2007 - LETNIK 22
POVZETKI ©TEVILKE 1-2

Dr. Marija Javornik Krečič

PROUČEVANJE UČITELJEVEGA PROFESIONALNEGA RAZVOJA Z METODO POKLICNE (AVTO)BIOGRAFIJE

THE (AUTO) BIOGRAPHY BASED STUDY OF TEACHER'S PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT ON

Pregledni znanstveni članek Author review
UDK 331.108:37.011.3 UDC 331.108:37.011.3
DESKRIPTORJI: (avto)biografska metoda, profesionalni razvoj, učitelj, poklicna biografija, metodologija
DESCRIPTORS: (auto) biography method, professional development, teacher, professional biography, methodology
POVZETEK - Predmet našega zanimanja v prispevku je biografska metoda - v zadnjem obdobju pomemben in zanimiv pristop v kvalitativnem raziskovanju. V prvem delu predstavimo definicijo in posebnosti biografske metode, v drugem delu pa konkreten primer analize podatkov empirične raziskave, pridobljenih z biografsko metodo. V okviru širše raziskave o učiteljevem profesionalnem razvoju smo s poklicno biografijo med drugim ugotavljali, kateri dejavniki vplivajo na učiteljev profesionalni razvoj in kako zaznavajo in razlagajo te vplive učitelji sami. ABSTRACT - The article deals with the biography method - an interesting and lately important approach used in quality research. The first part presents the definition and characteristics of the biography method, while the second part describes a concrete example of data analysis in an empirical study. Within the framework of a wider research on professional teacher development, we tried to establish on the basis of a professional biography which factors impact teacher development and how teachers themselves perceive and understand these influences.

Dr. Milena Ivanuš Grmek, dr. Marija Javornik Krečič, dr. Karmen Kolenc Kolnik, mag. Eva Konečnik Kotnik

UČITELJI MENTORJI IN VISOKO©OLSKI UČITELJI O KOMPETENCAH ©TUDENTOV - BODOČIH UČITELJEV

MENTOR TEACHERS AND UNIVERSITY TEACHERS ABOUT COMPETENCES OF STUDENTS - FUTURE TEACHERS

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK 37.011.3:331.361.3 UDC 37.011.3:331.361.3
DESKRIPTORJI: kompetence, izobraževanje učiteljev, visokošolski učitelji in sodelavci, mentorji
DESCRIPTORS: competences, teacher education, university teachers and assistants, mentors
POVZETEK - V prvem delu prispevka predstavljamo opredelitev pojma kompetence in opozarjamo na njihovo pomembno vlogo v izobraževanju učiteljev. V drugem delu prispevka pa predstavljamo rezultate raziskave, ki je potekala v okviru projekta Partnerstvo fakultet in šol, Učna praksa v vzgoji in izobraževanju na Pedagoški fakulteti Univerze v Mariboru. V raziskavi je sodelovalo 231 osnovnošolskih in srednješolskih učiteljev - mentorjev študentom pri opravljanju pedagoške prakse ter visokošolskih učiteljev in sodelavcev na fakultetah, ki izobražujejo bodoče učitelje. Raziskava je bila usmerjena v ugotavljanje stopnje pomembnosti posameznih kompetenc, ki naj bi si jo pridobil oziroma razvil študent v času praktičnega pedagoškega usposabljanja. Ugotavljali smo tako skupna mnenja učiteljev - mentorjev študentom kot skupna mnenja visokošolskih učiteljev ter strokovnih sodelavcev ter primerjali razlike v njihovih ocenah pomembnosti posameznih kompetenc. Rezultati raziskave so pokazali na obstoj malega števila statistično pomembnih razlik v presojanju pomembnosti pričakovanih kompetenc študentov s področja praktičnega pedagoškega usposabljanja. ©e vedno je mogoče zaznati prisotnost mnenj o tako imenovani klasični delitve vlog in nalog teoretične (visokošolski učitelji) in praktične (učitelji - mentorji) pedagoškega izobraževanja študentov. ABSTRACT - The first part of the article presents the definition of the notion of competence and points to the important role of competences in the process of teacher education. The second part presents the results of the research done within the framework of the project Partnership of Faculties and Schools, Teaching Practice in Education at the Faculty of Education in Maribor. The research involved 231 primary and secondary school teachers, who are mentors for students doing their teaching practice, and university teachers and assistants at the faculties educating future teachers. The research tried to assess the degree of importance of particular competences that students should gain or develop at the time of their practical teaching training. We sought the common views of mentors, university teachers and professional co-workers and compared the differences in their assessment of the importance of particular competences. The results of the research showed the existence of a small number of statistically important differences in the assessment of the importance of expected competences of students in the sphere of practical teaching training. It is still possible to notice the presence of the so-called classical division of roles and assignments between the theoretical (university teachers) and practical (mentor teachers) education of students.

Dr. Andreja Drobnič Vidic

ODNOS ©TUDENTOV DO AKTIVNEGA POUKA

STUDENT ATTITUDE TOWARD ACTIVE LESSONS

Pregledni znanstveni članek Author review
UDK 378.18 UDC 378.18
DESKRIPTORJI: problemsko zasnovan študij, aktivne metode učenja, odnos do pouka
DESCRIPTORS: problem based learning, active learning, attitude to lessons
POVZETEK - Problemsko zasnovan študij (PBL) omogoča izpolnitev treh ključnih ciljev izobraževanja po bolonjski prenovi: razvoj uporabe informacijske in komunikacijske tehnologije (IKT), privlačno in aktivno učno okolje ter krepitev vezi z delovnim okoljem. To inovacijo smo vnesli v pouk inženirske statistike. Z naključno izbrano skupino študentov izbranega študijskega programa na Univerzi v Ljubljani smo pri pouku inženirske statistike izvedli PBL, drugi študenti pa so imeli tradicionalni pouk statistike, kakršnega so izvajali do tedaj. Z vprašalnikom o odnosu do pouka smo ugotavljali, kakšna je bila dejanska razlika obeh vrst izvedenega pouka. ©tudenti so ocenili kakovost pouka, motivacijsko moč pouka, vzdušje pri pouku, aktivne metode pouka in ocenjevanje ter uporabnost znanja, dobljenega pri pouku, ki so ga bili deležni. Z analizo smo ugotovili, da so študenti, ki se učijo inženirsko statistiko s problemsko zasnovanim študijem, v večji meri deležni aktivnih metod pouka kot študenti, ki se učijo na tradicionalen način. ©tudenti pri PBL bolje vedo, kaj se od njih zahteva in bolj razvijajo komunikacijo, nastopanje in administrativno delo. V drugih karakteristikah pouka pa ni pomembnih razlik. Ocene študentov pa nakazujejo, da je PBL za učenje inženirske statistike zahteven, če študenti samostojnega dela in učiteljeve vloge usmerjevalca niso vajeni. ABSTRACT - Problem based learning (PBL) enables the fulfilment of three key educational goals set by the Bologna reform: developing the use of information and communication technology (ICT), creating an attractive and active learning environment and strengthening the links with the working environment. This innovation has been implemented in the classes of engineering statistics. With a randomly chosen group of students of the corresponding study course at the University of Ljubljana we carried out problem based learning while their counterparts attended traditional statistics classes. With a questionnaire about their attitude to lessons we tried to find out the actual difference between the two approaches. The students were asked to assess the quality of the lessons and their motivational impact, the learning atmosphere, active learning methods, the evaluation and usefulness of the knowledge acquired in these classes. The analysis showed that PBL provides students with more active learning methods than the traditional approach. The students who are offered PBL know better what is required of them; they develop communication, public appearance and administrative work to a higher degree. No relevant differences were established in other study characteristics. The assessments by the students, however, point to the fact that PBL can be quite demanding if one is not used to working independently and that the role of the teacher in this method should purely be one of guidance.

Dr. Marjan Blažič, mag. Jasmina Starc

VODENJE ZA UČINKOVITOST V IZOBRA®EVALNEM SISTEMU

LEADERSHIP FOR EFFECTIVE EDUCATION SYSTEM

Pregledni znanstveni članek Author review
UDK 371.4 UDC 371.4
DESKRIPTORJI: vodenje, izobraževalni sistem, šola, učinkovitost, dejavniki učinkovitosti
DESCRIPTORS: leadership, education system, school, efficiency, efficiency factors
POVZETEK - Avtorja v prispevku predstavljata različne poglede na učinkovitost šol, ki je odvisna od različnih dejavnikov, kot so strokovno vodenje, skupna vizija in cilji, učno okolje, osredotočenost na poučevanje in učenje, poučevanje z namenom, pričakovanja, pozitivna okrepitev, napredovanje, pravice, dolžnosti in odgovornosti učencev ter sodelovanje med domom in šolo. Merimo jo lahko na različne načine, od znanstvenih pristopov, študij primerov do raznih razvijajočih se modelov, z namenom izboljševanja učnih rezultatov učencev in pedagoških rezultatov učiteljev. ABSTRACT - The article presents various approaches to the efficiency of schools, which depends on different factors such as professional management, common vision and goals, learning environment, focus on teaching and learning, teaching with purpose, expectations, positive enco-uragement, progress, rights, obligations and responsibilities on the part of the pupils and the participation of home. All these factors can be measured in different ways, from scientific approaches and study cases to various development models for the purpose of improving learning outcomes of the pupils and their teachers.

Mag. Branka Likon

ALI RAVNANJE Z UČITELJI LAHKO VPLIVA NA IZBOLJ©ANJE KAKOVOSTI PROCESA UČENJA IN POUČEVANJA

CAN PROPER MANAGEMENT OF TEACHERS IMPACT THE QUALITY OF TEACHING AND LEARNING

Pregledni znanstveni članek Author review
UDK 37.011.3:331.225 UDC 37.011.3:331.225
DESKRIPTORJI: ravnanje z učitelji, vodenje šole, kakovost procesa učenja in poučevanja, učitelj, spodbujanje učiteljev, soodločanje, sodelovanje, nagrajevanje
DESCRIPTORS: managing teachers, school leadership, quality teaching and learning process, teacher, encouraging teachers, participation in decision making, collaboration among teachers, rewards
POVZETEK - Prispevek poda kratko opredelitev kakovostnega dela učitelja in kakovostnega procesa učenja in poučevanja. Kakovosten proces učenja in poučevanja oziroma pouk lahko opredelimo kot proces, ki zagotavlja visoke dosežke učencev v najširšem smislu. V takem procesu je zagotavljanje pogojev za razvoj vseh zmožnosti učencev celo bolj pomembno kot doseganje določenih merljivih ciljev in standardov znanja. Izvajanje procesa učenja in poučevanja je v veliki meri odvisno od dela učiteljev kot najbolj pristojnih in najbolj odgovornih za ta proces. Ob tem pa se vedno znova zastavlja vprašanje, ali lahko vodstvo šole z ustreznim ravnanjem z učitelji izboljša proces učenja in poučevanja. V drugem delu prispevka so predstavljene ugotovitve raziskave, ki izpostavljajo tiste dejavnike ravnanja z učitelji, ki lahko vplivajo na kakovost procesa učenja in poučevanja. Izpostavljena so področja ravnanja z učitelji, v katera je smiselno usmeriti pozornost vodstev šol za doseganje čim večje kakovosti v šolah. ABSTRACT - The article presents quality teacher performance and the quality teaching and learning process. The latter can de defined as the process which ensures high student achievements in the broader sense. The creation of the conditions ensuring the development of all student competences is even more important than achieving measurable standards of obtained knowledge. Teacher performance influences highly the quality of the teaching and learning process and teachers are the most competent and responsible individuals for developing this quality. The question remains whether a correct approach by the management can lead to improved teacher performance and a quality teaching and learning process. In the continuation, the article presents research findings and elements of managing teachers which can influence the quality of this process. By applying these elements, the school leadership could achieve higher quality in the work of the teachers.

Dr. Matjaž Duh

DIDAKTIČNA INOVACIJA PRI LIKOVNEM VREDNOTENJU KOT SPODBUDA PRI LIKOVNOOBLIKOVNEM RAZVOJU OTROK

DIDACTIC INNOVATION IN ART EVALUATION AS INCENTIVE FOR FINE ARTS FORMATIVE DEVELOPMENT

Pregledni znanstveni članek Author review
UDK 372.87 UDC 372.87
DESKRIPTORJI: didaktika likovne vzgoje, likovnooblikovni razvoj, vrednotenje pri likovni vzgoji
DESCRIPTORS: didactics of fine arts, fine arts formative development, evaluation in the subject of fine arts
POVZETEK - Vrednotenje je pomembna faza v procesu likovne vzgoje in predstavlja splet aktivnosti, ki so med seboj prepredene in so v stalni odvisnosti, hkrati pa pogojujejo druga drugo. inovativni pristop pri sumativnem vrednotenju v procesu likovne vzgoje, ki smo ga v raziskavi eksperimentalno preverjali, smo načrtovali na podlagi novih spoznanj in izkušenj glede aktivnosti učiteljev in učencev. cilj raziskave je bil eksperimentalno merjenje učinka inovacije v fazi vrednotenja pri likovni vzgoji na likovno občutljivost pri osnovnošolcih. v razpravi predstavljamo vpliv inovacije na raven likovnooblikovnega razvoja. le-ta je tisti del celotnega likovnega razvoja otrok, na katerega ima dobro pedagoško delo največji vpliv. analiza rezultatov eksperimentalnega dela je pokazala, da je inovativni pristop pri sumativnem vrednotenju v procesu likovne vzgoje pozitivno vplival na razvoj posameznih dejavnikov likovnooblikovnega razvoja in na likovno oblikovni razvoj v celoti. ABSTRACT - Evaluation is an important phase in the process of fine arts education and represents a set of mutually interwoven activities, which constantly depend on and at the same time condition one another. The innovative approach to summative evaluation in the process of fine arts education being experimentally verified by our research was developed on the basis of a new understanding and experiences with regard to teachers' and student' activities. The purpose of the research was to measure experimentally the effect of innovation on the fine arts sensitivity of schoolchildren in the evaluative stage of fine arts education. This research shows how innovation influences the level of fine arts formative development, which is that very part of the child's comprehensive fine arts development that can be most significantly impacted by quality teaching. The final analysis of the experimental work showed that the innovative approach to summative evaluation in the process of fine arts education has a positive influence on the individual factors of fine arts development as well as on fine arts formative development as a whole.

Dr. Joca Zurc

VLOGA OKOLJA NA PROSTOČASNO GIBALNO AKTIVNOST OTROK

ROLE OF THE ENVIRONMENT ON OUT OF SCHOOL PHYSICAL ACTIVITY OF CHILDREN

Pregledni znanstveni članek Author review
UDK 373.3-057.87:796 UDC 373.3-057.87:796
DESKRIPTORJI: gibalna/športna aktivnost, prosti čas, mlajši šolar, osnovna šola, matična šola, podružnična šola
DESCRIPTORS: physical activity, leisure time, young pupil, elementary school, central school, branch school
POVZETEK - Namen raziskave je bil preučiti, ali obstajajo razlike v pogostnosti, obliki in vsebini gibalne/športne aktivnosti v času izven šolskega pouka med učenci matičnih in podružničnih osnovnih šol. ©tudijo smo izvedli na vzorcu 468 učencev matičnih in 390 učencev podružničnih slovenskih osnovnih šol. Povprečna starost merjencev je bila 10,52 let. Ugotovili smo, da med učenci matičnih in podružničnih osnovnih šol ni statistično pomembnih razlik v pogostnosti izvenšolske gibalne/športne aktivnosti ter v vključenosti v organizirano obliko (klub, športno društvo, šolski krožek) teh dejavnosti. Statistično pomembne razlike pa smo ugotovili v vključenosti v neorganizirano obliko gibalnih aktivnosti. Učenci podružničnih šol se gibalno udejstvujejo statistično pomembno več v družbi svojih staršev in prijateljev. Na prvih pet mest najpopularnejših športnih panog sta obe skupini merjencev uvrstili hojo, planinarjenje, badminton, tek in plavanje. Hoja, badminton in plavanje so bolj priljubljeni pri učencih podružničnih osnovnih šol. ABSTRACT - The aim of the research was to investigate the possible differences in the frequency, form and contents of the out-of-school physical activity between the pupils attending central schools and those attending branch schools. The study was carried out on a sample of 468 Slovene pupils attending central schools and 390 pupils attending branch schools. The average age of respondents was 10,52. From the results emerged no statistically significant differences in the frequency of the out-of-school physical activity and in the participation in organized forms of those activities (clubs, sports associations, school circles). Statistically significant differences, however, were established in the participation in non-organized forms of physical activity, and in the case of pupils attending branch schools, who participate more in physical activities together with their parents and friends. As the top five popular sports disciplines, students in both groups ranked walking, mountaineering, badminton, running and swimming. Walking, badminton and swimming are favoured by the pupils attending branch schools.

Andreja Tinta

ZADOVOLJEVANJE OTROKOVIH UČNIH POTREB V ODDELKU PODALJ©ANEGA BIVANJA

SATISFYING CHILD'S LEARNING NEEDS IN EXTENDED SCHOOL CARE

Pregledni znanstveni članek Author review
UDK 371.253 UDC 371.253
DESKRIPTORJI: podaljšano bivanje, učenec, učitelj, učne strategije
DESCRIPTORS: extended school care, pupil, teacher, learning strategies
POVZETEK - Oddelki podaljšanega bivanja (v nadaljevanju OPB) so v slovenskem kulturnem prostoru dokaj neraziskani, a kljub temu se srečujemo z različnimi negativnimi subjektivnimi sodbami tako s strani staršev kot tudi učiteljev praktikov. Lahko rečemo, da so oddelki podaljšanega bivanja deprivilegiran proces, ki poteka v slovenski osnovni šoli. ©koda je, da se zanemarja OPB kot področje šolskega dela, kajti trendi v svetu kažejo, da šola lahko kvalitetno opravlja vzgojno-izobraževalno funkcijo tudi v času, ko se redni pouk konča. Raziskav, ki bi potrdile ali ovrgle pomembnost oddelkov podaljšanega bivanja in njihov vpliv na zadovoljevanje učnih potreb učencev v OPB, ni. Zato sem izvedla raziskavo, s katero sem ugotavljala vpliv OPB na zadovoljevanje učenčevih učnih potreb. Na osnovi učenčevih soglašanj s posameznimi trditvami analiza pokaže, da imajo učenci v OPB nasproti tistim, ki niso vključeni v OPB, v času po pouku do 16. ure, več možnosti, da zadovoljijo svoje učne potrebe. Zato menim, da so različne negativne subjektivne sodbe neupravičene in je treba OPB nameniti več pozornosti. ABSTRACT - Although in Slovenia not much research has been carried out about the units of extended school care, we encounter various criticisms on the part of the parents and teachers. The units seem to be a place of underprivileged process of school work. It is very unfortunate that this area of school work is so neglected since world trends show that the school can provide for quality education and upbringing also after regular school hours. There is almost no research which could either confirm or refute their importance as well as their contribution to satisfying the learning needs of the pupils. Lack of any kind of evidence has encouraged me to undertake a study where I tried to establish how units of extended after school care can satisfy pupils' learning needs. The pupils were asked to agree or disagree with a set of statements. The analysis of their answers showed that in comparison with their peers who are not included in the extended school care after 4PM, these pupils have more opportunities to satisfy their learning needs. My conclusion is, therefore, that the various negative judgments are unjustified and that the units of extended afternoon school care deserve greater attention.

Mag. Andrej ©orgo, mag. Marjanca ©teblaj

UČNI NAČRTI IN NJIHOV VPLIV NA MEDPREDMETNO POVEZOVANJE NARAVOSLOVNIH PREDMETOV V GIMNAZIJI

CURRICULA AND THEIR IMPACT ON INTERDISCIPLINARY INTEGRATION OF NATURAL SCIENCE SUBJECTS IN HIGH SCHOOL

Pregledni znanstveni članek Author review
UDK 371.3:50 UDC 371.3:50
DESKRIPTORJI: učni načrti, medpredmetno povezovanje, računalniško podprt laboratorij, naravoslovje, gimnazija
DESCRIPTORS: curricula, interdisciplinary integration, computer supported lab, natural sciences, high school
POVZETEK - Medpredmetno povezovanje znanj je bil zaželen, a le v manjši meri dosežen cilj pretekle prenove gimnazijskega programa. Medpredmetna povezovanja se v praksi vzpostavljajo praviloma le v sklopu različnih obšolskih in izvenšolskih dejavnosti, medtem ko so žive povezave na ravni ur rednega pouka po urniku šole redke. Avtorja sta v luči medpredmetnih povezav kritično pregledala gimnazijske učne načrte biologije, kemije in fizike. Ugotavljata, da obstoječi učni načrti dajejo učiteljem le malo spodbud in podpore, da bi medpredmetno povezovanje postalo del vsakodnevne šolske prakse v naravoslovju. Med neizkoriščenimi povezovalnimi elementi sta posebno pozornost namenila laboratorijskemu delu ter uporabi računalnikov pri pouku naravoslovja. Kot eno od možnih povezav, ki bi lahko še dodatno prispevala k povezovanju znanj, identificirata računalniško podprto laboratorijsko delo. ABSTRACT - Interdisciplinary integration of knowledge is a desired but only to a minor extent realised goal of the previous high school reform. Such integration exists in practice only within the scope of various extracurricular activities while integration at the level of instruction within the regular programme is very rare. The authors examined the high school curricula for biology, chemistry and physics. They established that the existing curriculum does not offer much incentive or support to implement such integration into daily school practice in science subjects. Among the unexploited integration elements, special attention was dedicated to laboratory work and to the use of computers during science instruction. One of the possibilities which could contribute to such integration is computer supported laboratory work.

Dr. Klara Skubic Ermenc

INTERKULTURNOST V UČNIH NAČRTIH SLOVENSKE OSNOVNE ©OLE

INTERCULTURALITY IN THE SLOVENE PRIMARY SCHOOL CURRICULUM

Referat na znanstvenem posvetovanju Conference paper
UDK 373.3 UDC 373.3
DESKRIPTORJI: Osnovna šola, interkulturnost, učni načrt, pedagoška načela, asimilacija, integracija, etnocentričnost, realni kurikul, pouk zgodovine, geografije, slovenskega jezika, tujega jezika
DESCRIPTORS: primary school, interculturality, curriculum, teaching principles, assimilation, integration, ethnocentricity, real curriculum, lessons in history, geography, mother tongue and foreign language
POVZETEK - Cilji interkulturne vzgoje so trojni: večanje dejanske enakosti možnosti manjšinskim skupinam, ohranjanje posebnih identitet manjšinskih skupin in obča vzgoja za skupno bivanje različnih. Te cilje je mogoče doseči le prek definiranja interkulturnosti kot pedagoškega načela, ki preveva vse dejavnosti in odnose v pedagoškem procesu oziroma postane sestavni del realnega kurikula. Dejavnik uresničevanja interkulturnosti so tudi učni načrti. Analiza učnih načrtov za slovensko devetletno osnovno šolo pa žal kaže na slabo upoštevanje tega načela. Zavzemanje za vzgojo za sožitje tako ostaja bolj na deklarativni kot dejanski ravni in slovenska osnovna šola še vedno krepi asimilacijsko naravnanost slovenske družbe. ABSTRACT - The goals of intercultural education are threefold: increasing equal opportunities for minority groups, preserving their specific identities and providing general education and upbringing conditions for living together. These goals, however, can only be achieved by defining interculturality as a teaching principle which is to be ingrained in all the activities and relations of the teaching process. It should become a constituent part of the real curriculum. The analysis of different curricula for the 9-year Slovene primary school, however, shows that the principle is not taken into account very much. Education for harmonious living together thus remains at the declarative level while the Slovene primary school is more oriented toward the assimilation of the Slovene society.

Gregor Torkar, Luka Praprotnik, dr. Barbara Bajd

ODNOS ©TUDENTOV, BODOČIH UČITELJEV, DO ®IVALI

FUTURE TEACHERS' RELATIONSHIP TO ANIMALS

Pregledni znanstveni članek Author review
UDK 37.011.3 UDC 37.011.3
DESKRIPTORJI: odnos človek-žival, strah, zoofobije, študent učitelj, antropomorfizem
DESCRIPTORS: human-animal relationship, fear, zoophobia, student, anthropomorphism
POVZETEK - V članku obravnavamo človekov odnos do različnih živali. V raziskavi je sodelovalo 109 študentk in študentov razrednega pouka Pedagoške fakultete Univerze v Ljubljani. Osrednji cilj raziskave je bil ugotoviti, kateri so vzroki za razlike v odnosu do različnih vrst živali. Ugotavljamo, da na odnos študentov do živali najbolj vplivajo antropomorfizem, videz živali, njihovo življenjsko okolje ter strah in predsodki do živali. Menimo, da bi se učitelji morali bolj zavedati pomena teh dejavnikov pri razvijanju učenčevega odnosa do živali. ABSTRACT - The article explores human relationships with different animals. The study involved 109 student teachers from the Faculty of Education, University of Ljubljana. The most important goal of the research was to find out the main reasons for differences in students' relationships with animals. The results show that the main reasons are anthropomorphism, prejudice towards certain animals, animal appearance, their living environment and the fear of potentially dangerous animals for humans. We believe that this issue should be given more attention since teachers teach pupils how to behave towards animals.

Dr. Tatjana Vidic

PREDSTAVE OSNOVNO©OLCEV IN ©TUDENTOV O DNA

CONCEPTS OF PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS AND STUDENTS ABOUT DNA

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 373.3:378.18:57 UDC 373.3:378.18:57
DESKRIPTORJI: DNA, nevihta možganov, predstave, osnovnošolci, študenti, učni načrt
DESCRIPTORS: DNA, brainstorming, conceptions, schoolchildren, students, curriculum
POVZETEK - Genska tehnologija je prinesla velik napredek v razvoju biotehnologije kot tudi številne pomisleke o njenem vplivu na naravo in družbo. Poseganje genske tehnologije v naš vsakdanjik sproža številna etična in pravna vprašanja ter dileme. Za razumevanje in razsojanje le-teh pa je pomembno poznavanje in razumevanje osnovnih pojmov, povezanih z genetiko, na primer DNA, dedovanje, gen in podobno.
V raziskavi predstav o DNA, v kateri so bili vključeni osnovnošolci (sedmi razred devetletke) ter študenti prvega in drugega letnika dvopredmetnega študija biologije z vezavami na Pedagoški fakulteti, smo z metodo prostih asociacij preverjali asociacije ob pojmu DNA. Najmanj različnih pojmov (5) so pričakovano navajali osnovnošolci. Največ pojmov (43) so navajali študenti drugega letnika, sledijo študenti prvega letnika z 41 različnimi pojmi. Osnovnošolci so največkrat zapisali odgovor "ne vem" (45), študenti prvega letnika "dednina" (48), študenti drugega letnika pa "dvojni heliks" (69). Omenjeni odgovori so bili tudi največkrat prva asociacija na DNA.
ABSTRACT - Gene technology has brought great progress in the development of biotechnology but also many scruples about its influence on nature and society. The impact of gene technology on our daily life raises several ethical and legal issues and dilemmas. For the understanding and judgment of these issues, it is important to understand some basic terms associated with genetics, e.g. DNA, heredity, gene, etc.
In the research on the concepts associated with DNA, in which primary schoolchildren (seven graders/13-year-olds) and biology teacher students (Faculty of Education) took part, we applied the technique of free associations to determine the associations with selected concepts and notions concerning DNA. As expected, the lowest number of different concepts/notions (5) was stated by primary schoolchildren. The greatest number of associations (43) was made by second year biology teacher students, followed closely by first year biology teacher students with 41 different notions. Primary school pupils most often answered "I don't know" (45), first year students most often gave the answer "genetic material" (48), second year students mostly put down "double helix" (69). These answers were often their first association with DNA.

Dr. Mateja Pšunder

STRES V PEDAGO©KIH POKLICIH

STRESS IN TEACHING PROFESSIONS

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 331.442:37.001.3 UDC 331.442:37.001.3
DESKRIPTORJI: stres, učitelj, vzgojitelj, pedagoško delo
DESCRIPTORS: stress, teacher, pre-school teacher, teaching
POVZETEK - V pričujočem prispevku smo pozornost namenili stresu, ki ga pri svojem delu doživljajo pedagoški delavci - vzgojitelji in učitelji. Najprej smo opredelili stres, ob tem pa poudarili, da je poleg negativnega stresa treba računati tudi na pozitiven stres. Opredelili smo dejavnike, ki vzgojiteljem in učiteljem povzročajo stres pri pedagoškem delu, opisali simptome stresa pri učiteljih in vzgojiteljih, pozornost pa namenili tudi preprečevanju in konstruktivnemu obvladovanju stresa. Prispevek smo zaključili s prepričanjem, da se stresu v pedagoških poklicih ni mogoče povsem izogniti, da pa moramo posebno skrb namenjati fizični in psihični pripravljenosti, prav tako pa poskrbeti za pristope za premagovanje tistih stresnih situacij, ki jih ni mogoče preprečiti. ABSTRACT - The article talks about stress that teachers and pre-school teachers experience in their work. Stress is first defined and then the point is made that beside negative stress we must also take into account positive stress. Further on, the factors causing stress during the teaching process are identified, the symptoms described, and attention is given to prevention and constructive stress management. We are convinced that in the teaching profession one cannot completely avoid stress. Special care, however, should be given to the physical and psychological preparation of teachers and appropriate steps should be undertaken to overcome those stress situations which cannot be prevented.

Anica Čepin

RAZVOJ GLASBENIH SPOSOBNOSTI

THE DEVELOPMENT OF MUSICAL ABILITIES

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 372.878 UDC 372.878
DESKRIPTORJI: otrok, glasba, otrokov razvoj, glasbene sposobnosti
DESCRIPTORS: child, music, child development, music abilities
POVZETEK - @e nekaj tednov star otrok se odziva na glasbo, prijazne besede in pesmi so pomirjajoče. Razlikovanje tonov pa je dolgotrajnejši proces. Glasovno izražanje je močno povezano z motorično-dinamično dejavnostjo. Poslušanje glasbe ima velik vpliv na razvijanje govornih, pisnih in bralnih sposobnosti na področju glasbe. Ustvarjalnost se pričenja s posnemanjem. Članek prikazuje, kako otrok razvija svoje glasbene sposobnosti v posameznih obdobjih svojega življenja ter pomen le-tega za njegov osebnostni razvoj. ABSTRACT - Only a few weeks old child can already respond to music; kind words and lullabies are soothing, but making the distinction between different tones is much more demanding. Using one's voice as a means of communication depends very much on the child's kinaesthetic development. In connection with music education, listening to music has a huge influence on the development of speaking, reading and writing abilities. Creativity always starts with imitation. The presented article deals with the development of the child's music abilities throughout different life periods, as well as its influence on personal growth in general.

Silva ©koberne, Katja Kojnik Verngust

USVAJANJE TEMELJNIH ZNANJ V OSNOVNI ©OLI S POMOČJO KIBERNETIČNE METODE

ACQUISITION OF BASIC KNOWLEDGE WITH THE HELP OF THE CYBER METHOD

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 372.4
UDC 372.4
DESKRIPTORJI: kibernetično, glasovno zavedanje, številske predstave, zavedanje lastnega telesa, motorični, socialni in kognitivni razvoj
DESCRIPTORS: voice consciousness, mathematical concepts, number ideas, motor, social and cognitive development
POVZETEK - Prispevek predstavlja novo metodo zgodnjega opismenjevanja in razvijanja matematičnih predstav v začetnem obdobju redne osnovne šole. Z njo razvijamo številske predstave in glasovno zavedanje z zavestnim gibanjem določenih delov telesa. Vse izhaja iz otroka, njegovega zavedanja lastnega telesa. Proces osvajanja računanja, branja in pisanja poteka pri kibernetični metodi po točno določenem zaporedju. Metoda je primerna za uporabo pri vsej populaciji otrok, tudi pri otrocih s posebnimi potrebami. Kibernetična metoda ne zahteva posebnih pripomočkov ali učil, otroci se učijo s pomočjo svojega telesa in je zaradi tega z manjšimi spremembami in dopolnitvami primerna za uporabo tudi na slovenskem govornem območju. ABSTRACT - The article presents a new method of learning writing, reading and developing mathematical concepts in the first years of primary school. With this method we develop mathematical concepts and language by consciously moving certain parts of our body. Everything derives from the child's awareness of his/her own body. The learning of the three R's proceeds in specifically determined sequences. The method is suitable for all children, including the children with special needs. The cyber method does not require any special resources because children simply learn with their body. With minor adaptation, it could easily be applied to the Slovene speech region.

Mojca Kukanja

KOLEGIALNO OPAZOVANJE IN OCENJEVANJE UČNEGA DELA

PEER OBSERVATION AND ASSESSMENT OF TEACHING

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 371.26 UDC 371.26
DESKRIPTORJI: kolegialno opazovanje in ocenjevanje, kooperativnost, ocenjevalni obrazci, konstruktivizem v vzgoji in izobraževanju, metakognicija
DESCRIPTORS: peer observation and assessment, cooperation, assessment forms, constructivism in edu-cation, metacognition
POVZETEK - Pričujoče delo predstavlja nekaj temeljnih iztočnic kolegialnega opazovanja in ocenjevanja učnega procesa pri profesorjih v osnovni ali srednji šoli. Izobraževalni sistem deluje v intenzivnih, socialno prepletenih okoliščinah, vendar je kljub temu usmerjen izrazito individualistično, brez tesne kolaborativnosti in kooperativnosti. Pedagoški delavci se strokovno-pedagoško urijo in praktično spoznavajo z delom v razredu predvsem individualno. Vendar obstajajo tudi alternativne oblike vodenja vzgojno-izobraževalnega procesa v tandemu, ocenjevanja, opazovanja učnega procesa, načrtovanja in podajanja izredno pomembne povratne informacije drugemu kolegu.
Učitelj se kot ekspert in avtonomen izvajalec pouka dnevno izpostavlja opazovanju in ocenjevanju svojega dela s strani zahtevnega občinstva učencev. Veliko večje težave pa se pojavijo pri fenomenu kolegialnega ocenjevanja, ki s svojo funkcijsko naravnanostjo postavlja učitelja v nelagoden položaj. Zaradi negativnih občutkov, ki se pri tem razbohotijo, in nadaljnjega odpora do kooperativega dela bomo v nadaljevanju predstavili korake, ki jim morata kolega/učitelja slediti na svoji konsktruktivistično zasnovani poklicno-osebnostni poti kakovostnega razvoja.
ABSTRACT - The article presents some of the essential elements of peer observation and assessment of the teaching process concerning primary and secondary school teachers. The education system functions in intensive, socially intertwined circumstances, whereby it is strictly individualistically oriented, without any close collaboration and cooperation. Teachers are being trained for their profession and learn about the work in the classroom mostly on an individual basis. There are, however, alternative methods of conducting the educational process such as the tandem form, where feedback information on assessment, observation of the teaching process, planning and teaching is provided to the teacher by his/her colleague.
Even though teachers are autonomous professionals daily exposed to the observation and assessment of their work by a very demanding student audience, they feel much more uncomfortable in the case of peer assessment. Due to the negative feelings arising in such a situation, and the resulting resistance to cooperative work, we would like to present the steps peer teachers can take to be successful on this constructively conceptualised path of quality professional and personal development.