2007 - LETNIK 22
POVZETKI ŠTEVILKE 3-4

Dr. Marija Javornik Krečič, dr. Milena Ivanuš Grmek, dr. Karmen Kolenc Kolnik, mag. Eva Konečnik Kotnik

POMEN MENTORSTVA V ČASU DODIPLOMSKEGA IZOBRAŽEVANJA IN MENTORJEVE KOMPETENCE

SIGNIFICANCE OF MENTORSHIP IN UNDERGRADUATE EDUCATION AND MENTOR COMPETENCES

Izvirni znanstveni članek Author review
UDK 37.011.3 UDC 37.011.3
DESKRIPTORJI: učitelj, mentorstvo, kompetence mentorja
DESCRIPTORS: teacher, mentorship, competences of mentor
POVZETEK - Avtorice v prvem delu izpostavijo pomembnost mentorjeve vloge v času dodiplomskega izobraževanja. S svojo vlogo mentor najbolj neposredno vpliva na razvoj bodočega učitelja, saj je ob njem na vseh stopnjah njegovega učenja. Mentor - razmišljajoči praktik - je odgovoren za ustvarjanje učnih možnosti, v katerih študent (bodoči učitelj) kritično išče ter ustvarjalno razvija svoj profesionalni nastop ter na podlagi lastnih pedagoških izkušenj razširja in poglablja svoje teoretično znanje. V drugem delu avtorice predstavijo rezultate empirične raziskave, ki dajejo vpogled v razmišljanje mentorjev na eni in univerzitetnih učiteljev na drugi strani o tem, kakšno znanje, zmožnosti oziroma kompetence potrebuje učitelj mentor. ABSTRACT - In the first part of the article, the authors expose the significance of the mentor's role in undergraduate education. Being present in all educational phases, the mentor has the most direct influence on the development of the future teacher. The mentor, a thoughtful practitioner, is responsible for creating new learning opportunities, which enable the students (future teachers) to critically search for and creatively develop their professional efficacy, while broadening and deepening their theoretical knowledge through personal teaching experiences. The second part presents the results of an empirical research, which elucidates the opinions of mentors and university teachers about the nature of knowledge, capabilities and competences required of a teacher - mentor.

Dr. Andreja Drobnič Vidic

VRSTE PROBLEMOV PRI PROBLEMSKO ZASNOVANEM ŠTUDIJU

TYPES OF PROBLEMS IN PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING

Pregledni znanstveni članek Author review
UDK 371.3 UDC 371.3
DESKRIPTORJI: problemsko zasnovan študij, reševanje problemov, tipi problemov, učenje statistike
DESCRIPTORS: problem-based learning, problem solving, types of problems, statistics learning
POVZETEK - Problemsko zasnovan študij (ang. Problem-Based Learning) temelji na reševanju realnih problemov, ki sprožijo učenje določene učne snovi. Predstavlja tako organizacijo pouka, ki omogoča srečevanje s primeri iz prakse, interdisciplinarni pristop k snovi, ki je pomembna za uspešno opravljanje poklica in razvoj raznih zmožnosti za samostojno delo in izobraževanje. Avtorica prikaže reševanje problemov pri problemsko zasnovanem študiju, ki je primeren za učenje osnov statistike za inženirje, ki je na tretji stopnji izobraževanja lahko del matematike ali pa samostojen predmet. Osredotočimo se na vrste interdisciplinarnih problemov, v katere lahko razvrstimo probleme v statistiki in tudi probleme mnogih drugih področij. Opišemo značilnosti posamezne vrste problemov, kdaj jih zastavimo študentom in kaj je pomembno pri njihovem ocenjevanju. Pri vsaki vrsti podamo zgled s področja inženirske statistike in korake reševanja danega problema, ki so lahko v pomoč pri oblikovanju problemov na drugih področjih. ABSTRACT - Problem-based learning is based on solving interdisciplinary real-life problems which trigger the learning of a particular learning content. It is a way of constructing the courses which enable students to work in small groups and confront students with problems from the practice. Problem-based learning also provides an interdisciplinary approach to the subject which is necessary for a successful performance in students' future jobs. Moreover, PBL helps students develop many skills needed for independent study and work. PBL is very suitable for a basic engineering statistics course which forms a part of a mathematics course or a course of its own in tertiary education. Our attention in this article is focused on types of interdisciplinary problems into which we can classify statistics problems and problems from other fields. We describe characteristics of each type of problems, when to introduce it and student's assessment of students' learning process through these types of problems and their outcomes. Each type of problem is presented with an example from the field of engineering statistics and steps for solving the given problem. These steps can be useful in problem formation in other fields as well.

Mag. Andrej Šorgo

POMEN LABORATORIJSKEGA DELA PRI POUKU BIOLOGIJE

MEANING OF LABORATORY WORK IN BIOLOGY CLASSES

Pregledni znanstveni članek Author review
UDK 371.621.5:57 UDC 371.621.5:57
DESKRIPTORJI: laboratorijsko delo, kompetence, kakovost, eksperimentalno delo, naravoslovje, biologija
DESCRIPTORS: laboratory work, competences, quality, experimental work, natural science and biology
POVZETEK - V ospredju razmišjanj o izobraževanju naj ne bi bile več vsebine in količine znanj, ki naj bi jih posameznik posedoval, temveč predvsem njihova kakovost. Pojem, ki se ga vse pogosteje povezuje s kakovostjo izobraževanja, so kompetence, kot tisti preplet vedenj, spretnosti, veščin in stališč, ki naj bi vsakemu posamezniku omogočale kakovostno in polno življenje. V izobraževanju vodijo h kompetencam predvsem metode osredinjene na učenca. Metoda, s katero je mogoče kar v največji meri spodbujati takšen način dela, pa je laboratorijsko in eksperimentalno delo. V članku povzemamo cilje, ki jih je mogoče udejaniti z laboratorijskim in eksperimentalnim delom. Za polno uvajanje laboratorijskega dela v šoli pa se je treba na državni ravni odlepiti od vsebinsko preobloženih učnih načrtov, na šolski ravni omogočiti večjo fleksibilnost pri organizaciji pouka, na učiteljevi ravni pa se odlepiti od miselnosti, da mora učitelj opraviti večino dela, učenci pa ga naj pri tem predvsem opazujejo. ABSTRACT - The content and quantity of knowledge which an individual is supposed to communicate should not be the centre of discussions about education. Attention should be focused on the quality. A notion which is frequently associated with the quality of education is 'competence' as the combination of knowledge, skills and point of views which ensure every individual a quality life. Methods in education that lead to competences are mostly methods of focusing on the pupil. And this kind of work can be to a great extend stimulated by laboratory and experimental work. In this article, we have summarised the goals which can be achieved through laboratory and experimental work. Full introduction of experimental work in schools will require distancing at the national level from the prescribed curricula, more flexibility in organizing lessons at the school level and distancing from the idea that the teacher has to do most of the work while pupils watch at the teacher's level.

Mag. Klemen Prah, dr. Karmen Kolenc Kolnik

DIDAKTIČNA ANALIZA UČENJA NA PROSTEM NA PRIMERU VODNE UČNE POTI V POREČJU SOTLE

DIDACTIC ANALYIS OF OUTDOOR LEARNING BASED ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE EDUCATIONAL WATER TRAIL IN THE SOTLA RIVER BASIN

Pregledni znanstveni članek Author review
UDK 372.891 UDC 372.891
DESKRIPTORJI: voda, porečje, Sotla, geografija, učna pot, didaktična analiza
DESCRIPTORS: water, river shed, the Sotla river, geography, didactic analysis
POVZETEK - Slovenijo uvrščamo med pokrajine, ki so bogate z vodo. Njen geografski položaj, ki ga določa stik štirih evropskih naravnogeografskih makroregij, pogojuje izjemno različnost oblik voda in sočasno velik obremenitveni pritisk nanje. Vsa tri dejstva kažejo na pomembnost proučevanja vodnih virov v Sloveniji kakor tudi načrtno spodbujanje izobraževanja za razumevanje in kompetentno upravljanje z vodnimi viri. Kot doprinos k uresničitvi tega cilja smo izbrali porečje Sotle, ki se po velikosti uvršča med večja porečja v Sloveniji. Geografska vodna učna pot v porečju Sotle je aktualna z vidika celostnega pristopa proučevanja porečja ter z vidika izobraževanja za kompetentno soodločanje pri ravnanju s prostorom. V didaktično analizo sestavin izobraževalno-vzgojnega dela na prostem smo vključili učne cilje, učne vsebine, didaktična načela, didaktična sredstva, učne metode in učno okolje. Primer izdelane geografske vodne učne poti v porečju Sotle lahko prenesemo na druga porečja in druge vodotoke v Sloveniji in Evropi, prav tako pa je učna pot oblikovana z namenom spodbuditi različne javnosti za smotrno ravnanje z vodnimi viri. ABSTRACT - Slovenia belongs to the regions with an abundance of water. Its geographical position on the juncture of four European natural geographic macro regions yields an exceptional variety of water forms and, at the same time, exercises a significant environmental impact on them. The above mentioned facts emphasize the importance of water resources research in Slovenia and of targeted encouragement of education for understanding and competent management of water resources. To achieve this, we chose the Sotla river basin, which is among the largest river basins in Slovenia. The geographical educational water trail in the Sotla river basin is an up-to-date project from the aspect of an integral approach to river basin research and from the aspect of education for competent joint decision-making in spatial planning. A didactic analysis of educational components in field work includes learning goals, contents, didactic principles, educational methods and the learning environment. The example of the geographical educational water trail in the Sotla river basin could be transferred to other basins and rivers of Slovenia and Europe. The educational trail is designed to encourage the public to consider proper treatment of water resources.

Mag. Janja Batič

UPORABA UČNIH MEDIJEV PRI POUČEVANJU PROSTORSKEGA OBLIKOVANJA PRI LIKOVNI VZGOJI

TEACHING MEDIA IN SPATIAL DESIGN AS PART OF ART EDUCATION

Pregledni znanstveni članek Author review
UDK 372.87:371.64/.69 UDC 372.87:371.64/.69
DESKRIPTORJI: likovna vzgoja, učni mediji, prostorsko oblikovanje, predstave
DESCRIPTORS: art education, teaching media, spatial design, representation
POVZETEK - Pri prostorskem oblikovanju se učenci ob oblikovanju in preoblikovanju prostora seznanjajo s pojmi, kot so prostor, oblika in velikost prostorov ipd., razvijajo zmožnost opazovanja različnih prostorov, smisel za oblikovanje in razporejanje prostorov, razvijajo zmožnost orientacije, spoznavajo prostorske odnose. Pri tem ima pomembno vlogo opazovanje različnih prostorov in predvsem gibanje. Zato učitelj izbira take metode dela, ki učencu omogočijo, da dobi čimveč informacij o nekem prostoru. Kadar gibanje v določenem prostoru ni mogoče, lahko učitelj uporabi različne učne medije, s katerimi učencem približa nek pojem prostorskega oblikovanja. V raziskavi nas je zanimalo, kako pogosto in katere učne medije uporabljajo pri urah prostorskega oblikovanja pri likovni vzgoji učitelji razrednega pouka. Ugotovili smo, da učitelji najpogosteje prikazujejo fotografije iz knjig in učbenikov, zelo pogosto uporabljajo tudi grafoskop in računalnik. @al teh ugotovitev ne moremo podkrepiti z izkušnjami iz prakse, ki kažejo na to, da so učni mediji pri prostorskem oblikovanju redko prisotni. Učitelje bi morali skozi proces permanentnega izobraževanja ustrezno motivirati za uporabo sodobnih učnih medijev. Z uporabo multimedijev bi prostorsko oblikovanje kot področje pridobilo vidnejše mesto pri pouku likovne vzgoje in bi lahko pomembno vplivalo na razvijanje prostorskih predstav oziroma na prostorsko inteligenco pri učencih. ABSTRACT - Through their work in spatial design, pupils learn expressions such as space, shape and size of space etc. They develop their ability to observe various types of space, and their skills in shaping and arranging different spaces, improve their orientation and learn to comprehend relations in space. Observation of various spaces and movement in space play an important role in this. Hence, the teacher should use methods which enable the pupil to obtain as much information on a particular space as possible. When movement in a certain space is not possible, the teacher can use specific media to introduce to the pupil a certain spatial design concept. The aim of our research was to determine which teaching media are being used by teachers of art classes and how frequently. The target group in our research were the teachers of first five grades of elementary school. The results showed that teachers most commonly use photographs from books and schoolbooks or overhead projector and computer. Unfortunately, our conclusions cannot be substantiated by our experiences in practice. These namely show that the teaching media are in fact rarely present in spatial design. Teachers should be motivated to use up-to-date teaching media throughout permanent education. By using multimedia, spatial design would also gain in importance and could significantly contribute to the development of spatial notions and spatial intelligence of pupils.

Dr. Vlasta Zabukovec, dr. Metod Resman, Maja Furlan

BIBLIOSVETOVANJE (BIBLIOTERAPIJA) V ŠOLI

BIBLIOCOUNSELING (BIBLIOTHERAPY) IN SCHOOL

Pregledni znanstveni članek Author review
UDK 371.3:028.8:615.85 UDC 371.3:028.8:615.85
DESKRIPTORJI: biblioterapija, bibliosvetovanje, šolski svetovalni delavci, šolski knjižničarji, primarna preventiva
DESCRIPTORS: bibliotherapy, bibliocounseling, school counsellors, school librarians and primary prevention
POVZETEK - Biblioterapija je tehnika dela, ki se je do sedaj največ pojavljala v kliničnem okolju, zato je kot taka za šolsko okolje neprimerna. Ker pa ima svoje temelje v bibliotekarski stroki in svetovanju, sta v šolskem kontekstu šolska knjižnica in šolska svetovalna služba tista šolska podsistema, ki ju povežemo z biblioterapijo. Pri opredeljevanju njenega mesta v šoli se pojavijo potrebe po novi opredelitvi terminologije, vsebine pojma in problematiki vloge obeh šolskih podsistemov. Bibliosvetovanje v šolskem svetovalnem delu predstavlja nedirektivno metodo primarne preventive. Pri opredeljevanju vloge šolskega knjižničarja in šolskega svetovalnega delavca tako izhajamo iz njunega formalnega, natančneje dodiplomskega izobra-ževanja ter značilnosti bibliosvetovanja kot procesa. Njune strokovne kompetence so izhodišče za prevzemanje odgovornosti v posameznih fazah priprave in izvajanja programa svetovanja. ABSTRACT - Bibliotherapy is a working technique which has been common in the clinical environment and is as such inappropriate for the school environment. But since it has its roots in librarianship and counselling, the school library and the school guidance service are the two school subsystems which we connect with bibliotherapy. Determining an appropriate place for bibliotherapy in the school environment has caused the need for a new definition of terminology, the content of the concept and the problem of the roles of both school subsystems. Bibliocounseling in school educational and vocational guidance represents a non-directive therapy in the primary prevention. The definition of the role of the school librarian and school counsellor is based on their formal or more precisely their undergraduate education and characteristics of bibliocounseling as a process. Their professional competence is the basis for assuming responsibility at individual stages of preparation and implementation of the counselling program.

Dr. Zlatka Cugmas, Tanja Horvat

SAMOPODOBA NADARJENIH UČENCEV

SELF-IMAGE OF GIFTED AND TALENTED PUPILS

Pregledni znanstveni članek Author review
UDK 37.011.3-056.45-057.87:159.923.2 UDC 37.011.3-056.45-057.87:159.923.2
DESKRIPTORJI: nadarjenost, samoocene, osnovnošolci
DESCRIPTORS: talentedness and giftedness, self-evaluation and pupils (aged 6 to 14)
POVZETEK - V raziskavi smo želeli ugotoviti razlike v samopodobi med nadarjenimi učenci in njihovimi vrstniki. Sodelovalo je 56 učencev četrtih in petih razredov iz treh devetletnih osnovnih šol. Od tega je bilo 28 učencev identificiranih kot nadarjeni učenci. Rezultati so pokazali, da obstajajo pomembne razlike med nadarjenimi učenci in njihovimi vrstniki v samoocenah na področju akademske kompetentnosti ter sprejetosti s strani učitelja. Na področju akademske kompetentnosti se nadarjeni učenci višje ocenjujejo kot vrstniki, na področju sprejetosti s strani učitelja se ocenjujejo nižje. Na preostalih merjenih področjih, in sicer umetniško estetske kompetentnosti in interesa za umetniško dejavnost, anksioznosti, negativnega obnašanja ter motorične kompetentnosti pa razlike v samoocenah niso pomembne. ABSTRACT - The aim of the research was to find out differences in the self-image between gifted and talented pupils and their peers. There were 56 fourth- and fifth-class pupils from 3 different 9-year elementary schools who participated in the research. 28 of them were classified as gifted and talented pupils. The results have shown that there are significant differences between gifted and talented pupils and their peers in the field of academic competence and acceptance by the teacher. Self-evaluation of gifted and talented pupils in the field of academic competence is higher than that of their peers, but in the field of acceptance by the teacher, self-evaluation of gifted and talented pupils is lower than that of their peers. Differences in other fields such as artistic aesthetic competence, interest in artistic activity, anxiety, negative behaviour and motor competence are not significant.

Bojan Kovačič

STALIŠČA UČITELJEV O GLASBENI TALENTIRANOSTI

MUSICAL TALENT AND VIEWS OF THE CLASS TEACHERS

Pregledni znanstveni članek Author review
UDK 37.011.3-056.45-057.87:159.923.2 UDC 37.011.3-056.45-057.87:159.923.2
DESKRIPTORJI: glasbena talentiranost, nadarjenost, glasbene sposobnosti, glasbena ustvarjalnost, glasbena improvizacija, delo z glasbeno talentiranimi učenci, faktorska analiza
DESCRIPTORS: musical talent, talent, gift, musical abilities, musical creativity, musical improvisation, work with musically talented students, factorial analysis
POVZETEK - Članek obravnava terminologijo, temeljne dokumente, definicije in teoretska spoznanja številnih domačih in tujih avtorjev s področja glasbene talentiranosti. Posebna pozornost je namenjena glasbenim sposobnostim, glasbeni ustvarjalnosti in improvizaciji. Dobro poznavanje teh področij je nujno za uspešno delo z glasbeno talentiranimi učenci in raziskovanje področja glasbene talentiranosti. Glavni problem raziskave je bil proučiti stališča učiteljev razrednega pouka s področja glasbene talentiranosti in morebitne statistično značilne razlike v stališčih učiteljev, razdeljenih glede na dobo poučevanja predmeta glasbena vzgoja (‘manj izkušeni’ in ‘izkušeni’ učitelji). Med obema skupinama učiteljev večinoma ne prihaja do statistično značilnih razlik v stališčih. V faktorski analizi je bilo estrahiranih pet faktorjev, ki smo jih poimenovali: (1) motivacija glasbeno talentiranih učencev, (2) skrb šole za glasbeno talentirane učence, (3) pogoji, ki jih ima glasbeno talentiran učenec v primarnem socialnem okolju, (4) prilagajanje metod in oblik dela in (5) prepoznavanje talenta glasbeno talentiranih učencev. Poleg učitelja in njegovih aktivnosti predstavljajo ti faktorji pomembna področja pri delu z glasbeno talentiranimi učenci. Članek prinaša nova spoznanja ter predloge za izboljšanje glasbenopedagoškega dela v Sloveniji. ABSTRACT - The article focuses on terminology, main documents, definitions and theoretical conclusions of many Slovenian and foreign authors from the field of musical talent. Special attention is dedicated to musical abilities, musical creativity and improvisation. Good knowledge of these areas is crucial for a successful work with musically talented students and research of the field of musical talent. The main problem of the research was to study the views of the class teachers on musical talents and statistically characteristic differences in the views of teachers who were divided into groups on the basis of the length of teaching Musical Education (/less experienced. and /experienced. teachers). Generally, there are no statistically characteristic differences in the views of both groups of teachers. On the basis of the factorial analysis the following five factors have been extracted: (1) motivation of musically talented students, (2) school care for musically talented students, (3) conditions of the musically talented student in his/her primary social environment, (4) adjustment of methods and forms of teaching and (5) the recognition of musically talented students. Apart from the teacher and his/her activities, these factors represent important areas of work with musically talented students. The article introduces new cognitions and suggestions about improving the musical-pedagogical work in Slovenia.

Mateja Gorše

VLOGA IN POMEN UČITELJEV PRI ODKRIVANJU NADARJENIH UČENCEV

ROLE AND MEANING OF TEACHERS IN IDENTIFYING GIFTED AND TALENTED PUPILS

Pregledni znanstveni članek Author review
UDK 371.2:373.3:002 UDC 371.2:373.3:002
DESKRIPTORJI: nadarjeni učenci, razvoj nadarjenih, koncept odkrivanja in dela z nadarjenimi, učiteljeva vloga
DESCRIPTORS: gifted and talented pupils, progress of gifted and talented, concept of identifying and working with gifted and talented, role of the teacher
POVZETEK - V zadnjem času vse večji poudarek namenjamo tudi nadarjenim učencem. Vsem nam je jasno, da je delo z nadarjenimi učenci pomembno za njihov nadaljnji razvoj, zato je izrednega pomena, da so pravočasno odkriti. V raziskavi nas je predvsem zanimalo, kakšno je stališče učiteljev glede pomembnosti njihove vloge pri odkrivanju nadarjenih učencev, kako pomembno se jim zdi izobraževanje na tem področju, kako dobro poznajo Koncept odkrivanja in dela z nadarjenimi, kje vidijo probleme pri odkrivanju nadarjenih učencev ter kako pomembni se jim zdijo nekateri kriteriji za odkrivanje nadarjenih učencev. ABSTRACT - Recently, a greater emphasis has been given to gifted and talented pupils. We all know that working with them is important for their further progress. Therefore it is of crucial importance to identify gifted and talented pupils as soon as possible. The aim of our research was to find out the point of view of the teachers regarding the importance of their role in identifying gifted and talented pupils, how important is education in this field in their opinion, how well they are familiar with the Concept of Identifying and Working with Gifted and Talented Pupils, where they see the problems and how important they find some of the criteria to identify gifted and talented pupils.

Dr. Jurka Lepičnik Vodopivec

RAZLOGI ZA IZBIRO POKLICA VZGOJITELJICA PREDŠOLSKIH OTROK

REASONS FOR CHOOSING THE PROFESSION OF A PRESCHOOL TEACHER

Pregledni znanstveni članek Author review
UDK 331.548;37.048.4;371.12:373.2 UDC 331.548;37.048.4;371.12:373.2
DESKRIPTORJI: motivi za izbiro študija, prepriča-nost v izbiro poklica, pričakovanja glede pridobljenih znanj in spretnosti v času študija.
DESCRIPTORS: motives for the choice of studies, confidence in the choice of profession, expectations regarding acquired skills and knowledge during studies
POVZETEK - Namen prispevka je prikazati razloge za izbiro poklica bodočih vzgojiteljic/vzgojiteljev, njihovo prepričanost v ustrezno izbiro študija in njihova pričakovanja o pridobitvi znanj in spretnosti, potrebnih za opravljanje izbranega poklica. Podatke smo zbrali z anketnim vprašalnikom, s katerim so študentke/študenti visokošolskega strokovnega programa Vzgojitelj predšolskih otrok ocenjevali motive za odločanje za poklic, mnenja o prepričanosti v ustreznost izbire bodočega poklica in njihova pričakovanja glede pridobitve znanj in spretnosti med študijem, potrebnih za bodoče delo. Pri zasnovi študije smo izhajali iz že opravljenih raziskav o motivacijskih dejavnikih izbire študija vzgojiteljica/vzgojitelj predšolskih otrok in učiteljica/učitelj. Pričakovali smo, da bodo med motivi za izbiro poklica bodočih vzgojiteljic/vzgojiteljev prevladovali notranji motivacijski dejavniki (altruistični in samouresničitveni). Glede prepričanosti v ustreznost poklica ugotavljamo, da je večina vprašanih prepričana v ustrezno izbiro bodočega poklica. Rezultati analize razlik med študentkami posameznih letnikov kažejo, da so študentke prvega letnika v večji meri kot študentke drugega in tretjega letnika prepričane, da bodo pedagoško-psihološka in didaktično-metodična znanja pridobile v celoti že v času študija. ABSTRACT - The following article presents pre- school teachers' reasons for choosing their profession, their confidence in the correct choice of studies and their expectations concerning the acquisition of knowledge and skills necessary for pursuing their chosen profession. The data has been collected by survey questionnaires filled in by the students of the pre-school teacher higher education programme. The participants have evaluated their motives for the choice of profession, their beliefs regarding the correct choice of their future profession and their expectations concerning the acquisition of knowledge and skills necessary for pursuing their chosen profession. We expected that internal motivational factors (altruistic and self-realization) shall predominate among motives for the choice of profession. In reference to confidence in the suitability of their profession, we established that most of the participants believe that they have made the right decision. The results of the analysis of differences among students have shown that the first-year students are more convinced that they will acquire pedagogical-psychological and didactical-methodical skills entirely during their study period as compared to second- and third-year students.

Lucija Čevnik, dr. Andrej Fištravec

VPLIV ETNIČNE/RASNE PRIPADNOSTI NA TELESNO SAMOPODOBO, PREDSTAVO O IDEALNEM TELESU TER TELESNO TEŽO

INFLUENCE OF ETHNICAL AND RACIAL BELONGING ON BODY IMAGE

Pregledni znanstveni članek Author review
UDK 159.923.2:316.347 UDC 159.923.2:316.347
DESKRIPTORJI: etnična/rasna pripadnost, telesna samopodoba, telesna teža, predstava o idealnem telesu, nezadovoljstvo s telesom, akulturacija, socialno-ekonomski status
DESCRIPTORS: ethnicity/race, body image, body mass index, body ideals, body dissatisfaction, acculturation, socio-economical status
POVZETEK - Članek predstavlja kratek pregled raziskav, ki so nastale na področju ugotavljanja vpliva etnične/rasne pripadnosti na telesno samopodobo, predstave o idealnem telesu in telesno težo, predvsem na območju ZDA. Predstavljeni sta dve glavni skupini raziskav, od katerih prva dokazuje obstoj korelacije med etnično/rasno pripadnostjo, telesno samopodobo in indeksom telesne mase, drugi sklop raziskav pa poskuša dokazati, da je vpliv drugih demografskih dejavnikov (starost, telesna teža, stopnja akulturacije, socialno-ekonomski status, spol) pomembnejši pri oblikovanju posameznikove predstave o lastnem telesu in telesnih idealih. V raziskavi so predstavljene tako prednosti kot slabosti enega in drugega sklopa raziskav. ABSTRACT - The article presents the overview of different science research on ethnical/racial influence on body image, ideal body image and body mass index in the USA. There are two main theoretical groups of research: the first group tries to prove the existence of correlation between ethnical and racial minority groups and the specific body image, ideal body and BMI, while the second group of researches tries to show that there are other demographic variables (age, body mass index, level of acculturation, socio-economical status, gender) which have a stronger influence on specific body perceptions than ethnical and racial affiliation. The article presents the good and the bad sides of both theories.

Simon Dragšič

UČENJE TUJEGA JEZIKA V PRVI TRIADI

FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING IN THE FIRST THREE YEARS OF PRIMARY SCHOOLING

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 373.3:81'243=111 UDC 373.3:81'243=111
DESKRIPTORJI: učenje in poučevanje angleščine kot drugega tujega jezika, predšolsko obdobje, prva triada osnovnošolskega izobraževanja, konvergentna pedagogika
DESCRIPTORS: learning and teaching English as a second foreign language, preschool period, first three years of primary schooling, convergent thinking and pedagogical strategies
POVZETEK - Vemo, da je bilo veliko napisanega in rečenega o pomenu tujega jezika že v predšolskem obdobju. Otroci so v tem življenjskem obdobju kot gobe, ki srkajo vsakršno znanje, ki prihaja iz okolice. Kaj se zgodi v prvi triadi? Ali so še vedno pripravljeni na takšno dojemanje? Ali učenja ne bodo sprejemali kot nekaj, kar jim postaja šolska obveza? Šole, ki tako prakso že uveljavljajo, na uvajanje tujega jezika v tem obdobju gledajo s pozitivne strani in so nad rezultati navdušeni. ABSTRACT - Many words have been spoken and written regarding the importance of learning a foreign language in the preschool period. Children in this period are like a sponge and embrace and absorb all new knowledge in their near environment. What happens in the first three years of schooling? Are pupils still ready for such perception? Will they not accept the learning of a foreign language as a school obligation? The schools that are involved in such a practice and have already introduced a foreign language in the preschool period have a positive view and are very satisfied with the results.

Katarina Pucelj

NOVI MEDIJI IN RAZVOJ ŠTUDIJA NA DALJAVO

NEW MEDIA AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF DISTANCE LEARNING

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 37:004.738.5 UDC 37:004.738.5
DESKRIPTORJI: študij na daljavo, izobraževanje, učenje, znanje, novi mediji
DESCRIPTORS: distance learning, education, learning, knowledge, new media
POVZETEK - Avtorica poudarja vlogo in pomen znanja, ki ga pridobi posameznik kot rezultat učnega procesa in izkušenj. Ugotavlja, da oblika izobraže-vanja, kot je študij na daljavo, zagotovo prispeva k večji kakovosti učenja in vodi k razvoju inovativne, dinamične in na znanju temelječe družbe. Z znanjem posameznik obvladuje spremembe, rešuje probleme in tudi ustvarja novo znanje. Tradicionalne učne prakse se soočajo z novimi okoliščinami, pojavljajo se nove, moderne tehnologije, ki omogočajo hitro in kvalitetno implementacijo znanja. Središče učnega procesa pri študiju na daljavo je učenec, ne pa učitelj ali izobraževalna ustanova. Glavni cilj študija na daljavo je povečati kvaliteto življenja ljudi, njihovo konkurenčnost na trgu delovne sile in zagotoviti večjo gospodarsko rast. Intelektualni kapital je tisti, ki predstavlja največji kapital vsake družbe, in znanje je tisti ključni dejavnik uspeha vseh, ki se tega zavedajo. Fleksibilnost, odprtost in pripravljenost ljudi slediti novim informacijskim rešitvam oblikujejo primerno okolje za razvijanje in odločitev posameznika za študij na daljavo. ABSTRACT - The author of this article wants to emphasize the role and importance of knowledge acquired by the individual as a result of a learning process and experiences. She establishes that a form of education such as distance learning contributes to a higher quality of learning and leads to the growth of a more innovate, dynamic society based on knowledge. The individual uses knowledge to cope with changes, solve problems and create new knowledge. Traditional learning practices are confronted with new circumstances and new and mo-dern technologies which enable fast and quality implementation of knowledge are being developed. The centre of a learning process in distance learning is the student, not the teacher or the educational institution. The main goal of distance learning is to increase the quality of peoples' lives, their competitive position in the labour market and to ensure a higher economic growth. Intellectual capital is the highest capital of each society and knowledge is the key factor of success of everybody who is aware of this. Flexibility, openness and willingness of people to follow new informational solutions form a favourable environment in which the individual can develop and chose in favour of distance learning.

Anica Čepin

O POSLUŠANJU

ABOUT LISTENING

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 373.2:612.85 UDC 373.2:612.85
DESKRIPTORJI: govorna komunikacija, poslušanje, razumevanje, urjenje
DESCRIPTORS: verbal communication, listening, understanding and training
POVZETEK - Avtorica poroča o pomenu poslušanja v predšolskih ustanovah in v osnovni šoli. Ob tem opredeljuje govorno-poslušalsko komunikacijo ter izpostavi pomen poslušanja z razumevanjem in razvoj sposobnosti poslušanja. Na koncu poda tudi nekaj praktičnih vaj. ABSTRACT - The author of this article writes about the meaning of listening in pre-school institutions and in elementary school. At the same time, the author defines verbal-listening communication and emphasizes the meaning of listening with understanding and the development of listening ability. At the end of the article, there are some practical exercises.

Nataša Trampuš

ALPSKO SMUČANJE OTROK S CEREBRALNO PARALIZO

ALPINE SKIING FOR CHILDREN WITH CEREBRAL PALSY

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 796.926:616.831-009.11-053.2;376:796.926 UDC 796.926:616.831-009.11-053.2;376:796.926
DESKRIPTORJI: cerebralna paraliza, alpsko smu-čanje, timsko delo
DESCRIPTORS: cerebral palsy, alpine skiing, team work
POVZETEK - Slovenci smo v smučanju velik narod. To ne dokazujejo le uspehi naših tekmovalcev v svetovnem merilu. Uspehi posamezne športne panoge se kažejo v njeni razširjenosti med ljudmi. Gorenjsko društvo za cerebralno paralizo že od leta 1978 organizira šole smučanja otrok in mladostnikov s cerebralno paralizo. Pri njihovem učenju smučanja izhajamo iz slovenske šole smučanja, ki je namensko prilagojena delu z gibalno oviranimi. Vloga timskega dela v procesu učenja smučanja je za napredek otrok v tovrstni športni panogi nepogrešljiva. Izpostavljeni so pozitivni vplivi športne aktivnosti na osebe s cerebralno paralizo in prednosti, ki jih s seboj prinaša ukvarjanje s tovrstno športno panogo. Pozitivni vplivi redne vadbe so pomembni tako za telesni, psihološki kot tudi socialni razvoj otroka. Nenazadnje pa je bolj kot sam napredek otrok v tej športni panogi pomembno druženje, zabava in sproščenost na snegu, preživljanje prostega časa v naravi, proč od enoličnega vsakdana in na svežem zraku. Končni cilj učenja smučanja je naučiti otroka s cerebralno paralizo smučati do take mere, da bo lahko nekoč smučal varno in samostojno, v družbi svojih vrstnikov, družinskih članov ali prijateljev. ABSTRACT - The Slovenians are a great ski nation. This has been proved many times by several successful Slovenian world cup competitors as well as by the popularity of this sport among the people. The Cerebral Palsy Association of the Gorenjska Region has organised ski schools for children and youth with cerebral palsy since 1978. Ski training of children with cerebral palsy is based on the Slovenian ski school which is specially adapted to work with persons with motor disorders. The role of teamwork in the ski learning process is inevitable for the progress of children in this branch of sport. In this article, positive influences of a sport activity on persons with cerebral palsy as well as the advantages gained through participation in ski activities are emphasized. Positive influences of regular exercise are important for child's physical, psychological as well as sociological development. But the real importance is not the progress itself; it is socialising, fun and relaxation in the snow, spending free time in the nature, in the fresh air and away from the monotonous everyday life. The final goal of ski learning is to teach a child with cerebral palsy to be able to ski safely and independently in the company of his/her peers, friends or family members.

Mag. Barbara Turinek

VPLIV POKLICA IN DRUŽBENIH DEJAVNIKOV NA SOCIALNI STATUS BREZPOSELNEGA V DRUŽBI

INFLUENCE OF PROFESSIONAL AND SOCIAL ELEMENTS ON THE SOCIAL STATUS OF UNEMPLOYED

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 331.54 UDC 331.54
DESKRIPTORJI: brezposelnost, družbeni status, stratifikacijski sistem, spol, starost
DESCRIPTORS: unemployment, social status, stratifi-cation system, gender, age
POVZETEK - Večina teoretikov dolgotrajno brezposelne uvršča na dno stratifikacijskega sistema, vendar pa o brezposelnih v Območni službi Velenje kot o pripadnikih razrednega dna ne moremo govoriti, vsaj ne glede na njihove lastne ocene, saj v večini primerov trdijo, da pripadajo srednjemu razredu in da imajo povprečen življenjski standard. Zastavlja se sicer vprašanje idealiziranja lastnega stanja, pa vendar tudi drugi kazalci in druge raziskave v Sloveniji kažejo na to, da dolgotrajno brezposelnega pri nas ne moremo avtomatično uvrstiti na dno družbene lestvice. Pričakovali bi, da je družbeni položaj brezposelnih, posebej tistih, ki so brezposelni daljši čas, precej nizek oziroma na robu margine ali v njej, a v večini primerov temu ni tako. Posameznikov status je namreč poleg zaposlitve odvisen tudi od drugih dejavnikov, ki se pri brezposelnih še posebej izpostavijo. Govorimo o starosti, spolu, etničnih skupinah in stratifikacijskem sistemu. Vsak dejavnik vpliva na položaj posameznika, pri čemer so najbolj izpostavljeni mladi, ženske, pripadniki etnične manjšine in tisti, ki jih uvrščamo v razredno dno. ABSTRACT - Most theoreticians classify the unemployed at the bottom of the stratification system. However, we cannot speak about the unemployed in the Regional Service Velenje as belonging to the social bottom, at least not according to their own evaluation, as they in most cases maintain that they belong to the middle class and that they have an average living standard. One can wonder about such an idealization of someone's condition, however, there are other indexes and research in Slovenia which points out that the unemployed of long duration cannot be automatically classified at the bottom of the social scale. It would be expected that the social situation of the unemployed, especially those unemployed for a longer time, is at the edge of the marginalia or even in it, but it is not so in the majority of cases. The status of an individual depends on the employment and on several other elements which play an even greater role in case of the unemployed. These are age, gender, ethnical groups and the stratification system. Each of the above influences the position of the individual, whereby the most affected members of society are young people, women, members of ethnical minorities, and those classified at the social bottom.