1996 - LETNIK 11
POVZETKI ŠTEVILKE 3-4

Dr. Franc Strmčnik

RAZVIJANJE PROBLEMSKIH UČNIH ZMOŽNOSTI

DEVELOPING PROBLEM LEARNING CAPABILITY

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK 37.02 UDC 37.02
DESKRIPTORJI: problemsko učenje, samozavest, vprašanje, nasprotje, problemska senzitivnost
DESCRIPTORS: problem learning, self-confidence, question, opposites, problem sensitivity
POVZETEK - Avtor v prispevku obravnava ustvarjalno problemsko učenje in njegovo odvisnost od učenčeve motiviranosti. Razpravlja o razvoju splo-šnih in posebnih problemskih zmožnosti, o čemer so mnenja znanstvenikov deljena. Mnogi kognitivni psihologi menijo, da je problemsko usposabljanje povezano s konkretnim predmetnim področjem, druga skupina znanstvenikov pa meni, da je reševanje problemov najbolje poučevati s pomočjo občega treninga. Nadalje razpravlja o vplivu nazornosti in spodbud na problemsko senzitivnost ter o pomenu oblikovanja problemskih vprašanj, s katerimi učenec čimbolj natančno lokalizira in formulira območje nedoločenega in nejasnega v problemski situaciji. ABSTRACT - The author presents creative problem learning and its dependence on student's motivation. He discusses the development of general and specific problem capabilities about which scientist's options differ. Many cognitive psychologists think that problem training is connected to the concrete subject field, while the other group of scientists belive that problem solving is best taught as part of general training. Furthermore he discusses the influence of clear instruction and encouragement for problem sensitivity and about the importance of creating problem questions with which the learner may localize and formulate as accurately as possible the area of the indefinite and indistinct in the problem situation.

Dr. Ernst Avgust Blanke

POSPEŠEVANJE RAZVOJA NADARJENIH V ZVEZNI REPUBLIKI NEMČIJI

PROMOTING THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE GIFTED IN GERMANY

Pregledni članek Review
UDK 159.928-053.5(430.1) UDC 159.928-053.5(430.1)
DESKRIPTORJI: nadarjeni učenci, pospeševanje razvoja, izobraževalna politika
DESCRIPTORS: gifted pupils, promoting the development, educational policy
POVZETEK - Avtor v svojem prispevku predstavlja izobraževalno politiko zvezne vlade in zveznih dežel v ZRN na področju pospeševanja razvoja nadarjenih. Obsežneje prikaže ustrezne operativne ukrepe v šolah in v okviru izvenšolskih dejavnosti, dotika pa se tudi problematike pospeševanja razvoja nadarjenih med usposabljanjem v podjetjih in na univerzi. Ugotavlja, da je delo pri spodbujanju razvoja nadarjenih uspešno le na znanstveno utemeljenih osnovah, zato ministrstvo za šolstvo financira številne projekte. ABSTRACT - The paper presents the educational policy of the federal government and of the federal lands in Germany in the area of encouraging the development of the gifted. It then focuses on the corresponding operative measures undertaken in schools and within the framework of extra-curricular activities. It also mentions the problem of fostering the gifted during their training period in firms and at the university. The author claims that work in this area can be successful only when scientifically based, therefore the Ministry of Education has agreed to finance numerous projects in this area.

Dr. Majda Pšunder

ŠOLSKI PARADIŽ - TOLSTOJEVA SVOBODNA ŠOLA

SCHOOLPARADISE - TOLSTOY'S FREE SCHOOL

Pregledni članek Review
UDK 371.4 UDC 371.4
DESKRIPTORJI: Jasna Poljana, predmetna ponudba, šola brez zvonca
DESCRIPTORS: Jasna Poljana, subject proposals, school without a bell
POVZETEK - V prispevku je nakazan model Tolstojeve šole, ki je nastajala kot ideja skozi njegovo življe-nje in se realizirala v oblike šole Šolski paradiž. Šola je bila najprej namenjena kmetovalcem in šele potem njihovim otrokom. V prispevku je nakazano tudi Tolstojevo osebno prizadevanje za spoznavanje splo-šne pedagoške znanosti. ABSTRACT - The article indicates the model of Tolstoj's school, which grew as an idea throughout his life and was realized in the school form of 'Schoolparadise'. The school was first intended for the farmers and only later on for their children. The article also indicates Tolstoj's own effort to become acquainted with the general pedagogic science.

Dr. Ivan Furlan

IDEALEN UČITELJ V DOMIŠLJIJI IN STVARNOSTI

IDEAL TEACHER IN IMAGINATION AND IN REALITY

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 371.124 UDC 371.124
DESKRIPTORJI: idealni učitelj, dejavniki idealnega poučevanja, idealna šola in idealni seminar
DESCRIPTORS: ideal (perfect) teacher, factors of ideal teaching, ideal school and ideal seminar
POVZETEK - Avtor v sestavku pojasnjuje pogoje in relativnost obstoja idealnega učitelja in pomen zastavljanja relevantnih vprašanj kot prvi korak k idealnemu učitelju ter svoje teze ponazarja z opisom idealne šole za idealnega Johnnyja in idealnega seminarja. ABSTRACT: In this text the author explains the conditions and relativity of being a perfect teacher and the importance of asking relevant questions as the first step to perfecting oneself in order to become an ideal teacher. He illustrates his theses with the description of ideal school for ideal Johnny and of the ideal seminar.

Dr. Zlatka Cugmas

VPLIV KVALITETE OTROKOVEGA VARSTVA NA OTROKOV RAZVOJ NAVEZANOSTI NA MATER

THE INFLUENCE OF CHILD'S GUARDIANSHIP ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHILD'S AFFECTION AT THE TIME OF MOTHER'S ABSENCE

Pregledni članek Review
UDK 159.922.7 UDC 159.922.7
DESKRIPTORJI: navezanost otroka na mater, občutljiv varuh, zamenjava varuha
DESCRIPTORS: child's affection to its mother, sensitive guardian, changing the guardian
POVZETEK - Raziskave kažejo, da otroci, ki so bili v svojem prvem letu življenja več ur na teden v varstvu pri tujih osebah, kažejo po prvem letu starosti manj primerno vedenje do matere. V psihološki literaturi je večkrat omenjen laboratorijski postopek preverjanja interakcije med materjo in otrokom, imenovan tuja situacija. Ta postopek zajema ločitev otroka od matere in ponovno snidenje z njo. Vedenje otroka v "tuji situaciji" je odvisno od občutka varnosti, ki ga je otrok razvil v odnosu do matere, v manjši meri odraža otrokov temperament, sprašujemo pa se, v koliki meri je otrokov stres zaradi materine odsotnosti povezan tudi s kvaliteto nadomestnega varstva. Na osnovi pregleda novejše literature ugotavljamo, da nadomestni varuh, ki je do otroka prijazen, emocionalno topel in občutljiv za otrokove potrebe ter nanje tudi ustrezno odgovarja, pomembno zmanjša otrokov stres v času materine odsotnosti. ABSTRACT - Research tells us that children who were, during their first year of life, entrusted to care with strangers, for several hours per week, after the first year show less appropriate behaviour towards their mother. In psychological literature the process of examining the interaction between the mother and child is mentioned several times as an "alien situation". This process includes the separation of the child from its mother and the repeated gettogether. The behaviour of the child in such an alien situation depends on the feeling of safety, which the child was able to develop towards the mother, to a lesser degree it reveals the child's temperament, but it is to be asked to what extent is the child's stress, due to its mother's absence, connected to the quality of the substitute care. On the basis of recent literature it can be established that a gentle, emotionally warm substitute guardian sensitive to the child's needs and responding to them appropriately, considerably reduces the child's stress during the absence of the mother.

Mag. Karmen Kolenc Kolnik

UMSKE ZNAČILNOSTI MLADOSTNIKOV IN PROSTORSKE PREDSTAVE, POJMOVANJE TER RAZUMEVANJE GEOGRAFSKEGA PROSTORA

INTELLECTUAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ADOLESCENTS AND SPATIAL IMAGES, KNOWING AND UNDERSTANDING GEOGRAPHICAL ENVIRONMENT

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 372.891 UDC 372.891
DESKRIPTORJI: prostorska predstava, geografsko okolje, stopnje umskega razvoja otroka, pouk geografije
DESCRIPTORS: spatial images, geographical environment, grade of the child's intellectual development, geography lessons
POVZETEK - V članku predstavljamo nekatere vrste vplivov na oblikovanje prostorskih predstav v povezavi z umskimi značilnostmi otrok, ki omogočajo poznavanje ter razumevanje različnih prostorskih kategorij v okviru pouka geografije. ABSTRACT - In the article We're introducing some of the influences on forming spatial images connected with children's intellectual characteristics, which en-able the acquaintance with and the understanding of different spatial categories within geography lessons.

Mitja Koštomaj

VLOGA IN POMEN IZOBRAŽEVALNE TEHNOLOGIJE PRI POUKU TEHNIČNE VZGOJE NA RAZREDNI STOPNJI

ROLE AND IMPORTANCE OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY IN TECHNICAL EDUCATION AT PRIMARY LEVEL

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 372.862:371.68 UDC 372.862:371.68
DESKRIPTORJI - medij, izobraževanje, možgani, računalnik, multimedija, motivacija, znanje, pridobivanje predstav in pojmov
DESCRIPTORS: media, education, brains, computer, multimedia, motivation, knowledge, acquiring ideas and notions
POVZETEK: Avtor obravnava področje učnih medijev in značilnosti ter prednosti multimedijskih izobraževalnih aplikacij. V empiričnem delu predstavlja rezultate raziskave, kjer primerja pouk s pomočjo novega medija in klasičen način poučevanja v 3. razredu osnovne šole pri tehnični vzgoji. Raziskava je pokazala, da so učni rezultati boljši pri vseh učnih kategorijah (motivacija, znanje, pridobivanje predstav, prikazovanje potekov in dogodkov, sprejemanje in obvladovanje računalnika), razen pri pridobivanju novih pojmov. ABSTRACT - The author discusses the area of educational media and the characteristics and advantages of multimedia educational applications. In the empirical part he introduces research results, where he compares education using new media and the traditional way of teaching in the third grade of primary school, within the subject of Tehnical education. The research revealed that the learning results were better in all categories (motivation, knowledge, acquiring ideas, demonstrating processes and events, adopting and mastering the computer), with the exception of acquiring new notions.

Dr. Tatjana Ferjan

RAZISKOVALNA NALOGA - ODRAZ IN POTREBA SODOBNEGA POUKA

RESEARCH WORK - REFLECTION AND NEED OF MODERN EDUCATION

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 001.891 UDC 001.891
DESKRIPTORJI: raziskovalna naloga, sodobni pouk, aktivno in ustvarjalno delo, raziskovanje
DESCRIPTORS: research work, modern education, active and creative work, researching
POVZETEK - Sestavek govori o raziskovalni nalogi. Bistvo raziskovalne naloge kot oblike samostojnega dela je, da učenci ustvarjalno delajo, so domiselni pri sestavi in samostojno gledajo na celoto, ki jo predstavlja naloga. Zavzemajo svoje stališče do raziskave, kar izrazijo v nalogi in tudi na postru. ABSTRACT - The article is about research work. The essence of research work as a sort of independent work is that the students work creatively, and use many new ideas in their work. They develop an independent look at the whole, which the work represents. They also take a personal attitude towards their research, which they express in their work and also on posters.

Bojana Zafošnik

PROJEKTNO DELO V DOMU ZA UČENCE Z RAZVOJNIMI TEŽAVAMI

PROJECT WORK IN RESIDENTIAL HOME FOR CHILDREN WITH DEVELOPMENTAL PROBLEMS

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 376:371.3 UDC 376:371.3
DESKRIPTORJI: konstruktivno in problemsko us-merjeni projekti, zgradba in potek projekta, vzgojna in terapevtska vrednost
DESCRIPTORS: constructive and problem oriented projects, the structure and course of a project, training and therapeutic value
POVZETEK - V prispevku predstavljamo projektno učno delo kot didaktični sistem, ki združuje elemente direktnega vodenja učno vzgojnega procesa in elemente samostojnega otrokovega dela. Poudarjena je otrokova lastna aktivnost, ki je gibalo njegovega razvoja in učenja. Upoštevani so interesi, želje in sposobnosti otrok. Predstavljen je način zadovoljevanja otrokovih psiholoških potreb in vzgojno-terapevtska vrednost projektnega dela. ABSTRACT - The article demonstrates learning of a didactic system, which compiles elements of the direct guided learning training process and elements of the childs independent work. The emphasize is laid on the childs own activity, which is the motive for its own development and learning. The childs interests, whishes and capabilities are considered. A way of satisfying the childs psycological need and the training - therapeutic value of the project work is presented.

Dr. Alojzija Židan

DIDAKTIČNI VZOREC MOŽNE OBRAVNAVE DRUŽBOSLOVNIH VSEBIN VPLIV STIGME NA SOCIALNO IN OSEBNO IDENTITETO

EXAMPLE OF POSSIBLE TREATMENT OF SOCIAL STUDIES CONTENT "INFLUENCE OF STIGMA ON SOCIAL AND PERSONAL IDENTITY"

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 3:371.3 UDC 3:371.3
DESKRIPTORJI: stigmatizacija, socializacija, identiteta
DESCRIPTORS: stigmatization, socialization, identity
POVZETEK - Avtorica opozarja, da je treba pri predmetnem področju sociologija pri učencu vzbujati interes za razmišljanje o problematiki stigmatiziranih, za kar naj učitelj uporablja dinamične didaktične pristope, kot so socialna igra, tolerantna razlaga, diskusija. Ugotavlja, da lahko stigmatizirane učne vsebine učenca posebej bogatijo z vrednotami, kot so toleranca in humanizem, kar je za delovanje našega pluralnega družbenega sistema izjemno pomembno. ABSTRACT - The author calls our attention to the fact that in the subject area of sociology the teacher should apply dynamic didactic approaches like social games, tolerant explanations and discussions. She believes that stigmatized learning contents particularly enrich the student with values like tolerance and humanism, which is extremely important for the successful functioning of our plural social system.

Dr. Franc Hribernik

VLOGA POLICISTOV PRI RAZVIJANJU VARNEJŠEGA PROMETNEGA VEDENJA OTROK IN MLADOSTNIKOV

ROLE OF POLECEMEN IN DEVELOPING SAFER TRAFFIC CONDUCT OF CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS IN SLOVENE PRIMARY SCHOOLS

Pregledni članek Review
UDK 372.835.181:351.74-051 UDC 372.835.181:351.74-051
DESKRIPTORJI: prometna vzgoja in izobraževanje, prometna kultura, otroci, mladostniki, učitelji, policisti, cestnoprometna varnost, preventiva
DESCRIPTORS: traffic education, traffic culture, children, teenagers, teachers, policemen, road safety, prevention
POVZETEK - Za inkulturacijo prometnovarnostnih vsebin je najpomembnejše mladostno obdobje, v katerem lahko dosežemo najboljše rezultate. V članku se ukvarjamo z vprašanjem družbene vloge policistov pri izvajanju procesa prometne vzgoje in izobraževanja otrok in mladostnikov. Tovrstno policijsko preventivno prometnovarnostno delo je bilo do sedaj v glavnem omejeno le na nekaj posebej izbranih ter medijsko odmevnih aktivnosti (kot sta na primer prometna varnost otrok ob pričetku vsakega šolskega leta ter sodelovanje policistov pri opravljanju kolesarskih izpitov), manjka pa njihova večja angažiranost pri posredovanju številnih drugih, prav tako nepogrešljivih vsebin prometne kulture. Za uspešnejše preventivno prometnovarnostno delo z otroki in mladostniki pa bi morali biti policisti tudi ustrezno pedagoško usposobljeni. Vzpostaviti bi veljalo tudi tesnejše stike med učitelji prometne vzgoje in izobraževanja in policisti, ki so zadolženi za prometno varnost mlade generacije. ABSTRACT - The most important time for developing traffic education and achieving better traffic safety belongs to the period of young age when best results can be achieved. The article deals with the question of policemen's social role in the process of traffic education. Recently, preventive traffic police activities have been mainly oriented towards carrying out some tasks which were well-received by the media (e.g. policemen support at the beginning of every new school year and their participation in the exams of proper bicycle riding). Beside these, policemen sho-uld extend their activities in presenting other subjects also important for traffic culture. Consequently, more efficient policemen preventive work with school children and teenagers in the area of traffic education calls for better (especially pedagogical) qualificati-ons. Furthermore, teachers and policemen, both responsible for better traffic safety of young generation, should strengthen their mutual cooperation.