1996 - LETNIK 11
POVZETKI ŠTEVILKE 1-2

Dr. Marjan Blažič

DIDAKTIČNI VIDIKI DELA Z NADARJENIMI

DIDACTICS ASPECTS OF WORK WITH THE GIFTED

UDK 374.3:371.3 UDC 374.3:371.3
DESKRIPTORJI: nadarjeni učenci, ustvarjalnost, redni pouk, koncepti, šolski sistem
DESCRIPTORS: gifted pupils, creativity, regular lesson, concepts, school system
POVZETEK - Glede spodbujanja razvoja nadarjenih so na voljo zelo nasprotujoča si stališča. Ločimo ukrepe, ki jih je možno uvrstiti v koncept rednega pouka in tiste, ki so uresničljivi le zunaj šolskega razreda in obstoječih ustanov. Avtor opozarja na številne možnosti v obliki konceptov, programov in posameznih ukrepov za pospeševanje razvoja nadarjenih otrok in mladostnikov, ki ponujajo sposobnostim in razvojnim potrebam nadarjenih zadostne razvojne spodbude, učne vsebine in ustvarjalne možnosti v okviru obstoječega šolskega sistema in izven njega. ABSTRACT - There are quite contradictory views about the ways of stimulating the gifted. We distinguish between the measures that can be incorporated into the concept of regular lessons and those that can only be realized outside the classroom or other existing institutions. The author points out the numerous possibilities such as various concepts, programmes and individual measures that can be applied to stimulate the development of gifted children and youth. All these offer the gifted sufficient developmental encouragement, suitable subject matter and creative opportunities within as well as without the existing school system.

Mag. Milena Valenčič Zuljan

MODELI DIDAKTIČNEGA INOVIRANJA

DIDACTIC INNOVATION MODELS

UDK 37.02 UDC 37.02
DESKRIPTORJI: didaktična inovacija, tradicionalni model, akcijsko raziskovanje
DESCRIPTORS: didactic innovation model, traditional model, action research
POVZETEK - Avtorica opredeljuje pojem pedagoško (didaktično) inoviranje, ki poteka preko faz iniciacije, implementacije ter institucionalizacije. Natančneje obravnava tradicionalno-klasični model empirično-analitičnega raziskovanja in inoviranja šolske prakse ter akcijsko raziskovanje. Ugotavlja, da med obema modeloma ni ostrih meja in poudarja kontinuiteto razvoja. ABSTRACT - The article defines the concept of pedagogical (didactic) innovation, which proceeds through the initiation, implementation and institutionalisation phases. Then it deals in detail with the traditional model of empirical and analytical research and innovation of school practice, as well as with action research. The authoress has established that no distinct line can be drawn between the two models. She also emphasizes the importance of continuity in development.

Dr. Janez Ferbar

NARAVOSLOVNI POSTOPKI ZA PRVO TRILETJE

SCIENCE TASKS FOR THE FIRST THREE-YEAR PERIOD

UDK 372.36 UDC 372.36
DESKRIPTORJI: naravoslovni postopki, opazovanje, razvrščanje, urejanje, definiranje, prirejanje, štetje, merjenje, eksperimentiranje, prostorske preslikave, igre, stimulacija, govorica, pisava, histogram, graf
DESCRIPTORS: science tasks, observation, classification, arranging, defining, sequencing, counting, measuring, experimenting, spatial copying, games, stimulation, speech, script, histogram, graph
POVZETEK - Avtor predstavlja predlog naravoslovnih postopkov za prva tri leta osnovnega šolanja, ki jih razdeli na konkretne in simbolične. Prvi so postopki s telesi, snovmi in pojavni, ki jih zaznavamo s čutili, drugi pa so postopki s telesi in pojavi, ki imajo z dogovori opredeljen pomen. ABSTRACT - The author presents science tasks for the first three years of primary education, which he divides into concrete and symbolic ones. The former are the tasks carried out by bodies, substances or occurrences, which are perceived through the senses; the latter deal with bodies and occurrences, the meaning of which is defined by agreement.

Mag. Marija Kavkler

PRILAGODITVE PRI NARAVOSLOVJU ZA OTROKE S POSEBNIMI POTREBAMI

ADAPTATIONS AT NATURAL SCIENCE FOR CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL NEEDS

UDK 376:57:58 UDC 376:57:58
DESKRIPTORJI: otroci s posebnimi potrebami, naravoslovje, nivoji pomoči, koordinator za delo z otroki s posebnimi potrebami, področja potrebnih prilagoditev.
DESCRIPTORS: children with special needs, natural science, helping levels, coordinator for working with children with special needs, areas of required adaptation
POVZETEK - Naravoslovje je predmet, pri katerem bomo lahko v redno osnovno šolo integrirali največ otrok s posebnimi potrebami. Po podatkih, ki smo jih našli v strokovni literaturi, je v populaciji 20-25% otrok s posebnimi potrebami. Glede na stopnjo razvojne motnje ali učnih težav bo učitelj zahteve individualiziral in diferenciral. Za nekatere skupine otrok s posebnimi potrebami bo sam pripravljal individualne programe in potrebne prilagoditve, za druge pa bo potreboval pomoč koordinatorja za delo z otroki s posebnimi potrebami. Ti otroci potrebujejo prilagoditev okolja, materialov, učnega procesa ter preverjanja in ocenjevanja znanja. Večina teh potrebuje le nekatere prilagoditve, manjša skupina pa potrebuje prilagoditve na vseh naštetih področjih. ABSTRACT - Natural science is a discipline within which we will be able to integrate the largest number of children with special needs at the regular primary school. According to the facts we have found in technical literature, there are 20-25% children with special needs in the population. The teacher will individualize and differentiate the requirements according to the stage of the developmental disturbance or the learning difficulties. For some groups of children with special needs the teacher himself will prepare individual programmes and required adaptations, for others he will be needing help from a coordinator for working with children with special needs. These children require adaptations of the environment, the materials, the learning process, and the knowledge testing and assessment. Most of them only need some adaptations, while a smaller group needs adaptations on all the mentioned areas.

Dr. France Žagar

OD ŠOLSKE DO INDIVIDUALNE PISAVE

FROM SCHOOL HANDWRITING TO INDIVIDUAL HANDWRITING

UDK 159.925.6:372.45 UDC 159.925.6:372.45
DESKRIPTORJI: enopotezna, berljiva, lepa pisava; šolska, individualna pisava
DESCRIPTORS: in one line, readable, neat handwriting, school, individual handwriting
POVZETEK - Članek v prvem delu prikazuje značilnosti šolske pisave, kakršna je uveljavljena na slovenskih osnovnih šolah. V nadaljevanju pa avtor razpravlja o prehajanju od normirane šolske preko neizčiščene mladostniške do samonikle individualne pisave. ABSTRACT - First the article deals with the characteristics of school handwriting in use in Slovene primary schools. Then it deals with the transition from the standard school handwriting over the unclear handwriting typical for the adolescent, to the original and individual handwriting.

Dr. Bojan Borstner

MORALNA EDUKACIJA - NEKAJ POMISLEKOV K TEORIJI

MORAL EDUCATION - SOME OBJECTIONS TO THEORY

UDK 37.01:17 UDC 37.01:17
DESKRIPTORJI: moralna edukacija, moralni edukacijski kurikulum, amoralist
DESCRIPTORS: moral education, moral education curriculum, an amoral person
POVZETEK - Prispevek predstavlja poskus opredelitve pogleda na specifično pozicijo v opredeljevanju moralne edukacije. Avtor ugotavlja, da je moralna edukacija, ki je v osnovi namenjena določenim internim šolskim ciljem, ovita s plaščem socializacije. Na tej točki tudi vpelje Kohlbergovo teorijo o stopenjskem moralnem razvoju in stopenjski moralni edukaciji. ABSTRACT - The paper tries to define the viewpoint of the specific position in defining moral education. He believes that moral education, basically intended for certain internal school goals, is enveloped in a cloak of socialisation. At this point he introduces Kohlberg's theory of graduated moral development and graudated moral education.

Dr. Jana Bezenšek

VLOGA DRUŽINE PREDŠOLSKEGA OTROKA PRI ZADOVOLJEVANJU NEKATERIH NAJPOMEMBNEJŠIH OTROKOVIH EMOCIONALNO-SOCIALNIH POTREB

ROLE OF THE PRE-SCHOOL CHILD'S FAMILY IN SATISFYING SOME OF ITS MOST IMPORTANT EMOTIONAL AND SOCIAL NEEDS

UDK 173:159.922.7 UDC 173:159.922.7
DESKRIPTORJI: popolna družina, nepopolna družina, predšolski otrok, emocionalno-socialne potrebe predšolskega otroka, vzgoja, izobraževanje
DESCRIPTORS: (in)complete family, pre-school child, emotional-social needs, education, upbringing
POVZETEK - Popolna družina ne vključuje samo skupno življenje otrok in staršev, ampak tudi ustrezne medsebojne odnose. Avtorica v svoji raziskavi ni odkrila večjih odstopanj glede zadovoljevanja emocionalno-socialnih potreb predšolskega otroka v popolni in nepopolni družini, ugotovila pa je, da imajo otroci iz nepopolne družine pomanjkljivo zadovoljeno potrebo po varnosti. Načini izkazovanja in zadovoljevanja posameznih potreb pri otrocih pa so različni pri popolnih kot pri nepopolnih družinah. ABSTRACT - The content of the complete family doesn't mean only the child's physical living together with its mother and father, but points out the quality of their relationship. In her research on a small sample the authoress did not detect any greater deviations with reference to contentment of emotional and social needs of the pre-school child; neither in incomplete nor in complete family, but deficient satisfaction of the safety needs of the children living and growing up within an incomplete family was registered.

Lidija Kociper

PSIHOLOŠKI MOMENTI UPORABE PRAVLJIC V PREDŠOLSKEM OBDOBJU

PSYCHOLOGICAL MOMENTS FOR THE APPLICATION OF FAIRY TALES IN PRE-SCHOOL PERIOD

UDK 159.922.7:82(02.053.2)(100)-34 UDC 159.922.7:82(02.053.2)(100)-34
DESKRIPTORJI: psihološki pomen pravljic, posredovanje
DESCRIPTORS: psychological meaning of fairy tales, telling fairy tales
POVZETEK - Klasične pravljice pogosto sprožajo nasprotujoča si mnenja glede primernosti za predšolske otroke. S tega vidika skušam osvetliti njihov pomen z vidika psihoanalitične in kognitivne psihologije in posredovati nekatera spoznanja pri posredovanju in obravnavi pravljic. ABSTRACT - Traditional fairy tales frequently trigger controversial opinions about their suitability for pre-school children. The authoress tries to shed light on their importance from the aspect of psychoanalytical and cognitive psychology. She offers some views regarding their use.

Marija Heberle Perat

ŠPORTNA VZGOJA V ZAČETNIH RAZREDIH OSNOVNE ŠOLE

GYMNASTICS IN THE LOWER CLASSES AT PRIMARY SCHOOL

UDK 373.3:796.01 UDC 373.3:796.01
DESKRIPTORJI: pojem športa, šolska športna vzgoja, vsebine pouka, razvijanje sposobnosti, preverjanje in ocenjevanje, smiselnost ocenjevanja
DESCRIPTORS: idea of sports, school-gymnastics, contents of the lessons, competence development, testing and assessment, the sense of assessment
POVZETEK - Telesna vzgoja je verjetno edini predmet, ki je nezavedno vtkan v ves pouk in kot tak v vsa predmetna področja. Na nek način govorica telesa podkrepi tudi verbalno komunikacijo in jo včasih tudi popolnoma nadomesti. Po drugi strani pa je športna vzgoja šolski predmet, ki naj bi bil voden po svojem konceptu, ki je podan s predpisanim učnim načrtom. Članek skuša v celostnosti pouka začetnih razredov osnovne šole umestiti športno vzgojo kot avtonomen predmet, ki je trdno vpet v vse dogajanje pri vzgojno-izobraževalnem procesu današnje prve triade osnovne šole. ABSTRACT - Gymnastics is probably the only discipline, which is unconsciously linked to the education as a whole, and therefore, to all the discipline areas. In a way, the bodylanguage also strengthen the verbal communication and sometimes even replace it completely. On the other hand, gymnastics is a school-subject, which should follow its own concept, provided with a constituted curriculum. The article tries to put gymnastics, as an autonomous discipline, into the overall education of the lower classes at primary school, as strongly connected to all the happenings of the process of education and training in the nowadays first triad of the primary school.

Katica Pevec Semec

IGRA VLOG PO SCENARIJU

ROLE-PLAYING USING A SCRIPT

UDK 316.47:792.09 UDC 316.47:792.09
DESKRIPTORJI: komunikacija, igra vlog po scenariju, identifikacija, stili vodenja
DESCRIPTORS: communication, role-playing, identification, leading styles
POVZETEK - Prispevek govori o pomenu komunikacije, zlasti v šoli, o usposabljanju vodij študijskih skupin za komuniciranje s pomočjo "igre vlog po scenariju". Avtorica predstavlja dva vzorca le-te (organizacijo, izvedbo in analizo), v zvezi s tem pa tudi različne stile vodenja skupine. ABSTRACT - The author writes about the importance of communication, especially in schools, and about the training of study group leaders for communication with the help of "role-playing using a script". The paper presents two such examples of role-playing (organisation, performance and analysis) and the different styles of leading the groups.