1994 - LETNIK 9
POVZETKI ŠTEVILKE 3

Dr. France Strmčnik

MAKROARTIKULACIJA REŠEVANJA PROBLEMOV

MACROARTICULATION IN PROBLEM SOLVING

UDK 371.3 UDC 371.3
DESKRIPTORJI: makroartikulacija, problemska situacija, problem, rešitev
DESCRIPTORS: problem situation, problem solution
POVZETEK - Avtor predstavlja univerzalnejšo makroartikulacijo reševanja problemov, tako da upošteva tako psihološki kot tudi didaktično metodični vidik tega procesa. Ugotavlja, da nobenega artikulacijskega modela ni mogoče dosledno upoštevati, ker so ti odvisni od mnogih dejavnikov, predvsem pa od same reševalne situacije. Model zajema pet reševalnih stopenj, ki jih moramo prehoditi pri frontalnem, skupinskem ali individualnem reševanju problemov. ABSTRACT - The author presents a universal macroarticulation of problem solving, where the psychological as well as the didactic and methodical aspect of the process are being taken into account. He believes that there is no articulation model that could be strictly observed, since they all depend on numerous factors and on the situation itself. The model includes five solution stages, which must be considered in frontal, group or individual problem solving situations.

Dr. Marjan Blažič

MED ŠTEVILČNIM IN OPISNIM VREDNOTENJEM (OCENJEVANJEM) ZNANJA

BETWEEN NUMERICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE EVALUATION (ASSESSMENT) OF KNOWLEDGE

UDK 371.261 UDC 371.261
DESKRIPTORJI: preverjanje znanja, ocenjevanje znanja, opisno ocenjevanje znanja, didaktična komponenta
DESCRIPTORS: assessment and evaluation of knowledge, descriptive assessment, didactical component
POVZETEK - Avtor v članku opredeluje funkcijo preverjanja in ocenjevanja znanja z vidika didaktičnih komponent pouka, pa tudi z vidika organizacije te relativno samostojne učne stopnje, in utemeljuje potrebnost tega procesa. Opozarja, da je sposobnost mišljenja mogoče preveriti le posredno z rezultati učenčevega miselnega dela, ki se prezentirajo učitelju pisno ali ustno. Glede na tehniko izvajanja loči več načinov preverjanja znanja. V osrednjem delu članka opozarja na relativno vrednost šolskega uspeha, ki se manifestira preko ocen posameznih predmetov. Na osnovni primerjanja prednosti in pomanjkljivosti številčnega in (zahtevnejšega) opisnega vrednotenja učenčevega znanja opozarja na potrebnost ustreznega usposabljanja učiteljev za opisno vrednotenje. ABSTRACT - The author defines in his article the function of evaluation and assessment of knowledge from the aspect of its didactical component as well as from the organizational aspect of this relatively independent learning level. He also substantiates the necessity of the process and at the same time warns us that the ability to think can only be evaluated indirectly through the results of pupil' s thinking which are presented to the teacher in either written or oral form. In the middle part the article focuses on the relative value of school success which manifests itself in grades for individual subjects. In comparing the advantages and the drawbacks of numerical and (more challenging) descriptive assessment of pupil's knowledge he makes us aware of the necessity for suitable teacher training in regard to descriptive assessment.

Mag. Ivan Gerlič

MULTIMEDIJA V IZOBRAŽEVANJU

MULTIMEDIA IN EDUCATION

UDK 371.68/.69 UDC 371.68/.69
DESKRIPTORJI: multimedija, hipermedija, interaktivno delovanje
DESCRIPTORS: multimedia, hypermedia, interactive performance
POVZETEK - Namen multimedijskega načina pouka je koordinirano vključevanje tistih učnih medijev, ki lahko v dani učni situaciji kar najbolj prispevajo h kvalitetnejšemu procesu spoznavanja. Avtor z vidika stopnje interaktivnega delovanja sistema medijev opredeljuje tradicionalne multimedijske sisteme (multimedija) in sodobne multimedijske sisteme (hipermedija). ABSTRACT - The purpose of multimedia application in education is a coordinated incorporation of those teaching media that can in a specific teaching situation contribute best to the cognition process of highest quality. The author defines the traditional multimedia system (multimedia) and the modern multimedia system (hypermedia) from the aspect of the interactive performance level.

Miran Morano

VIDEO V UČNEM PROCESU

THE USE OF VIDEO IN THE LEARNING PROCESS

UDK 371.68 UDC 371.68
DESKRIPTORJI: video, učni proces
DESCRIPTORS: video, learning process
POVZETEK - V članku opredeljujemo pojem videa in njegovo vlogo v procesu učenja. Poskušamo odgovoriti na vprašanje, kdaj izbrati video, tako da z didaktičnega vidika natančno predstavimo prednosti in pomanjkljivosti tega medija. ABSTRACT - The article defines the concept of video and its role in the learning process. It tries to answer the question when video is to be applied in order to bring to light its advantages and drawbacks from the didactic standpoint.

Dr. France Žagar

OPISNO OCENJEVANJE IN IZBOLJŠEVANJE SPISOV

DESCRIPTIVE ASSESSMENT AND IMPROVING TEXT WRITING

UDK 372.45 UDC 372.45
DESKRIPTORJI: socializacijski in individualizacijski vidik poučevanja materinščine, celostno številčno ocenjevanje, razčlenjevalno opisno ocenjevanje, prva in druga verzija besedila.
DESCRIPTORS: social and individual aspect in mother tongue teaching, holistic numerical assessment, analysing descriptive assessment, first and second text version
POVZETEK - Članek vsebuje kritiko opisnega ocenjevanja spisov v začetnih razredih osnovne šole: pogosto se namreč izrojeva v zapisovanje stereotipnih in evfemističnih pripomb k spisom. Nato avtor prikazuje, kako lahko poglobljena opomba pod besedilom učenca motivira in usmeri, da na podlagi prve verzije napiše vsebinsko in pravopisno izpolnjeno drugo verzijo besedila. ABSTRACT - The article takes a critical standpoint towards descriptive assessment of texts produced by pupils in lower grades of primary school. This assessment frequently deteriorates into stereotype and euphemistic comments. Then the author shows how a well-thought out comment following the text can encourage and direct the pupil to write a contextually and ortographically better second version of the text on the basis of the first one.

Mag. Janja Črčinovič Rozman

UGOTAVLJANJE GLASBENE NADARJENOSTI

DETERMINING MUSICAL GIFTEDNESS

UDK 372.878 UDC 372.878
DESKRIPTORJI: glasbena nadarjenost, merjenje glasbenih sposobnosti
DESCRIPTORS: musical giftedness, assesing musical abilities
POVZETEK - Članek nas seznanja s problematiko definiranja glasbene nadarjenosti in z nekaterimi testi in postopki za njeno ugotavljanje. Največja pozornost je namenjena Reveszevemu postopku ugotavljanja glasbene nadarjenosti, ker se elementi le-tega uporabljajo za preizkušanje glasbene nadarjenosti tudi v Sloveniji. Na osnovi preverjanja sluha in smisla za posamezne glasbene komponente se običajno ugotavljajo potenciali za uspeh v poustvarjalni glasbeni dejavnosti, to pa je neustrezno in pomanjkljivo, saj bi pri napovedovanju uspešnosti morali upoštevati tudi druge dejavnike, kot npr. motorične sposobnosti in vztrajnost, ki tudi veliko prispevajo k uspešnemu ukvarjanju z glasbeno poustvarjalnostjo. ABSTRACT - The article presents the problem of defining musical giftedness as well as tests and criteria for its discovery. It further focuses on the Revesz procedure of determining musical giftedness, the reason being that its elements are being applied in the testing of musical giftedness in Slovenia. By testing hearing and the feeling/sense for individual musical components, the potentials for success in reproducing musical activities is generally tested, which is unsuitable and inefficient, since in predicting one's success other factors should also be taken into account, such as motory skills and perseverance, which contribute greatly to a successful engagement in musical reproduction.

Ana Porenta Rigler

RAZVIJANJE USTVARJALNOSTI NA RAZREDNI STOPNJI OSNOVNE ŠOLE

DEVELOPING CREATIVITY ON THE LOWER PRIMARY SCHOOL LEVEL

UDK 372.36 UDC 372.36
DESKRIPTORJI: ustvarjalno delo, leposlovno besedilo
DESCRIPTORS: creative work, literary text
POVZETEK - Avtorica obravnava otrokovo ustvarjalnost ter pogoje za njen razvoj pri rednem pouku na razredni stopnji osnovne šole. Poudarek daje zlasti načinu učiteljevega dela, ki omogoča razvoj ustvarjalnosti pri učencih. Navaja konkreten primer, v katerem uporablja literarno besedilo kot izhodišče za ustvarjalno delo pri pouku. Tak način predstavlja kot eno od možnosti za kvalitetnejše delo z nadarjenimi učenci. ABSTRACT - The authoress treats child's creativity and the conditions necessary for its development in the classroom on the lower primary school level. She focuses on teacher's approach to work which enables the development of creativity in children. She presents a concrete example where literary text is used as a starting point for creative work in the classroom. This example serves to show how work with gifted children can achieve higher quality.

Darja Skribe Dimec, Lucija Perne

UČBENIKI ZA RAZREDNI POUK NARAVOSLOVJA POD DROBNOGLEDOM

TEXTBOOKS FOR EARLY SCIENCE UNDER A MICROSCOPE

UDK 371.67:372.48 UDC 371.67:372.48
DESKRIPTORJI: naravoslovje, sposobnosti in spretnosti, učbeniki za SND, učbeniki za SN, integrirani učbeniki
DESCRIPTORS: early science, abilities and skills, textbooks for science and society studies, textbooks for early science, integrated textbooks
POVZETEK - Za pouk naravoslovja je v Sloveniji trenutno na voljo več učbenikov. Večina jih zanemarja razvoj otrokovih naravoslovnih sposobnosti in spretnosti. Ne upoštevajo otrokovega razvoja, ki poteka v obliki časovne spirale. V prispevku dajemo konkretne predloge za izboljšavo učbenikov. ABSTRACT - In Slovenia there are at present several textbooks for early science available. The majority of them however disregards the development of child's abilities and skills for science. Child's development, which proceeds in the form of a time spiral, is not taken into account. Concrete suggestions for possible improvement of textbooks are presented.

Dr. Jana Bezenšek

NEKATERI VIDIKI SPOLNE VZGOJE V DRUŽINI PREDŠOLSKEGA OTROKA

SOME ASPECTS OF SEXUAL EDUCATION IN THE FAMILY OF A PRE-SCHOOL CHILD

UDK 37.04 UDC 37.04
DESKRIPTORJI: družina, predšolski otrok, spolna vzgoja, ljubezen, starši, interakcija, komunikacija, odnos med spoloma
DESCRIPTORS: pre-school child, sexual education, love, parents, interaction, communication, relationship between the sexes
POVZETEK - Avtorica je na malem vzorcu raziskovala nekatere vidike spolne vzgoje v družini s predšolskim otrokom. Ugotavlja, da na razvoj odnosa do lastnega spola in lastne spolne vloge vplivajo različni dejavniki. Najpomembnejši so tisti, ki jih predšolski otrok doživlja v družini. Starši si želijo, da bi bili otroci srečni, da bi brez večjih ovir premagovali padce in vzpone v življenju. Prav zato moramo spolni vzgoji dati večji pomen, pri tem morata biti vlogi očeta in matere enakovredni. Otroci prenašajo način življenja, mišljenja, vedenja in vrednote iz svoje družine v družino, ki si jo bodo ustvarili sami. ABSTRACT - The authoress conducted a small scale research on certain aspects of sexual education in a family with a pre-school child. She has established that the development of the attitude towards one's own sex and towards one's own sexual role depends on various factors, the most relevant being those which the child experiences in his family. Parents would like their children to be happy and to overcome the ups and downs of life without any major distress. In this respect sexual education deserves greater attention, where father's and mother's roles should be equally important. Children bring the way of life and thinking, behaviour patterns and values from this family to their own future family.

Breda Pirnat

SODELOVANJE STARŠEV PRI VZGOJNEM DELU

INVOLVEMENT OF PARENTS IN THE EDUCATIONAL PROCESS

UDK 37.06 UDC 37.06
DESKRIPTORJI: predšolska vzgoja, vzgojitelj, starši, oblike in načini sodelovanja
DESCRIPTORS: pre-school education, educators, parents, forms and ways of cooperation
POVZETEK - Avtorica v članku obravnava sodelovanje staršev in vzgojiteljev pri vzgojnem delu na predšolski stopnji. Sodelovanje predstavlja dinamičen proces, ki se nenehno razvija, nadgrajuje in bogati vzgojno delo. Navedenih je nekaj dejavnikov, ki vplivajo na intenzivnost in kvaliteto sodelovanja. Starši imajo več možnosti vključevanja: pri načrtovanju in izvedbi, v dopoldanskem in popoldanskem času, individualno, na skupinskih prireditvah, izletih, lahko pa nudijo pomoč pri vzgojnih sredstvih in materialni pripravi. ABSTRACT - In her article the authoress treats the cooperation between parents and educators in the education of pre-school children. The cooperation represents a dynamic process, constantly developing and enriching educational work. The article presents factors which have an impact on the intensity and quality of such cooperation. There are many possibilities for parent involvement: in planning as well as in the process itself, in the morning or in the afternoon, individually and in group activities, on trips, or offering help in the preparation of educational materials and media.

Tanja Bezić

ŠOLSKO SVETOVALNO DELO - NADARJENI OTROCI IN MLADOSTNIKI

SCHOOL ADVISORY SERVICE AND GIFTED CHILDREN/TEENAGERS

UDK 37.042.2/.048 UDC 37.042.2/.048
DESKRIPTORJI: šolsko svetovalno delo, nadarjeni učenci
DESCRIPTORS: school advisory service, gifted pupils
POVZETEK - Šolski svetovalni delavci, ki se v slovenskih šolah zaposlujejo že od leta 1959, s svojim delom, temelječim na doktrini, ki jo je teoretično utemeljil F. Pediček ter jo od tedaj dalje razvijala vedno bolj številna skupina šolskih psihologov, pedagogov in socialnih delavcev ter v zadnjem času tudi defektologov, pomembno prispevajo k humanizaciji vzgojno izobraževalnega procesa za vse otroke in mladostnike in s tem tudi h krepitvi antropološko personalistične osnove dela šole.
Interdisciplinarni pristop, ki ga s svojo prisotnostjo in delovanjem v šolskem sistemu in v konkretnih ustanovah bogatijo in ga razvijajo, pomembno prispeva tudi k razvijanju oblik in metod dela za spodbujanje razvoja nadarjenih otrok in mladostnikov. Sistematična in kontinuirana družbena skrb za nadarjene, ki je bila dokaj dolgo zanemarjena, bi tudi z intenzivnim dodatnim izpopolnjevanjem strokovnjakov šolskega svetovalnega dela (specializacije za delo z nadarjenimi) lahko hitreje žela še pomembnejše uspehe.
ABSTRACT - School advisers have been active in Slovene schools since 1959. Their work, based on the doctrine developed by Franc Pediček and since then further developed by a growing number of school psychologists, pedagogues and social workers, joined newly by defectologists, has significantly contributed to the humanization of the educational process including all children and teenagers thus reinforcing anthropological and personality oriented school work.
The interdisciplinary approach, which is gaining ground within the school system and which is being enriched and developed in many concrete institutions, is another important factor adding to the development of forms and methods of work that encourage the development of gifted children and teenagers. Continuous and systematic care of the society for gifted children, which has long been neglected, could faster achieve even better results with intensive additional training of school advisory service experts (specializing in work with gifted children).