2008 - LETNIK 23
POVZETKI ŠTEVILKE 1

Dr. Marija Javornik Krečič

REFLEKTIVNO POUČEVANJE - ZNAČILNOSTI, MODELI IN PRISTOPI

REFLECTIVE TEACHING - CHARACTERISTICS, MODELS, APPROACH

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK 37.013 UDC 37.013
DESKRIPTORJI: refleksija, poučevanje, modeli in pristopi reflektivnega poučevanja
DESCRIPTORS: reflection, teaching, reflective teaching modes and approaches
POVZETEK - V prispevku prikazujemo značilnosti reflektivnega poučevanja. V prvem delu predstavimo nekatere modele refleksije v poučevanju, v nadaljevanju pa podrobneje razčlenimo različne pristope k reflektivnemu poučevanju. V zadnjem delu prispevka opozorimo na dejavnike, ki spodbujajo oziroma ovirajo reflektivno poučevanje. ABSTRACT - The article presents reflective teaching characteristics. In the firs part, some models of reflection in educational environment are described and later on different reflective teaching approaches are analysed in detail. In the last part of the article, attention is focused on factors which encourage or hinder reflective teaching.

Dr. Alenka Lipovec, dr. Irena Kosi Ulbl

E-UM UČNA GRADIVA Z VIDIKA AVTORJEV

E-UM - EDUCATIONAL MATERIAL DROM AUTHORS' THE POINT OF VIEW

Pregledni znanstveni članek Author review
UDK 371.68:004 UDC 371.68:004
DESKRIPTORJI: matematika, izobraževalna tehnologija, računalnik, e-učenje, interaktivna e-gradiva
DESCRIPTORS: mathematics, educational technology, computer, e-learning, interactive e-resources
POVZETEK - V prispevku problematiziramo avtorstvo interaktivnih elektronskih učnih gradiv. Avtorstvo učnih gradiv je v slovenskem učnem prostoru običajno deljeno med učitelja, ki poda vsebino, in računalničarja, ki s svojim tehničnim znanjem vsebino postavi v virtualno učno okolje. Trdimo, da je najučinkovitejše, če sta učitelj in računalničar ena in ista oseba, natančneje, učitelj pridobi potrebna znanja, da lahko gradivo piše sam. Opisani projekt E-um, ki sledi tem principom, dokazuje, da je to izvedljivo v praksi. Empirični podatki potrjujejo hipotezo, da avtorstvo pozitivno vpliva na tehnološko, pedagoško in matematično znanje učiteljev - avtorjev. ABSTRACT - The article deals with the influence of authorship of electronic learning resources on teacher 's competences. Interactive e-learning resources in Slovenian school system are usually written by at least two persons; one of them is a teacher who provides content, the other is a computer expert who enables the content to work in a virtual learning environment. The paper argues that the teacher and the computer expert should be one and the same person or more precisely; the teacher should gain adequate knowledge to write his resources alone. In order to provide an argument that this is possible, we describe the E-um project which follows such principles. Gathered empirical data support the hypothesis that authorship positively affects the technological, pedagogical and mathematical knowledge of teachers - authors.

Dr. Zlatka Cugmas, Vesna Burjak

ODNOS OSNOVNOŠOLCEV DO ŠPORTNE VZGOJE IN ŠPORTNIH DEJAVNOSTI

PUPILS' ATTITUDE TOWARDS PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORTS

Pregledni znanstveni članek Author review
UDK 373.32:796 UDC 373.32:796
DESKRIPTORJI: : osnovna šola, športna vzgoja, vrhunski šport, vzorniki, identifikacija s športniki
DESCRIPTORS: elementary school, physical education (P.E), professional sport, role models, identification with athletes
POVZETEK - Avtorici definirata šport in predstavita športno vzgojo v osnovni šoli, opozarjata na pomen zdravja, ki si ga učenci ohranjajo s športnimi aktivnostmi. Opisujeta vrhunski šport in z njim povezane napetosti ter odrekanja in napore. Osnovnošolci imajo vzornike iz sveta športa, se z njimi pogosto identificirajo in prevzamejo njihove vzorce vedenja. Raziskava je pokazala, da imajo učenci športno vzgojo in športne dejavnosti radi, še zlasti zaradi druženja in zabave, se pa nemalokrat pri športnih aktivnostih pojavi tudi tekmovalnost in so učenci, ki se pri športnih dejavnostih ne počutijo najbolje, saj jih je strah sovrstnikovega posmeha. Mnogo učencev ima svojega športnega vzornika. ABSTRACT - The authors define sport, present physical education in elementary schools and emphasise the importance of health which pupils maintain if they are engaged in sports activities. A part of the paper deals with the description of professional sport in connection with tensions, sacrifices and efforts put in the training. It is very common that pupils have role models from the world of sports and often seem to identify with them and acquire their behaviour patterns. The study has shown that children like physical education and sports activities, especially because of socializing and entertainment. Sports activities are frequently accompanied by competitiveness and children who feel uncomfortable participating out offear of being laughed at by their peers. The research has also shown that many pupils have a sport role model to identify with.

Mag. Petra Dolenc

TELESNA SAMOPODOBA IN SAMOSPOŠTOVANJE OSNOVNOŠOLSKIH OTROK

PUPILS' PHYSICAL SELF-CONCEPT AND SELF-ESTEEM: GENDER DIFFERENCES

Pregledni znanstveni članek Author review
UDK 37.037.1 UDC 37.037.1
DESKRIPTORJI: : telesna samopodoba, samospoštovanje, učenci, razlike med spoloma
DESCRIPTORS: : physical self-concept, self-esteem, pupils, gender differences
POVZETEK - Namen raziskave je bil ugotoviti raven zaznane športne kompetence, telesnega videza in samospoštovanja učencev ter proučiti razlike v omenjenih spremenljivkah med spoloma. Vzorec je obsegal 480 slovenskih osnovnošolskih otrok (256 fantov in 224 deklet), starih povprečno 12,5 leta (SD = 1,1 leta). Za ugotavljanje športne kompetence, telesnega videza in samospoštovanja smo uporabili Lestvico samozaznave za otroke. Razlike med fanti in dekleti smo preverili z enosmerno analizo variance. Rezultati kažejo, da se fantje doživljajo kot bolj kompetentni v gibalnih/športnih aktivnostih in telesno privlačnejši v primerjavi z enako starimi dekleti, poleg tega pa se višje vrednotijo in zaupajo v lastne zmožnosti v primerjavi s svojimi vrstnicami. Telesna samopodoba je pomemben sestavni del globalne samopodobe, zato ji kaže nameniti posebno pozornost in raziskovalni interes. ABSTRACT - The purpose of the study was to determine the level ofperceived sport competence, physical appearance and self-esteem in pupils and to study the differences between genders. The experimental group comprised 480 primary school children (256 boys and 224 girls) aged 12,5 years on average (SD = 1,1 year). Physical self-concept and self-esteem were assessed with the help of Self-Perception Profile for Children. One-way ANOVA was used to analyse the data. The results indicate that there are gender effects favouring boys according to all three variables: they see themselves significantly more athletically competent than girls, consider themselves to be better looking and have a higher self-esteem than girls. Since physical-self concept is an important part of global self-concept, it has to be given special attention.

Mag. Mateja Petrovič

RAZVIJANJE ZMOŽNOSTI RAZUMEVANJA

DEVELOPMENT OF COMPREHENSION ABILITIES

Pregledni znanstveni članek Author review
UDK 37.02:372.880.20 UDC 37.02:372.880.20
DESKRIPTORJI: zmožnost razumevanja, strategije branja, strokovni jezik, diskurz, avtentičnost, poenostavljanje
DESCRIPTORS: comprehension ability, reading strategies, English for specific purposes, discourse, authenticity, simplification
POVZETEK - Pri učenju in poučevanju angleščine kot strokovnega jezika si moramo prizadevati, da učencem pomagamo razvijati njihovo zmožnost razumevanja, nadgrajevati njihovo znanje. Hkrati pa jim moramo pomagati, da strategije za obvladovanje besedila prenesejo na področje strokovnega jezika. Pri učenju in poučevanju besedišča ponavadi izhajamo iz sobesedila, zato je pomembno, da učencem pomagamo razvijati spretnost opazovanja avtorjevih signalov na ravni slovnice in besedišča kakor tudi predvidevanja o vsebini besedila. Učenje in poučevanje angleščine kot strokovnega jezika zahteva uporabo avtentičnih besedil, ki jih moramo ustrezno prirediti za delo v razredu. Pri tem uporabljamo različne strategije. Hkrati pa pripravimo naloge, ki bodo učencu omogočile soočanje z nalogami, ki jih bo opravljal na poklicni poti. ABSTRACT - Learning and teaching English for Specific purposes means that we have to strive to help our students develop comprehension abilities and enrich their knowledge. At the same time, we should also help our students with transferring text management strategies to thefield of English for Specific purposes. In learning and teaching vocabulary, we usually start with a text and a cotext; therefore it is vital to help students develop skills for interpreting author 's signals at the level of grammar and vocabulary and ability to predict the context of the text. Learning and teaching ESP requires application of authentic texts that have to be appropriately adapted for classroom work through the use of different strategies. At the same time we mustprepare exercises that will enable our students to complete tasks they are likely to do in their professional careers.

Dr. Marjan Blažič

IZOBRAŽEVANJE IN GLOBALIZACIJSKI PROCESI

GLOBALIZATION PROCESSES AND EDUCATION

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK 37:005.44 UDC 37:005.44
DESKRIPTORJI: globalizacija, paradigma, človeški kapital, izobraževanje, znanje, spretnosti, sposobnosti
DESCRIPTORS: globalization, paradigm, human capital, human resources, education, knowledge, skills, abilities
POVZETEK - Človeški kapital oz. ekonomija intelektualnega kapitala se nanaša na proces izobraževanja, znanje, informacije, ideje, spretnosti in zdravje posameznikov. To je daleč najpomembnejša oblika kapitala v sodobnih gospodarstvih. Uspehi posameznikov in tudi celotnih gospodarstev so odvisni od tega, v kolikšni meri in koliko so posamezne družbe pripravljene vložiti v intelektualni razvoj posameznika. Raziskave kažejo, da se povečuje skupna vsota, vložena v šolanje, usposabljanje na delovnem mestu, zdravje, informacije ter raziskave in razvoj. Gospodarska globalizacija in informacijska revolucija napovedujeta radikalne spremembe v sami naravi procesa učenja. S progresivno substitucijo univerzalnih in standardiziranih izobraževalnih sistemov z virtualnimi učnimi omrežji bodo šole izgubile funkcijo racionalnega posredovalca sistematičnega znanja. ABSTRACT - Human capital, or more precisely the economy of intellectual capital, refers to the educational process, knowledge, information, ideas, skills and the well-being of individuals. This is, by far, the most importantform of capital in modern economies. The success of individuals and whole economies are dependent upon the extent and quantity that individual societies are willing to invest in the intellectual capital of individuals. Research shows that the aggregate sum increases when investments are geared towards education, on-the-job training, individual 's wellbeing, information, as well as research and development. Economic globalization and the information revolution foresee radical changes in the very essence of learning. With progressive substitution of universal and standard educational systems for virtual networks, schools will lose the function of being rational transmitters of systematic knowledge.

Dr. Lucija Čok

MEDKULTURNA OZAVEŠČENOST KOT OSEBNOSTNA VREDNOTA

INTERCULTURAL AWARENESS AS PERSONAL VALUE

Pregledni znanstveni članek Author review
UDK 316.77 UDC 316.77
DESKRIPTORJI: jezikovna zavest, medkulturna jezikovna komunikacija, kulturna izkušnja in kulturni spomin, (samo)preverjanje
DESCRIPTORS: language awareness, intercultural language communication, cultural experience, cultural memory, self-verification of language
POVZETEK - Sobivanje v miru in gospodarski blaginji različnih narodov Evrope temelji na vzajemnem razumevanju in tesnem sodelovanju vseh držav, ki so v partnerskem odnosu utrdile zavest o enakosti pravic pri uveljavljanju svoje suverenosti pred zakonom. Komuniciranje in izmenjava informacij sta izhodišči, ki lahko spodbujata razumevanje ekonomskih, družbenih in kulturnih prostorov, ki vsak med njimi predstavlja podlago za oblikovanje skupnih strategij razvoja. Le s pomočjo medkulturnih jezikovnih spretnosti in sposobnosti bosta tako posameznik kot družbena skupina lahko razvila komunikacijske vezi za uspešno sodelovanje. Medkulturne narave sodobne družbe pa si ne moremo predstavljati brez etnične ozaveščenosti. ABSTRACT - Living together of different European nations in peace and economic prosperity is based on mutual understanding and close cooperation of all countries which, in partnership, strengthened their awareness about the identity of rights when seeking sovereignty before the law. Communication and exchange of information are starting points which can encourage the understanding of economic, social and cultural areas representing a basis for establishing common development strategies. Individuals as well as social groups will be able to develop communication links for a successful cooperation only with the help of intercultural language skills and abilities. Intercultural nature of a modern society cannot be imagined without ethnical awareness.

Dr. Janez Vogrinc, dr. Janez Krek

KRITERIJI UGOTAVLJANJA KAKOVOSTI ZNANSTVENIH SPOZNANJ - POZIVISTIČNI PRISTOP

CRITERIA FOR ESTABLISHING SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE UALITY - POSITIVISTIC APPROACH

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK 001.3 UDC 001.3
DESKRIPTORJI: kvalitativno raziskovanje, kvantitativno raziskovanje, merske karakteristike, pozitivizem, znanstveno spoznanje
DESCRIPTORS: qualitative research, quantitative research, measurement characteristics, positivism, scientific knowledge
POVZETEK - V prispevku so predstavljene temeljne značilnosti kvalitativnega in kvantitativnega raziskovanja in analizirani kriteriji ugotavljanja kakovosti spoznanj, do katerih pridemo v raziskovalnem procesu. Ker epistemološka izhodišča kvalitativnega raziskovanja opredeljujejo drugačno obliko znanstvenega raziskovanja od kvantitativnega, se morajo razlikovati tudi kriteriji ocenjevanja znanstvenih spoznanj kvalitativnega in kvantitativnega raziskovanja. Tako v okviru kvantitativnega raziskovanja uporabljamo predvsem veljavnost, zanesljivost, objektivnost in občutljivost. Avtorje, ki se ukvarjajo s kriteriji kvalitativnega raziskovanja, pa lahko razdelimo v štiri skupine: pozitivistično, postpozitivistično, postmodernistično in poststrukturalistično. ABSTRACT - The article presents the basic characteristics of qualitative and quantitative research, analysed criteria for establishing the quality of scientific knowledge which we obtain through a research process. Since epistemological grounds for qualitative research define a different scientific research form than those for quantitative research, criteria for evaluating scientific knowledge of qualitative and quantitative research have to differ as well. Within qualitative research we thus mainly pay regard to validity, reliability, objectivity and sensitivity. Authors who deal with the qualitative research criteria can be divided into the following four groups: positivistic, post-positivistic, post-modernist and post-structuralist.

Mag. Saša Jazbec

O BRANJU PRI POUKU TUJEGA JEZIKA - NEMŠČINE

ABOUT READING IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE CLASSES - GERMAN LANGUAGE

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 372.880.30 UDC 372.880.30
DESKRIPTORJI: proces branja, bralna kompetenca pri pouku tujega jezika, tipi nalog, cilji sodobnega pouka
DESCRIPTORS: : reading process, reading competence in foreign language classes, types of tasks, aims of modern education
POVZETEK - Prispevek tematizira proces branja in razvijanja bralne kompetence v tujem jeziku - nemščini. Izhaja iz eksemplaričnih besedil in predvsem iz nalog k tem besedilom v učbenikih in pokaže, da prevladujoč tip nalog k besedilom ne vzpodbuja razvoja bralne kompetence, kar je eden izmed elementarnih ciljev sodobnega pouka. ABSTRACT - The article discusses the process of reading and developing reading competence in a foreign (German) language. The research is based on exemplary texts from textbooks, particularly on the tasks accompanying these texts. It shows that the prevailing type of tasks does not encourage reading competence development which is one of the elementary goals of modern education.