiteljice, defektolog, individualna obravnava
DESCRIPTORS: mobile special education job, learning disabilities, pupils, teachers, teacher with special education qualification, individual treatment
POVZETEK - Učenci z učnimi težavami, ki so tudi posledica razvojnih primanjkljajev, ostajajo na osnovnih šolah. V občini Slov. Bistrica smo od leta 1992 v proces vzgoje in izobraževanja na rednih osnovnih šolah postopoma uvajali mobilno specialno pedagoško službo, ki nudi učno pomoč učencem od 1. do 4. razreda. ABSTRACT - Pupils with learning disabilities which are the consequence of developmental deficiencies stay in elementary schools. In Slovenska Bistrica, we have gradually, since 1992, been implementing a mobile special education service which offers remedial teaching help to pupils from 1st to 4th grade.

Dr. Franc Hribernik

PROMETNOVARNOSTNI UČINKI VZGOJNO-IZOBRAŽEVALNEGA DELA VOZNIKOV INŠTRUKTORJEV

THE RESULTS OF DRIVING INSTRUCTORS' EDUCATIONAL WORK FOR BETTER TRAFFIC SAFETY

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 37:372.835.181 UDC 37:372.835.181
DESKRIPTORJI: avto šole, vozniško usposabljanje, prometno vedenje, prometna kultura, kandidati, vozniki inštruktorji, ocenjevalci, prometna varnost, vozniške spretnosti
DESCRIPTORS: driving schools, driver training, traffic behaviour, traffic culture, candidates, instructors, examiners, traffic safety, driving skills
POVZETEK - V članku so predstavljeni rezultati empiričnega raziskovalnega dela, ki se nanašajo na vlogo avto šol in pomen prizadevnega edukacijskega dela voznikov INŠTRUKTORJEV pri privzgajanju oblik varnejšega prometnega ravnanja kandidatov za voznike motornih vozil. Opazovanje več kot 1.200 naključnih voznikov vozil z oznako avto šole je na treh izbranih lokacijah v Sloveniji pokazalo, da je od prometnovarnostne osve-ščenosti in pedagoško-andragoške usposobljenosti INŠTRUKTORJEV v največji meri odvisno, v koliki meri bodo slednji uspešni pri transferu vzorcev varnejšega prometnega vedenja na mlado generacijo motoriziranih prometnih udeležencev. K oblikovanju prometno zrelih osebnosti bodočih voznikov pa lahko posredno prispevajo svoj delež tudi člani izpitnih komisij. Očitno pa je, da v procesu vozniškega usposabljanja še niso povsem izrabljene vse možnosti učinkovitega preventivnega dela z mlado generacijo, ki ga omogoča kvalitetno zastavljen vzgojno- izobraževalni proces. ABSTRACT - The article presents the results of an empirical study dealing with the role of driving schools and importance of ambitious educational work of driving instructors in the process of imparting patterns of safer traffic behaviour to candidates for motor vehicle drivers in the Republic of Slovenia. The observation more than 1.200 coincidental drivers of L - vehicles on the Ljubljana's, Celje's and Murska Sobota's areas showed that such educational results depend mainly upon instructors' traffic awareness and their professional qualification. However, members of examining bodies could also have an important influence in creating a mature traffic personality of novice drivers - above all by examining their driving skills and evaluating their holistic traffic behaviour. It is obvious that many of the possibilities for better traffic education and efficient preventive work with young generations have in the process of driver training not been exploited yet.