1995 - LETNIK 10
POVZETKI ŠTEVILKE 3-4

Dr. France Strmčnik

PROBLEMSKO ORIENTIRANI POUK KOT DIDAKTIČNO NAČELO

PROBLEM ORIENTED LESSONS AS A DIDACTIC PRINCIPLE

UDK 37.02 UDC 37.02
DESKRIPTORJI: problemskost pouka, didaktično načelo, učne metode
DESCRIPTORS: problem oriented lessons, didactic principle, teaching methods
POVZETEK - Avtor razpravlja o problemskosti pouka kot o novem učnem načelu, ki nastaja pod vplivom novejših izsledkov gnoseologije, psihologije, kibernetike, še posebej pa didaktike in metodike. Problemskost mora postati univerzalni didaktični koncept in temeljno vodilo učiteljeve in učenčeve interakcije. V tem kontekstu posebej izpostavi učno vsebino in učne metode v funkciji problemsko orientiranega pouka. ABSTRACT - The author discusses problem oriented lessons as a new teaching principle, which has developed under the influence of new findings in gnoseology, psychology, cybernetics, and above all didactics and methodology. Problem oriented lessons should become the universal didactic concept and the foundation of teacher-pupil interaction. Contents and methods in the function of problem oriented lessons are emphasized in the light of this context.

Dr. Marjan Blažič

TAKSONOMIJA UČNIH MEDIJEV KOT PRIPOMOČEK ZA ODLOČITVE UČITELJA

TAXONOMY OF TEACHING MEDIA AS AN AID TO TEACHER'S DECISION MAKING

UDK 371.67/.68 UDC 371.67/.68
DESKRIPTORJI: učni medij, taksonomija medijev
DESCRIPTORS: teaching media, taxonomy of media
POVZETEK - Ker lahko različne klasifikacije učnih medijev pomembno prispevajo k odločitvam učitelja o ustrezni izbiri učnega medija, smo v naši razpravi eksemplarično analizirali nekatere znane poskuse klasifikacij. Ugotavljamo, da dosedanja prizadevanja, da bi razvili taksonomijo medijev, tj. različne medije sistematično klasificirali glede na njihove specifične lastnosti, možnosti uporabe, funkcijske afinitete itd., še ne ustrezajo praktičnim potrebam. ABSTRACT - Since various classifications of the teaching media can contribute significantly to teacher's decision making concerning the appropriate selection of the teaching media, our discussion provides an example of some of the known attempts at classification. We have found that so far the taxonomy of the media, i.e., the classification of the various media with reference to their specific properties, possibilities of use, functional affinity, etc., does not yet meet the practical needs.

Dr. Branka Čagran

KRITERIJI OPREDELJEVANJA UČITELJEVE OSEBNOSTI

CRITERIA FOR DEFINING TEACHER'S PERSONALITY

UDK 371.12 UDC 371.12
DESKRIPTORJI: učiteljeva osebnost, izobrazbena struktura, osebnostna struktura
DESCRIPTORS: teacher's personality, educational structure, personality structure
POVZETEK - V članku razpravljamo o vprašanju učiteljeve osebnosti, ki ga razrešuje pedagogika skozi vso svojo zgodovino. Da bi se s svojim odgovorom na to staro vprašanje čim bolj približali resnici o liku učitelja, smo izdelali model opredeljevanja učiteljeve osebnosti.
Pri tem si ne domišljamo, da je predstavljen model popoln. Ostaja odprt kakor "miselni vzorec", ki se je izkazal za najprimernejši način njegovega prikazovanja, odprt za spreminjanje, dopolnjevanje, kakor učitelj, ki je zapisan večnemu procesu izpopolnjevanja.
Naslanjajoč se na ta model, smo opredelili nekatere temeljne karakteristike učiteljeve osebnosti.
ABSTRACT - In my report I tried to answer one basic question - what kind of person should a teacher be? -, which has been one of the main issues throughout the history of pedagogy. In order to get as complete a picture as possible, I have formed my own model for defining teacher's personality.
I do not assume the given model to be perfect. In the form of a 'mind map', which has proved to be the most appropriate way of presenting it, it remains open to changes and further development - after all, any teacher is only an ever changing human being. Teacher's basic personality characteristics are being defined by the use of this model.

Dr. Bojan Borstner

ALI SE MORALO DA POUČEVATI IN (NA)UČITI

CAN MORALITY BE TAUGHT AND LEARNED

UDK 17:371.3 UDC 17:371.3
DESKRIPTORJI: vrline, moralna edukacija
DESCRIPTORS: values, moral education
POVZETEK - Prispevek se ukvarja s sedanjimi razpravami o moralnih razmerah v slovenski družbi. Obstaja mnogo različnih pristopov, kako izboljšati to stanje. Pri tem se pojavi naslednje vprašanje: če je morala tako močno vmeščena v določen svetovni nazor, ali lahko šola nadomesti družino ali cerkev v moralni edukaciji? Drugo obliko tega vprašanja poznamo kot Sokratovo vprašanje: Ali se vrlino da poučevati? Sprejema se Platonova rešitev, da je vrlina vednost posebne vrste - vednost o dobrem. Oseba, ki poseduje to vednost, tudi deluje skladno z njo. Tako ne obstaja prepad med vedenjem in delovanjem. Ta rešitev temelji na dveh tezah: o pomembnosti vedenja za zavest in o odnosnosti vedenja in realnosti. Iskanje vednosti je iskanje dobrega v zavesti in s tem glavno sredstvo za doseganje dobrega življenja. Zavest prihaja s pravilno uporabo razuma do vedenja o esencialni naravi stvari in zaobseže tisto, kar je izvorno realno in nespremenljivo. Zato je edukacija definirana po obsegu, strukturi in vsebini z oblikami vednosti same in z njihovimi skladnimi, hierarhičnimi odnosi. Moralna edukacija tako predstavlja izgrajevanje zmožnosti za razlikovanje med dobrim in slabim, prav in narobe, konformnostjo in vrlino. Shema moralne edukacije, ki je predlagana v tem prispevku, bo zahtevala strokovnjake - učitelje, ki so izurjeni v načinih moralnega argumentiranja, ki razumejo otrokov moralni razvoj (Kohlbergova teorija stopenj) in poznajo izvore in vire zgodovine, filozofije, literature... Analiza se sklene z zaključno trditvijo, da se vrlino lahko poučuje, ker je to v osnovi kognitivna dejavnost. ABSTRACT - The analysis starts with the present discussion in Slovenia about the moral situation in the society. There are many claims about how to improve this state and a question arises: if morality is so firmly embedded in particular world views can the school supplant the family or the church in moral education? or with Socrates: Can virtue be taught? It is accepted Plato's solution that virtue is knowledge of a very special kind - knowledge of the good. A person who has this knowledge inevitably acts upon it and there is no gap between knowledge and reality. The pursuit of knowledge is the pursuit of the good of the mind and, therefore, an essential element and the chief mean for a good life. The mind, in the right use of reason, comes to know the essential nature of things and can apprehend what is ultimately real and immutable. Therefore, education is defined objectively in range, in structure and in content by the forms of knowledge itself and their harmonious, hierarchical interrelations and to educate people morally is to enable them to distinguish between good and bad, right from wrong, conformity from virtue. A scheme of moral education which is proposed here will require experts - teachers who are trained in the art of moral argument, who understand child's moral development (Kolberg's stages theory) and are acquainted with the sources from history, philosophy, literature. The analysis is ends with the final claim that virtue can be taught because it is basically a cognitive activity.

Dr. Ivan Furlan

NEKATERA NAČELA USPEŠNEGA POUČEVANJA

SUCCESSFUL TEACHING PRINCIPLES

UDK 37.015.3 UDC 37.015.3
DESKRIPTORJI: učenje, glavna načela učenja, poučevanje o tem, kako se učiti
DESCRIPTORS: learning, main principles of learning, instructing pupils how to learn
POVZETEK - Avtor v tem sestavku s prepričljivimi primeri opozarja na pomembnost treh glavnih načel učenja: postopnosti, povezovanja vsebin in nehotnega učenja vsebin. ABSTRACT - The author draws attention to the importance of the three main principles of learning: step-by-steepness, connecting contents, and coincidental learning of contents which were not intended for learning. He illustrates his theory with cogent examples.

Dr. France Žagar

RAZČLENJEVANJE BESED NA GLASOVE OZIROMA ČRKE PRI ŠOLSKIH NOVINCIH

ANALYSING WORDS INTO SOUNDS AND LETTERS WITH SCHOOL BEGINNERS

UDK 372.41/.45 UDC 372.41/.45
DESKRIPTORJI: opismenjevanje, analitično-sintetična metoda, kompleksni učni postopek
DESCRIPTORS: learning to write, analytic and synthetic method, complex learning process
POVZETEK - Avtor obravnava problematiko začetnega opismenjevanja. Analizira nekatere vaje, s katerimi se učenci prvega razreda naučijo slišno in vidno razčlenjevati besede, zapisovati prve besede in povedi ter razumevati preprosta besedila. Ugotavlja, da vsi naši delovni zvezki temeljijo na analitično-sintetični metodi začetnega opismenjevanja in na kompleksnem učnem postopku, kljub temu pa so opazni tudi drugi pristopi. ABSTRACT - The article discusses the problems of learning to write. The author analyses certain exercises which help pupils in the first grade of primary school to audially and visually analyse words, write their first words and sentences, as well as understand simple texts. The author believes that all our workbooks are based on the analytic and synthetic method of beginning writing and involve a complex learning process. Other approaches can also be noticed.

Jožica Čampa, Nevenka Granda

OBLIKE IN METODE POUČEVANJA ZGODOVINSKIH VSEBIN V OKVIRU PREDMETA SPOZNAVANJA DRUŽBE V 3., 4. IN 5. RAZREDU

FORMS AND METHODS OF TEACHING HISTORY WITHIN THE SUBJECT OF SOCIAL STUDIES IN 3RD, 4TH, AND 5TH GRADE

UDK 372.48 UDC 372.48
DESKRIPTORJI: kronološki način poučevanja, zgodovinske slike, kultura bivanja, načelo multimodalnosti
DESCRIPTORS: chronological teaching approach, historical pictures, culture of living, principle of multimodality
POVZETEK - Na razredni stopnji je za poučevanje najstarejših zgodovinskih obdobij primernejši od kronološkega ali faktografskega način, kjer otroci spoznavajo določeno obdobje kot zgodovinsko sliko. Učitelj spodbuja učence, da se sami dokopljejo do njihovi razvojni stopnji primernih spoznanj. Pri učenju eksperimentira z materiali in predmeti (reprodukcijami), ki predstavljajo določeno zgodovinsko obdobje. Učenci preteklost laže dojemajo ob ogledu domačega muzeja in podoživljanju zgodovine domačega kraja. ABSTRACT - When teaching the earliest periods of history at classroom level, the approach where children meet a certain period in history in form of a picture is more appropriate than the chronological or factographical one. The teacher encourages pupils to come to certain knowledge, appropriate to their stage of development, by themselves. When teaching, (s)he experiments with materials and objects (reproductions) which represent a certain historical era. Pupils grasp history more easily when visiting a museum and experiencing the history of the home town.

Mag. Karmen Kolenc Kolnik

VLOGA PROBLEMSKE UČNE INOVACIJE PRI PRENOVI POUKA GEOGRAFIJE

ROLE OF PROBLEM BASED LESSONS IN THE RENOVATION OF SCHOOL GEOGRAPHY

UDK 372.891 UDC 372.891
DESKRIPTORJI: pouk geografije, didaktična prenova, učna inovacija
DESCRIPTORS: geography lessons, didactic renovation, teaching innovation
POVZETEK - Avtorica razpravlja o pomenu uvajanja problemske učne inovacije pri iskanju novih didaktičnih učnih pristopov k pouku geografije. Velika potreba po bolj kritičnem mišljenju in poučevanju vključuje vpeljevanje aktivnejšega, izkustvenega učenja. Poučevanje mora omogočati razvijanje konstruktivnega, kritičnega mišljenja in to ne le kot značilnost posameznika, temveč kot družbene potrebe. Jasno je, da bo tako načrtovan pouk geografije nujno vseboval tudi učno metodo reševanja problemov in problemsko učno inovacijo kot eno izmed možnih poti didaktičnega razvoja pouka geografije. ABSTRACT - The purpose of this paper is to point out the importance of introducing problem solving as a new teaching practice in our search for developing new didactic and methodological approaches to school geography. In Slovenia there is at present a great need for deeper critical thinking and teaching, which necessitates the introduction of active experiential learning. Teaching should stimulate the development of constructive critical mode of thinking, which should not only be an individual activity but a group process. It is clear that critical teaching of geography will necessarily include the problem solving teaching method and the problem based teaching innovation, which will both contribute to a didactical development of geography lessons.

Marija Heberle Perat

LIKOVNA KOMUNIKACIJA V ZAČETNIH RAZREDIH OSNOVNE ŠOLE

ART COMMUNICATION AT LOWER PRIMARY LEVEL

UDK 372.87 UDC 372.87
DESKRIPTORJI: obseg umetnostnega področja, nivoji likovne vzgoje, ocenjevanje likovnih storitev.
DESCRIPTORS: extent of art contents, levels of art education, assessment of art products
POVZETEK - V začetnih treh razredih osnovne šole je izrednega pomena prav sporočanje, ki je izraženo s pomočjo likovnih izraznih sredstev. Pri tem sporočanju pa bi morali učence motivirati, da bi ne bili samo pasivni sprejemniki likovnih dobrin, ampak tudi aktivni ustvarjalci likovnih sporočil. Obravnava učnih vsebin in zahtev učnega načrta likovne vzgoje je v naši šoli malce zapostavljena, če jo primerjamo s področji spoznavanja narave in družbe ali matematike, pa čeprav je ravno to področje poleg materinega jezika in glasbene vzgoje eno prvobitnih načinov komuniciranja med ljudmi in sporočanja naslednikom. Delno pa bo odrinjenost celega komunikacijskega sklopa izginila, če bodo učitelji na učence prenesli svoj pozitiven (prijazen) odnos do likovnega ustvarjanja in stvaritev. ABSTRACT - The first three grades of primary school are especially important for communication achieved with the help of expression through art. The pupil should be encouraged not only to be a passive receiver of art, but also an active creator of communication through art. In our schools art contents and curriculum requirements of art education are neglected in comparison with early science or mathematics, although it is just this field, next to mother tongue and music education, which offers the most original and primary way of communication among people and for posterity. This discrimination can partly be overcome if the teacher to be able to transmit to the child his own positive (friendly) attitude to art, creativity and creation.

Dr. Barbara Bajd, Sonja Artač

IZKUŠNJE PRI UVAJANJU DRUGAČNIH PRISTOPOV V POUK NARAVOSLOVJA NA ZAČETNI STOPNJI

EXPERIENCE GAINED IN IMPLEMENTING DIFFERENT APPROACHES INTO EARLY SCIENCE LESSONS

UDK 372.857 UDC 372.857
DESKRIPTORJI: konstruktivistični pristop, predhodne predstave, načrtovanje dejavnosti, izkušnje z ekosistemom
DESCRIPTORS: constructivist approach, previous knowledge, planning activities, experience with the eco system
POVZETEK - V članku želimo predstaviti izkušnje z uporabo konstruktivističnega pristopa pri poučevanju naravoslovja na začetni stopnji. Nakazali smo nekatere možnosti povezav med obstoječim (tradicionalnim) modelom poučevanja, izkušnjami učiteljev in alternativnimi pristopi (npr. konstruktivističnim).
V prvem delu članka povzemamo ugotovitve, do katerih smo prišli z analizo vprašalnikov, namenjenih razkrivanju predhodnih predstav učencev o pojmih, ki jih uporabljamo pri obravnavi teme Raznolikost živega (življenje v mlaki, živo - neživo).
Opisane so tudi nekatere dejavnosti, ki pomagajo učencem pri pridobivanju osnovnega biološkega znanja in pri razvijanju njihovega dojemanja naravoslovja.
ABSTRACT - The article presents experience gained when applying constructivist approach in early science lessons. It also offers possibilities of combining the existing (traditional) teaching model with the experience of teachers and alternative approaches (for ex. the constructivist approach). The article first presents the findings of the analysis made from the inquiries about the previous knowledge of pupils of the concepts used when discussing the topic of life's variety (life in a pond, live vs. inanimate). It describes some activities which can help pupils to acquire the basic knowledge of biology and to develop their understanding of science.

Mag. Marjana Erženičnik Pačnik

PREDŠOLSKI OTROK IN METALINGVISTIČNE OPERACIJE

PRESCHOOL CHILD AND META-LANGUAGE OPERATION

UDK 372.46 UDC 372.46
DESKRIPTORJI: učenje jezika v predšolskem obdobju, definicije, metajezik
DESCRIPTORS: language learning in preschool period, definitions meta-language
POVZETEK - Pogovor o jeziku ima pri besednem vedenju predšolskih otrok pomemben delež. Uporaba metajezika je nujna za učenje jezika in za njegovo delovanje. Od tega, kakšnih definicij besed je otrok predvsem deležen, ni odvisno le njegovo jezikovno znanje, temveč tudi njegovo mišljenje in sposobnost sklepanja. Odgovori odraslih na otrokova vprašanja so izvori spoznanj in tudi vzorci, kako bo otrok sam opazoval in definiral svet in dogodke okrog sebe.
Definicija je pravzaprav pravi in ustrezni odgovor na vprašanje: "Kaj je to?"
ABSTRACT - Talking to preschool children has an important influence on their verbal behaviour. The use of meta-language is a prominent factor in the process of language acquisition and its application. The child's knowledge about language and his or her ability to think and make conclusions is closely related to the type of word definitions used by adults. The answers of adults to children's questions are not only thesaurus for the child's building of knowledge, but are also a model how children will experience and see the world around them.
The definition of the word is the right answer to the question "What is this?"

Dr. Jana Bezenšek

VLOGA DRUŽINE PRI RAZVIJANJU EKOLOŠKE ZAVESTI PREDŠOLSKEGA OTROKA

FAMILY ROLE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ECO CONSCIENCE IN THE PRESCHOOL CHILD

UDK 372.32:173 UDC 372.32:173
DESKRIPTORJI: družina, življenjsko okolje, predšolski otrok, vzgoja, izobraževanje, vrednote, ekologija, onesnaževanje, ekološka kriza
DESCRIPTORS: family, living environment, preschool child, education, upbringing, values, ecology, pollution, eco crisis
POVZETEK - Predšolski otrok odrašča v družini, kjer si pridobiva izkušnje in spoznanja, na osnovi katerih si ustvari svoj lasten odnos do življenjskega okolja in življenja nasploh. Avtorica poudarja, da je zelo pomembno, kako družina živi in katere so zanjo bistvene vrednote življenja. Predšolski otrok se v družini lahko naleze vrednot le, če je soočen z njimi. Poleg vrednot s trajno vrednostjo narekuje današnji čas še druge vrednote, ki si jih bo otrok sčasoma pridobil v družini. Močan sistem vrednot in prepričanj mu najbolje predstavijo starši. Avtorica posebej izpostavlja, da se vrednot človekovega življenjskega okolja otrok uči tudi z lastno aktivnostjo, ki se odvija v družini v njenem prostem času ter v aktivnostih v vzgojno varstvenem zavodu. ABSTRACT - The preschool child grows up within a family, where it acquires its experience and knowledge, on the basis of which he forms his own relationships to the living environment and life in general. The authoress points out the importance of the mode of the family life-style and the essential values that the family recognizes as its own. Within the family, the preschool child can accept the important values only if it is constantly confronted with them. Beside permanent values the present time demands other values, which the preschool child can also acquire within its family. A strong system of values can be best introduced by the child's parents, although the child will be learning the values and beliefs of its environment in its free time activities within the family and in kindergarten.