1994 - LETNIK 9
POVZETKI ŠTEVILKE 2

Dr. Ivan Ferbežer

PEDAGOŠKO POJMOVANJE NADARJENOSTI

PEDAGOGICAL UNDERSTANDING OF GIFTEDNESS

UDK 371.212.3 UDC 371.212.3
DESKRIPTORJI: nadarjenost, talentiranost, ustvarjalnost
DESCRIPTORS: giftedness, talent, creativity
POVZETEK - Avtor na osnovi tujih virov analizira različna pojmovanja nadarjenosti, talentiranosti in kreativnosti ter ob tem predstavlja svoje videnje problematike. Posebno pozornost posveča večdimenzionalnemu pristopu k identifikaciji nadarjenosti, ki vključuje poleg ostalih elementov tudi socialno in kulturno komponento. ABSTRACT - On the basis of foreign sources the author analyses various ways of understanding giftedness, talent and creativity, adding his own vision of the problem. The author focuses on a more dimensional approach to the identification of giftedness which among other elements also includes social and cultural components.

Dr. Dolfe Rajtmajer

OGREVANJE IN GIBALNO-ŠPORTNA VZGOJA OTROK

WARMING UP AND MOTIVE-SPORT EDUCATION OF CHILDREN

UDK 372.36 UDC 372.36
DESKRIPTORJI: ogrevanje, telesna obremenitev, kontrola obremenitve
DESCRIPTORS: warming up, physical load, load control
POVZETEK - V študiji analiziramo osnovne fiziološke procese pri gibalno-športni vzgoji otrok in ugotavljamo, da je potrebno pred telesnimi aktivnostmi z višjimi obremenitvami otroke primerno, tj. dovolj dolgo in z zmerno intenzivnostjo ogreti. Nadalje natančno definiramo ogrevanje, analiziramo učinke ogrevanja, priporočamo ustrezno odmero obremenitve in navajamo nekatere podatke iz raziskovanja fizioloških sposobnosti otrok, starih 6 let. ABSTRACT - The study analyses the basic physiological processes taking place during motive - sport education of children and suggests that before starting physical activities involving a higher load, the children have to be suitably warmed up, which means for an appropriate amount of time and with moderate intensity. It further accurately defines warming up, analyses its effects and advises about a suitable measure of load as well as lists some data from research on physiological abilities of six year old children.

Mag. Dušan Krnel

RAZUMEVANJE ZGRADBE SNOVI

UNDERSTANDING THE STRUCTURE OF MATTER

UDK 371.26 UDC 371.26
DESKRIPTORJI: zgradba snovi, agregatna stanja
DESCRIPTORS: matter, states of matter
POVZETEK - Sestavek opisuje in podaja rezultate raziskave o razumevanju zgradbe snovi. Raziskava je bila omejena na razumevanje zgradbe agregatnih stanj snovi - trdnega, tekočega in plinastega. Zajela je študente prvega letnika oddelka za razredni pouk na Pedagoški fakulteti v Ljubljani. Svoje predstave so študentje izrazili z risanjem. Risbe so bile sistematično razvrščene v kategorije, značilne za razumevanje teh pojmov. Ugotovili smo kriterije, ki jih študentje uporabljajo za ločevanje med agregatnimi stanji. Na manjšem vzorcu je bila prikazana razlika med odgovori na šolsko zastavljeno vprašanje in na vrsto vprašanja, ki globlje odkriva razumevanje naravoslovnih vsebin. ABSTRACT - The article describes and presents research data on understanding the structure of matter. The research was limited to the understanding of the structure of states of matter - solid, liquid and gaseous. It included first year students of classroom teaching orientation at the Faculty of Education in Ljubljana. Students presented their understanding of the subject in drawing. The drawings were classified into categories, typical for understanding these concepts. We have established what criteria are used by students to distinguish among the different states of matter. A smaller sample was used to show the difference in answering a school type question and the kind of question which further discloses the understanding of natural science contents.

Mag. Marija Kavkler

POMOČ OTROKU PRI UČENJU RAČUNSKIH STRATEGIJ

HELPING THE CHILD LEARN ARITHMETICAL STRATEGIES

UDK 371.3 UDC 371.3
DESKRIPTORJI: otroci z učnimi težavami pri učenju matematike, vrste računskih strategij, načini prepoznavanja strategij, učni pripomočki in metodični postopki za razvijanje računskih strategij.
DESCRIPTORS: children with learning difficulties in learning mathematics, kinds of arithmetical strategies, ways of recognizing strategies, teaching aids and methodical procedures for developing arithmetical strategies
POVZETEK - Otroci z učnimi težavami pri učenju matematike so najpogosteje neuspešni pri učenju matematike, ker iz baze znanja prikličejo manj aritmetičnih dejstev in uporabljajo manj učinkovite strategije. Uporabljajo materialne in verbalne strategije. Korektivni postopki morajo vključevati načrtno in sistematično učenje strategij na nivoju, ki ustreza otrokovim razvojnim potrebam. Predstavljeni so enostavni načini učenja strategij. ABSTRACT - Children with learning difficulties in learning mathematics are most frequently unsuccessful in learning mathematics because they recall less arithmetical facts from the base of knowledge and apply less efffective strategies. They use material and verbal strategies instead. The corrective measures should include planned and systematic learning of strategies at the level corresponding to child's developmental needs. In the article simple ways of learning strategies are being presented.

Mag. Zvonko Perat

MODEL ZA SPREMLJAVO UČNEGA NAČRTA MATEMATIKE

MODEL FOR MONITORING THE MATHEMATICAL TEACHING PLAN

UDK 371.32 UDC 371.32
DESKRIPTORJI: učni načrt, katalog znanj, nivoji znanja
DESCRIPTORS: teaching plan, catalogues of knowledge, knowledge levels
POVZETEK - Avtor predstavlja hipotetični model za spremljavo neterminalnega poteka pridobivanja znanja pri učnih predmetih. Konkretizira ga s primerom poteka pouka matematike v srednji šoli. Model ni vezan na stopnjo in smer šole. Ugotavlja, da je z modelom možno zaznati glavno trajektorijo pridobivanja znanja pri določenem predmetu. ABSTRACT - The author presents a hypothetical model for monitoring a nonterminal flow of knowledge acquisition in school subjects. The model has been implemented in a case study - in the subject of mathematics in secondary school. It is neither tied to the level nor to the type of school. The author suggests that the model enables the understanding of the main trajectory in acquiring knowledge within a specific subject.

Dr. Marko Mušanović

TEORETIČNE OSNOVE KURIKULUMA POLIKULTURNE ŠOLE

THEORETICAL BASES OF THE POLYCULTURAL SCHOOL CURRICULUM

UDK 373.6 UDC 373.6
DESKRIPTORJI: šolski kurikulum, delovna šola, politehnična šola, poliznanstvena šola, polikulturna šola
DESCRIPTORS: school curriculum, work school, polythechnical school, polyscientific school, polycultural school
POVZETEK - Avtor analizira povezanost reprodukcije osnovnih pogojev družbene proizvodnje in šolskega kurikuluma. V skladu s spremembami socialistične delitve dela, razvoja tehnološkega kompleksa družbe in proizvodnih odnosov izpostavlja tipologijo šolskih kurikulumov (delovna šola, politehnična šola, poliznanstvena šola in polikulturna šola). Spremembe, ki jih prinaša znanstveno-tehnična revolucija in funkcija izobraževanja v družbenem razvoju, terjajo konstituiranje sodobne polikulturne šole. ABSTRACT - The author analyses the close connection existing between the reproduction of basic conditions of social production and the school curriculum. In accordance with the changes in the socialist division of work, in the development of the technological society complex and the production relationships, the typology of school curricula is being presented (work school, polytechnical school, polyscientific school and polycultural school). Changes brought about by the scientific and technical revolution and the function of education in social development demand the constitution of a modern polycultural school.

Dr. Franc Hribernik

VLOGA IZOBRAŽEVALNEGA SISTEMA PRI SPREMINJANJU IZOBRAZBENE STRUKTURE SLOVENSKEGA KMEČKEGA PREBIVALSTVA

ROLE OF THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN TRANSFORMING THE STRUCTURE OF EDUCATION OF THE SLOVENE RURAL POPULATION

UDK 37-057.85:63-053.6 UDC 37-057.85:63-053.6
DESKRIPTORJI: kmečko prebivalstvo, kmečki otroci, izobraževalni sistem, šolanje, izobrazbeni dosežki
DESCRIPTORS: rural population, rural children, schooling, educational system, educational achievement
POVZETEK - Rezultati opravljene raziskave kažejo, da skorajda tretjina kmečkega prebivalstva v starosti 15 let in več v letu 1991 ni imela dokončane niti osemletne osnovne šole, polovica pa je dosegla samo temeljno izobrazbo. Izobraževalne možnosti so bolje izrabile mlajše starostne generacije, kmetijsko strokovno izobrazbo katerekoli stopnje pa si je pridobilo le 4,2 % vsega kmečkega prebivalstva opazovane starosti. Razlogov za očitno zaostajanje kmečkega življa pa ne gre vselej iskati le v preranem izpadanju kmečkih otrok iz izobraževalnega sistema, temveč tudi v nadaljevanju procesa dokončnega zapuščanja kmetovanja kot gospodarske dejavnosti. Izobraževalni sistem velikega izobrazbenega zaostanka kmečkega prebivalstva, ob še tako izjemnem naporu pedagogov in andragogov, sam po sebi ne more rešiti. Z ustrezno izgrajenim sistemom rednega in permanentnega izobraževanja kmetov pa ga lahko v doglednem času pomembno zmanjša. ABSTRACT - Research data indicate that in 1991 almost one third of the rural population aged 15 and over did not finish even the 8 year elementary school, while a half achieved the basic education only. It was mostly the younger generation that made use of diverse educational possibilities, yet specialized agricultural education at different levels was achieved only by 4,2% of the complete rural population of the researched age group. Reasons for such an evident retarding trend of the rural population is to be found not only in the fact that rural children finish their education too early, but also in the continuing process of final abandonment of farming as the main economic activity. Such an enormous educational retardation of rural population cannot be stopped by the educational system only, be efforts of pedagogues and andragogues ever so intense. But the process can nevertheless be significantly reduced in the foreseeable future by an adequately developed regular and permanent educational system for rural population.

Dr. Alojzija Židan

PRIMER MOŽNE DIDAKTIČNE IZPELJAVE VSEBIN "DROGE - NJIHOVE VRSTE, VZROKI ZASVOJENOSTI, ZDRAVLJENJE" PRI PREDMETU SOCIOLOGIJA

EXAMPLE OF A POSSIBLE DIDACTIC APPLICATION OF THE SUBJECT MATTER "DRUGS" IN THE SUBJECT OF SOCIOLOGY

UDK 372.83:178 UDC 372.83:178
DESKRIPTORJI: droge, zasvojenost, zdravljenje
DESCRIPTORS: drugs, addiction, treatment
POVZETEK - Avtorica v prispevku prikazuje primer možne didaktične izpeljave družboslovnih vsebin o drogah pri predmetu sociologija. Didaktično-metodična izpeljava primera temelji na uporabi mnogih problematizacij. Ker so vsebine, ki obdelujejo problematiko drog z vidika prosvetljevanja, zelo pomembne, velja razmišljati, kako jih didaktizirati, da bi bili vzgojni učinki pri učencih najustreznejši. ABSTRACT - The article presents an example of a possible application of drugs, a social studies topic, in the subject of sociology. The didactical and methodical application of the example includes several problem aspects. Since the subject matter of the drug problem is relevant in the sense of enlightenment, it is worth reflecting upon the didactical measures with which to achieve the most suitable educational effects.