1995 - LETNIK 10
POVZETKI ŠTEVILKE 5-6

Dr. France Strmčnik

REŠEVANJE PROBLEMOV KOT POSEBNA UČNA METODA

PROBLEM SOLVING AS A SPECIAL TEACHING METHOD

UDK 37.02 UDC 37.02
DESKRIPTORJI: problemski pouk, raziskovalno učenje, reševanje problemov, učna metoda
DESCRIPTORS: problem lessons, research learning, problem solving, teaching method
POVZETEK - Za metodo reševanja problemov je značilna velika ustvarjalna aktivnost učencev, ki združuje načrtovanje in izvajanje učne dejavnosti, razvijanje miselnih operacij ter oblikovanje novih pojmov. Ta metoda temelji na logiki raziskovanja ter na posebnostih ustvarjalnega mišljenja. V tej zvezi avtor posebej izpostavi področje raziskovalnega učenja in problemskega mišljenja, v sklepnem delu pa našteje nekatere prednosti in omejitve problemske učne inovacije. ABSTRACT - Intensive creative activity of pupils is typical for the problem solving method, where planning and doing the activity, developing mental operations and forming new concepts all come together. This method is founded on research logic and the distinctive features of creative thinking. The author focusses on the area of research learning and problem thinking. The final part of the paper deals with the advantages and limitations of the problem teaching innovation.

Dr. Ivan Ferbežer

NADARJENOST V LUČI RAZISKOVALNE ETIKE

GIFTEDNESS FROM THE VIEWPOINT OF RESEARCH ETHICS

UDK 371.212.3:174 UDC 371.212.3:174
DESKRIPTORJI: nadarjeni otroci, raziskovanje, etič-nost, varovanje osebnih podatkov
DESCRIPTORS: gifted children, research, ethics, safeguarding personal data
POVZETEK - Načela moralno-etične odgovornosti so se pričela v raziskovalnem delu pojavljati dokaj pozno, na interdisciplinarnem raziskovalnem področju nadarjenosti pa prvič srečamo to problematiko na 9. svetovni konferenci o nadarjenih in talentiranih otrocih v Haagu leta 1991. Prav specifičnost, narava, karakteristike, potrebe, možnosti, manipulacije z nadarjenimi in talentiranimi otroci ostrijo zahteve do raziskovalcev, da so še posebej senzitivni za moralna in etična vprašanja v vseh vidikih raziskovalnega procesa. Raziskovalno delo ni nikoli amoralno, nevtralno z vidika vrednot. To še posebej velja za načrtovanje uresničevanja raziskovalnega dela z nadarjenimi in talentiranimi otroci.
Raziskovalec z visokimi ponotranjenimi moralnimi in etičnimi standardi pri raziskovanju visoko spoštuje dostojanstvo in blaginjo nadarjenih otrok. Omenjena deskriptivna študija analizira celoto raziskovalnih odnosov in vidikov, ki so se pri preučevanju nadarjenih otrok doslej pokazala kot moralno in etično sporna.
ABSTRACT - On the whole, the principles of moral and ethical responsibility in the field of research began to develop rather late. Thus we dealt with this issue in the interdisciplinary research field of giftedness for the first time at the 9th World Conference on Gifted and Talented in Haag in 1991. Specifics, nature, characteristics, needs, possibilities, manipulations with gifted and talented children sharpen the demands towards researchers, so that they have become especially sensitive to moral and ethical questions in all aspects of the research process. With respect to values research work can neither be amoral nor neutral. This refers especially to the planning and realisation of research work with gifted and talented children. In his work a researcher with high inner moral and ethical standards respects deeply the dignity and well-being of gifted children. The present descriptive study analyses the entirety of research relations and viewpoints that have until now been morally and ethically questionable when studying gifted children.

Tomaž Ogris

KOOPERACIJA PRI UČNEM DELU V DVOJEZIČNIH OSNOVNIH ŠOLAH NA KOROŠKEM

CO-OPERATION IN THE TEACHING ACTIVITY IN CARINTHIAN BILINGUAL PRIMARY SCHOOLS

UDK 371.3:323.15(436.5863) UDC 371.3:323.15(436.5863)
DESKRIPTORJI: sistem dveh učiteljev, dvojezične šole, izpopolnjevanje učiteljev, prednosti in pomanjkljivosti modela
DESCRIPTORS : two-teacher system, bilingual schools, teacher training, advantages and disadvantages of the model
POVZETEK - Avtor predstavlja nov model poučevanja z dvema učiteljema v šolah z eno- in dvojezičnim poukom, nujnost poklicnega izpopolnjevanja učiteljev za tako delo, nato pa navaja in analizira še prednosti in pomanjkljivosti, ki jih ta način dela prinaša. ABSTRACT - The author presents a new two-teacher teaching model used in schools with one language or bilingual classes. He points out the necessity of additional professional teacher training for this job. He further discusses the advantages and disadvantages characteristic of this work.

Dr. Metka Kordigel

ZAZNAVANJE VZROČNO-POSLEDIČNEGA RAZMERJA MED PRAVLJIČNIMI MOTIVI

PERCEIVING THE CAUSE AND EFFECT RELATION IN FAIRY TALE MOTIVES

UDK 398.2:372.882 UDC 398.2:372.882
DESKRIPTORJI: literatura, otrok, pravljični motivi, vzročno-posledična razmerja
DESCRIPTORS: literature, child, fairy tales, cause and effect relations
POVZETEK - Klasično ukvarjanje z literarnim besedilom je v naših šolah potekalo v znamenju iskanja "pravega sporočila" literarnega dela. Tako početje je z vidika nove književne didaktike napačno tudi zato, ker temelji na predpostavki, da gre pri recepciji literature za dialog med avtorjem in bralcem in ne za dialog med bralcem in literarnim besedilom. Poleg tega novejše književne vede ugotavljajo, da pomen literarne umetnine ni konstanten; nastaja ob produktivnem prekrivanju pomenskega polja besedila in bralčevega horizonta pričakovanj. Intenziteta literarnoestetskega doživetja korelira s številom zaznanih indicev, ki jih je za dešifriranje pomena avtor vgradil v besedilo. Različni bralci so sposobni zaznavati različno količino in različne vrste besedilnih signalov. ABSTRACT - In our schools a literary text used to be approached in the classical way, i.e. finding the "right message" of the text. From the standpoint of newer literary didactics such an approach is wrong also because understanding literature presupposes a dialogue between the author and the reader and not between the reader and the literary text. Modern literary sciences also state that the meaning of a literary masterpiece does not remain constant; it comes into existence with the productive overlapping of the meaning in the text with the reader's horizon of expectations. The intensity of a literary and aesthetic experience correlates with the number of recognized indices, which the author has incorporated in his text in order for meaning to be understood. Different readers perceive a different quantity as well as different kinds of discourse signals.

Dr. Albinca Pesek

RAZVIJANJE POJMOVNEGA SISTEMA PREDŠOLSKIH OTROK S POMOČJO GLASBE

THE DEVELOPMENT OF CONCEPTUAL SYSTEM AMONG PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN BASED ON MUSIC

UDK 372:78 UDC 372:78
DESKRIPTORJI: glasba, pojmovni sistem, predšolski otrok
DESCRIPTORS: music, conceptual system, pre-school child
POVZETEK - Otroci pri spoznavanju različne glasbe razvijajo kognitivne strukture, kamor uvrščajo glasbene vtise. Ker predšolski otroci značilnosti, ki izhajajo iz glasbe, še ne morejo izraziti, jih povezujejo s posameznimi neglasbenimi konkretizacijami. V eksperimentalnem programu, ki je bil namenjen 5 do 6-letnim otrokom in njihovim staršem, so otroci povezovali značil-nosti posamezne vrste glasbe z barvami. Rezultati so pokazali, da so otroci že pred šestim letom starosti sposobni logičnih operacij serializacije (urejanja glasbenih vtisov glede na njihove razlike) in klasifikacije (urejanje glasbenih vtisov glede na njihove podobnosti). ABSTRACT - While learning about various kinds of music, children develop cognitive structures for storing musical impressions. Regarding the fact that pre-school children are unable to express features related to musical sound, they help themselves with non-musical concretisations. Within the experimental program created for 5-6 year olds and their parents, children were asked to relate features of particular tunes to colours. The results of the experiment confirmed that logical operations such as serialization (organization of musical impressions according to differences) and classification (organization of musical impressions according to similarities) can be developed before age six.

Mag. Dragan Potočnik

VZGOJNE VREDNOTE POUKA ZGODOVINE

EDUCATIONAL VALUES OF HISTORY LESSONS

UDK 372.893 UDC 372.893
DESKRIPTORJI: vzgojne vrednote, zgodovinska snov
DESCRIPTORS: educational values, history topics
POVZETEK - Sodobni pouk zgodovine mora nevsiljivo poudariti tudi vzgojne vrednote: humanistične, moralno-etične in estetske. V času globoke krize vrednot, v času izgubljanja smisla za kulturne vrednote, vse močnejšega tehnokratizma in potrošniške miselnosti je vzgojna plat še posebno zanimiva. Obravnavanje zgodovinske snovi nudi obilo možnosti za vzgojne vplive od antike, prvega zgodovinskega obdobja v razmahu humanističnih idealov, do posamez-nikov, ki so s svojo pokončnostjo simbol nepodkupljivosti in poštenosti, do čudovitih dosežkov v umetnosti, arhitekturi, kiparstvu, slikarstvu in literaturi. Primerov vzgojnih komponent pri pouku zgodovine je nešteto, bogata zgodovinska snov ima močan vpliv na mladega, razvijajočega se človeka, na njegovo čustvovanje in odnos do soljudi in celotne družbe. ABSTRACT - Modern history lessons should unobtrusively emphasize values - humanistic, moral and ethical as well as aesthetic. At the time of deep value crisis when cultural values are losing in importance and an ever stronger technocracy is being established, the value teaching aspect becomes especially interesting. Historical contents offer an abundance of opportunities for value influence from the time of Ancient Greece - the first historical period concerned with humanistic ideals on, to the upright individuals - the symbols of incorruptibility and honesty, to the wonderful achievements in art, architecture, sculpture, painting and literature. There are countless examples of value teaching possible within history lessons. The rich historical content has a strong influence on a young and developing person, his emotional life and his relationship towards his fellowmen and the society as a whole.

Dr. Ivan Gerlič

STANJE IN TRENDI UPORABE RAČUNALNIKA V OSNOVNI ŠOLI

THE STATE AND TRENDS OF USING COMPUTERS IN PRIMARY SCHOOL

UDK 373.32/.34:681.3 UDC 373.32/.34:681.3
DESKRIPTORJI: fakultativni pouk, interesne dejavnosti, naravoslovno-matematično področje, dodatni po-uk, dopolnilni pouk, računalnik pri pouku
DESCRIPTORS: optional subjects, interest activities, field of science and mathematics, remedial lessons, additional lessons, computers in lessons
POVZETEK - Avtor v prispevku posreduje delne rezultate raziskave Stanje in trendi uporabe računalnika v slovenskih osnovnih šolah, ki ga je po naročilu Projektnega sveta za računalniško opismenjevanje izvedel Raziskovalni inštitut Pedagoške fakultete v Mariboru. Prikazana je pogostost uporabe računalnika na posameznih predmetnih področjih osnovne šole, in to na razredni ter predmetni stopnji, pa tudi smernice za nadaljnji razvoj. ABSTRACT - In his paper the author introduces in part the results of his research. The State and Trends of Using Computers in Slovene Primary Schools was a project carried out by the Research Institute of the Faculty of Education in Maribor and commissioned by the Project Board for Computer Literacy. The frequency of computer usage in individual subject areas of primary school at the classroom and subject level, as well as the guidelines for further development are being presented.

Dr. Alojzija Židan

OBRAVNAVA UČNE ENOTE "VPLIV TELEVIZIJE KOT VIZUALNEGA MEDIJA NA DRUŽBO IN POSAMEZNIKA" PRI SOCIOLOGIJI

PRESENTING THE THEME OF "INFLUENCE OF TELEVISION AS A VISUAL MEDIA ON THE SOCIETY AND THE INDIVIDUAL" WITHIN LESSONS OF SOCIOLOGY

UDK 371.3:316.77 UDC 371.3:316.77
DESKRIPTORJI: televizijski medij, pluralna medijska komunikacija, politematsko delo
DESCRIPTORS: television media, pluralistic media communication, polythematic work
POVZETEK - Vsebina prispevka predstavlja didaktični vzorec možne obravnave družboslovnih vsebin, reduciranih kot "Vpliv televizije kot vizualnega medija na družbo in posameznika". Družboslovne vsebine so vzete iz predmetnega področja sociologija. Avtorica meni, da so lahko obravnavane vsebine pomemben medijski socializator učenčeve osebnosti. Opozarja tudi na izkušnje iz tujine, kjer tovrstni didaktizaciji posvečajo zelo veliko pozornost. V didaktičnem vzorcu je vgrajena problemska učnodelovna strategija. ABSTRACT - The paper presents the didactic model "Influence of Television as a Visual Media on the Society and the Individual" carried out in lessons of Sociology. Social contents have been taken from the subject area of Sociology. The authoress believes they can be an important media socializing agent acting on pupil's personality. She also mentions the experience from abroad, where such work is receiving great attention. The didactic example has an inbuilt learn and work strategy.

Dr. Majda Pšunder

POSKUS OSVETLITVE NASILNIŠKEGA VEDENJA V ŠOLI

AN ATTEMPT AT EXPLAINING VIOLENT SCHOOL BEHAVIOUR

UDK 371.5:343.62 UDC 371.5:343.62
DESKRIPTORJI: šolska pravila, morala, vrednote, stališča, oblike nasilja, kategorizacija nasilja
DESCRIPTORS: school rules, morals, values, attitudes, forms of violence, categorisation of violence
POVZETEK - Avtorica razpravlja o nekaterih objektivnih možnostih za nastanek nasilja v šoli. Nasilje je prevzemanje takih vzorcev vedenja, ki drugim ljudem povzročajo težave in skrbi ter rušijo norme. Pri poskusu razvrščanja nasilnežev se opira na Tochovo klasifikacijo.
Poroča tudi o empiričnem delu raziskave, ki je dala odgovore na vprašanja o pojavnih oblikah nasilja uči-teljev ter oblikah nasilja med učenci.
ABSTRACT - The authoress discusses objective reasons for the rise of school violence. Violence means accepting such behavioural patterns that cause other people problems and worries as well as ruin norms. In the attempt of classifying violent individuals, she makes use of the Toch's classification model.
She also reports on the empiric part of the research which tried to answer the question about the forms of teacher violence and violence among pupils.

Dr. Franc Hribernik

PROBLEMATIKA PROMETNE VZGOJE IN IZOBRAŽEVANJA

THE PROBLEMS OF TRAFFIC EDUCATION

UDK 656.1.09 UDC 656.1.09
DESKRIPTORJI: vozniški izpiti, izpitna komisija, ocenjevanje, usposabljanje voznikov, prometna varnost, regionalne razlike
DESCRIPTORS: driving exams, examining body, evaluation, drivers' training, road safety, regional differences
POVZETEK - V članku se ukvarjamo predvsem z dvema vprašanjema: kakšni so končni izobraževalni učinki vozniškega usposabljanja v Sloveniji in kakšna je pri tem vloga članov izpitnih komisij. Rezultati komparativne analize uspešnosti opravljanja vozniških izpitov (še zlasti praktičnega dela) po posameznih izpitnih centrih v 90. letih so pokazali, da gre za precejšnja odstopanja, ki so povezana z neenakim pristopom ocenjevalcev k vozniškemu izpitu. Za razlike v uspešnosti opravljenih vozniških izpitov je tako navedena vrsta razlogov, pri čemer so bolj poudarjeni objektivni (npr. gostota prometa, prometna infrastruktura, lokalne prometne karakteristike), nezadovoljiva pripravljenost kandidatov, manj pa neposredni vpliv subjektivnosti samih ocenjevalcev. Izmenjava izkušenj pri ocenjevanju uspešnosti kandidatov za voznike motornih vozil poteka večinoma na bilateralnih osnovah (med posameznimi izpitnimi centri), manj pogosta pa so regijska posvetovanja glede kompleksnosti vloge sistema vozniškega usposabljanja kot vplivnega dejavnika prometne varnosti. ABSTRACT - The article deals mainly with two questions: what are the final educational effects of drivers' training in Slovenia and what influence have the members of examining bodies. The results of comparative analysis of efficiency of driving exams (especially practical part) among 17 examining centers in 90.s showed quite important differences due probably to unequal examiners' approach at driving exams, too. It was found out many reasons for different results in drivers' training at the final exams that are mainly attributed to traffic density, traffic infrastructure, local traffic circumstances, inefficient readiness of candidates, but less frequent to examiners' personal characteristics. The exchange of experiences in evaluation of candidates for drivers among examining centers bases very often on bilateral cooperation. There were only a few regional conferences concerning multidimensional role of drivers' training as an influential factor for road safety.