2006 - LETNIK 21
POVZETKI ŠTEVILKE 3-4

Dr. Jurij Planinšec, dr. Rado Pišot, dr. Samo Fošnarič

GIBALNA AKTIVNOST MLAJŠIH ŠOLARJEV V SEVEROVZHODNI SLOVENIJI

MOVEMENT ACTIVITIES OF YOUNG SCHOOL CHILDREN IN NORTH-EASTERN SLOVENIA

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK 796:373.3 (497.4) UDC 796:373.3 (497.4)
DESKRIPTORJI: gibalna aktivnost, učenci, severovzhodna Slovenija, razlike, indeks telesne mase, bivalno okolje
DESCRIPTORS: movement activities, pupils, north-eastern Slovenia, differences, body mass index, living environment
POVZETEK - Glavni namen raziskave je bil ugotoviti, koliko so mlajši šolarji v severovzhodnem delu Slovenije gibalno aktivni. Pri tem nas je zanimal obstoj razlik glede na spol, starost, bivalno okolje in telesno težo. Raziskava je bila opravljena na vzorcu 1.512 otrok, ki so obiskovali drugi, tretji, četrti in peti razred osnovnih šol iz severovzhodne Slovenije. Za ugotavljanje obsega povprečne dnevne gibalne aktivnosti, ki dosega vsaj zmerno stopnjo intenzivnosti, je bil uporabljen vprašalnik. Na vprašanja o gibalni aktivnosti otrok so odgovarjali starši. Razlike v gibalni aktivnosti glede na spol, starost, bivalno okolje ter telesno težo smo izračunali z enofaktorsko in dvofaktorsko analizo variance. Rezultati kažejo, da med spoloma ni pomembnih razlik. Glede na razred pa obstajajo pomembne razlike v povprečni dnevni gibalni aktivnosti, pri tem so najaktivnejši petošolci, najmanj pa drugošolci. Ugotovili smo, da so otroci s podeželja manj gibalno aktivni kot njihovi vrstniki z mesta in primestja. Velike razlike v povprečni dnevni gibalni aktivnosti so glede na status telesne mase, pri tem so otroci z debelostjo bistveno manj aktivni od drugih. Ker ima šola izjemno pomemben vpliv na otrokov interes za vključevanje v gibalne aktivnosti, bi bilo smiselno povečati obseg in raznolikost šolske športne ponudbe. ABSTRACT - The main purpose of the research has been to establish how physically active are young pupils in the north-eastern part of Slovenia. We were interested in the differences with regard to gender, age, living environment and their body weight status. The study included a sample of 1512 children attending second, third, fourth and fifth grade of primary school. On the basis of a questionnaire we tried to find out the extent of average daily movement activities of at least moderate intensity. The differences in movement activities with regard to the above variables were calculated with one- and two-factor variance analysis. The results do not show any relevant differences with regard to gender, but there are significant differences in the pupils' average daily movement activities with regard to grade. The most active group are the fifth-graders and the least active one the second-graders. Rural children are less active than those from the cities and suburbs. There are extensive differences in the average daily movement activities with regard to the body mass status, whereby obese children are substantially less active than their peers. Since the school exercises enormous impact on the child's involvement in movement activities, we suggest an increase in the extent and variety of the school's offer of sports activities.

Mag. Marija Javornik Krečič

POMEN TIMSKE KULTURE ZA UČITELJEV PROFESIONALNI RAZVOJ

IMPORTANCE OF TEAM CULTURE FOR PROFESSIONAL TEACHER DEVELOPMENT

Pregledni znanstveni članek Author review
UDK 371.12 UDC 371.12
DESKRIPTORJI: šolska kultura, učiteljev profesionalni razvoj, osebni razvoj, institucionalni razvoj, skupinsko učenje
DESCRIPTORS: school culture, teacher's professional development, personal development, institutional development, group learning
POVZETEK - Članek izpostavlja pomen šolske kulture za učiteljev profesionalni razvoj. V prvem delu je predstavljena povezanost učiteljevega osebnega in institucionalnega razvoja ter značilnosti različnih šolskih kultur. Avtorica pojasnjuje pomen sodelovalne kulture za učiteljevo strokovno rast, za zadovoljevanje njegovih profesionalnih potreb ter tudi za kakovost dela v razredu in na šoli. V drugem delu prispevka predstavi rezultate empirične raziskave, ki kažejo na to, kako učitelji gledajo na timsko učenje in delo oziroma sodelovanje. Analiza razlik med skupinami učiteljev glede na vrsto šole in delovno dobo je pokazala statistično značilne razlike, in sicer: višje vrednotijo skupinsko učenje osnovnošolski učitelji v primerjavi z gimnazijskimi, glede na poklicne izkušnje skupinsko učenje najvišje vrednotijo učitelji začetniki. ABSTRACT - The article presents the role school culture plays in teacher's professional development. The first part points to the connection between the teacher's personal development and the development of the institution as well as the characteristics of various school cultures. The author believes collaborating culture to be crucial for teacher's professional development, for satisfying his/her professional needs and for the quality of work in the classroom and in school in general. In the continuation, she presents the results of an empiric study which examined the teachers' attitudes towards team learning and team work or collaboration. The analysis of the differences between teachers with regard to the type of school and years of work shows statistically relevant differences in the evaluation of group work, with primary school teachers valuing group work more than high school teachers, whereby group learning is most appreciated by beginning teachers.

Dr. Karmen Kolenc Kolnik

VSEŽIVLJENJSKO IZOBRAŽEVANJE UČITELJEV GEOGRAFIJE

LIFE-LONG LEARNING OF GEOGRAPHY TEACHERS

Pregledni znanstveni članek Author review
UDK 371.124:91 UDC 371.124:91
DESKRIPTORJI: geografija, vseživljenjsko izobraže-vanje, učitelj, študent, formalno izobraževanje, neformalno izobraževanje, Evropska unija
DESCRIPTORS: geography, lifelong learning, teacher, student, formal education, informal education, Euro-pean Union
POVZETEK - V sestavku so analizirane nekatere značilnosti dosedanjega formalnega in neformalnega izobraževanja učiteljev geografije v Sloveniji in predstavljene možnosti njihovega nadaljnjega razvoja, upoštevajoč izhodišča Memoranduma EU o vseživ-ljenjskem učenju. Rezultati raziskave o motiviranosti učiteljev geografije za vseživljenjsko učenje in prepoznavanje pomena različnih kategorij namerne izobraževalne aktivnosti pokažejo razlike med starejšo in mlajšo generacijo oziroma med anketiranima skupinama učiteljev geografije in študentov geografije. Sklepati je moč, da mlajši geografi pripisujejo večji pomen vseživljenjskemu izobraževanju in ga za razliko od učiteljev geografije že prepoznajo kot potrebo in pogoj za sodelovanje v družbi znanja na trgu delovne sile. ABSTRACT - The article analyses some characteri-stics of the present formal and informal education of geography teachers in Slovenia and presents possibilities of their further development according to the starting-points stated in A Memorandum on Lifelong Learning of the European Union. The results of the research on motivation of teachers for lifelong learning and recognizing the different categories of planned educational activities have shown some statistically relevant differences between the two generations of the surveyed groups i.e. the group of geography teachers, and the group of geography students - future teachers. It is possible to conclude that younger geographers attribute higher importance to lifelong learning and, different from geography teachers, they see it as a necessity if one is to cooperate successfully in the knowledge based society and in the labour market.

Dr. Alenka Lipovec, Helena Bezgovšek

MATEMATIČNI JEZIK BODOČIH UČITELJEV RAZREDNEGA POUKA

PRIMARY PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS' LANGUAGE OF MATHEMATICS

Pregledni znanstveni članek Author review
UDK 372.851 UDC 372.851
DESKRIPTORJI: bodoči učitelji, zgodnje izobraževanje, matematično izobraževanje, matematični jezik, epistemološka prepričanja
DESCRIPTORS: pre-service teacher, early education, mathematics education, mathematical language, epistemological beliefs
POVZETEK - Strukturiranje učenčevih matematičnih kognitivnih struktur lahko analiziramo skozi komunikacijo pri pouku. Matematični jezik s svojo specifiko lahko nesporazume med udeleženci matematične razprave povzroči že v nižjih razredih osnovne šole. Funkcionalna uporaba matematičnega jezika bi torej morala biti nujni sestavni del učne kulture v razredu. Prispevek privzame interodvisnost misli in jezika v učni situaciji in tezo, da so epistemološka prepričanja povezana s področjem študija. Predstavljena je povezava med ubesedenimi in konceptualnimi dosežki bodočih učiteljev (N=215) pri klasičnih matematičnih nalogah in analiza razlik kognitivnih in komunikacijskih matematičnih sposobnosti glede na splošno in specialno didaktično matematično znanje. ABSTRACT - Classroom talk is a rich resource for the analysis of students' cognitive structuring of mathematics. Due to the nature of mathematical language, misunderstandings between participants in mathematical discourse are to be expected also in mathematical education in lower grades. Mathematical discourse should therefore become a necessary part of any classroom learning culture. This paper adopts the interdependence of thought and language in the educational setting, and the thesis that epistemological beliefs are consistently related to the fields of study. The paper provides the results of concept and language performance of elementary pre-service teachers (N=215) in classical mathematical tasks and of the differences in cognitive and language mathematical abilities regarding content and the pedagogical content knowledge of elementary pre-service teachers.

Dr. Bogomir Novak, Eva Klemenčič

VLOGA ŠOLE PRI OBLIKOVANJU ODGOVORNEGA DRŽAVLJANSTVA

THE ROLE OF SCHOOL IN SHAPING RESPONSIBLE CITIZENS

Pregledni znanstveni članek Author review
UDK 37.034 UDC 37.034
DESKRIPTORJI: demokracija, državljanska vzgoja, domovinska vzgoja, odgovorno, interaktivno držav-ljanstvo, politična pismenost, globalizacija
DESCRIPTORS: democracy, civic education, home-land education, responsible interactive citizenship, political literacy, globalisation
POVZETEK - V prispevku analiziramo razvijanje odgovornega državljanstva v šoli in v družbi. Sloven-sko državljanstvo vključuje tudi elemente evropskega in globalnega državljanstva znotraj enotnosti v različnosti kultur. Na vseh treh ravneh gre za vprašanje, kako spodbujati odgovorno, (inter)aktivno držav-ljanstvo. Odgovorno interaktivno državljanstvo se lahko razvija le s pozitivnim odnosom državljanov do lastne države, spodbudnim vplivom države na držav-ljane, s sodelovanjem med raznimi (civilnimi) skupinami, z izobraževanjem za in njegovimi alternativnimi cilji in z razvijanjem demokratične politične in pedagoške kulture. Pri vzgoji iz in za odgovorno interaktivno državljanstvo so pomembni zlasti šolski predmeti državljanska vzgoja in etika, državljanska kultura ter (v osemletki) etika in družba. V prispevku pokažemo, kako učne vsebine ustrezajo postavljenim ciljem pri nas in v nekaterih drugih evropskih državah omenjenim trem državljanstvom. Posebej analiziramo možnost uvedbe domovinske vzgoje kot posebnega predmeta v osnovne šole, česar pa ne ocenjujemo kot primerno. Opredeljujemo se za interdisciplinarni pristop vključevanja teh vsebin v obstoječe predmete. ABSTRACT - The paper analyses the process of shaping a responsible citizen in school and in society. The Slovene citizenship includes some elements of the European and global citizenship following the principle of unity within the diversity of cultures. At each level, a question is asked: how to encourage responsible (inter)active citizenship. Such citizenship is possible only if citizens have a positive attitude towards their own state, if the state has an encouraging influence on its citizens, if various (civic) groups cooperate, if education for responsible citizenship offers also some alternative goals, if it is possible to develop simultaneously the democratic political and educational culture. In the education from and for a responsible interactive citizenship, school subjects such as civic education and ethics, civic culture, and ethics and society (in the eighth year of primary school) play an important role. The paper indicates how these subjects suit the goals set by Slovenia and by some other European countries with regard to three mentioned citizenships. A special attention is given to a possible introduction of the subject on homeland education in primary schools, what we do not assess as suitable. We favour an interdisciplinary approach, i.e. to include such topics in the existing subjects.

Mag. Marjana Penca Palčič

POVRATNA INFORMACIJA UČITELJA IN MOTIVACIJA UČENCEV ZA UČENJE

TEACHER'S FEEDBACK AND PUPILS' LEARNINIG MOTIVATION

Pregledni znanstveni članek Author review
UDK 159.953 UDC 159.953
DESKRIPTORJI: motivacija za učenje, preverjanje in ocenjevanje znanja, povratna informacija, motivacijske usmerjenosti
DESCRIPTORS: learning motivation, pre-grading assessment and grading, feedback, motivation orientation
POVZETEK - Preverjanje in ocenjevanje, ki vstopata skozi vse faze poučevanja in učenja s povratno informacijo pomembno vplivata na motiviranost učencev za učenje. Ključnega pomena je predvsem povratna informacija o tem, kaj je učenec dosegel, kaj je treba še narediti, da bo znanje izboljšal. S kvantitativno in kvalitativno raziskavo daje članek vpogled v to, kako različne vrste povratne informacije vplivajo na motiviranost učencev za učenje, in sicer katere povratne informacije in načini posredovanja le-teh vplivajo na to, da so učenci motivirani za učenje zaradi znanja, dosežkov ali pa se učenju izogibajo. Analiza rezultatov raziskave je pokazala, da je večina učencev 3. in 4. razreda motivirana za učenje, bodisi zato, ker jih žene želja po dosežkih ali pa zaradi želje po znanju samem. V primerjavi z učenci 4. razreda, ki so ocenjeni opisno in številčno, so učenci 3. razreda, ki so ocenjeni opisno, pogosteje motivirani za učenje zaradi znanja. Raje se učijo kot učenci 4. razreda, pri učenju so vztrajni. Kljub težavnosti, nalogo želijo rešiti in jih ne zanima ali so pri reševanju boljši ali slabši od svojih sošolcev. Želijo se naučiti kaj novega in napredovati v znanju. ABSTRACT - Pre-grading assessment and grading, which are present in all aspects of teaching and learning, together with feedback, impact strongly pupils' motivation to learn. Feedback about what pupils have already achieved and how they can enhance their knowledge plays a key role in their motivation. The article is based on a research which provides an insight into what kinds of feedback affect pupils' motivation to learn: which kind of feedback and its presentation motivate pupils either to learn in order to know, to achieve or to avoid learning. The analysis of the research results proved that the majority of third- and fourth graders are motivated to learn either to achieve results or to enhance their knowledge. In comparison to fourth-grade pupils, who are graded descriptively and numerically, third-grade pupils, who are graded descriptively, show more motivation to learn in order to enhance their knowledge. They are keener on learning and also more persistent. Despite the fact that a task may be difficult, they wish to solve it and are not interested in how well they perform in comparison with their peers. They wish to learn something new and achieve progress in their learning.

Barica Marentič Požarnik, PhD, Barbara Šteh, PhD

ŠTUDENTSKO DOJEMANJE ŠTUDIJSKE SITUACIJE KOT SPROŽILEC REFLEKSIJE V TEČAJIH VISOKOŠOLSKE DIDAKTIKE

STUDENTS' PERCEPTIONS OF TEACHING/LEARNING SITUATION AS A TRIGGER FOR REFLECTION IN STAFF DEVELOPMENT COURSES

Referat na znanstvenem posvetovanju Conference paper
UDK 378.147 UDC 378.147
DESKRIPTORJI: tečaji visokošolske didaktike, študijska situacija, dojemanje študentov, refleksija visokošolskih učiteljev
DESCRIPTORS: staff development courses, teaching/learning situation, students' perception, reflection of staff
POVZETEK - Eden od ciljev tečaja osnove visokošolske didaktike je ozavestiti udeležence o tem, kako študentje dojemajo učno situacijo in kako to vpliva na njihov pristop k študiju. Udeleženci morajo prinesti na tečaj odgovore nekaterih študentov na odprti vprašanji: Katera je vaša najboljša/najslabša študijska izkušnja in zakaj. Med tečajem skupine analizirajo odgovore in jih primerjajo s svojimi predstavami o tipičnem študentu. V intenzivnem delu raziskave pa smo grupirali in analizirali odgovore iz zadnjih 4 let. Njihove dobre izkušnje so bile večinsko vezane na dobre učne metode in medosebne odnose, medtem ko so bile slabe izkušnje največ vezane na proces ocenjevanja. ABSTRACT - One of the aims of the staff development course Foundations of teaching in higher education is to help participants to become more aware of the students' perception of the teaching situation and the effect this can have on students' approach to study. Therefore, participants are required to bring to the course answers of a number of students from their department to the open questions about ‘the best’ and ‘the worst’ study experience and the reasons for it. In the intensive part of the study, we observed the effect of this confrontation on the participants. Some of them felt a kind of ‘cognitive conflict’ which might help them to improve their methods and relationship to students. In the extensive part, we grouped and analysed answers that accumulated in the last 4 years. Good experiences were mostly linked to good methods and interpersonal relationship and bad experiences to assessment.

Dr. Ivan Ferbežer

IZOBRAŽEVANJE MLAJŠIH NADARJENIH OTROK V REGGIO EMILIA

EDUCATION OF GIFTED YOUNG CHILDREN IN REGGIO EMILIA

Referat na znanstvenem posvetovanju Conference paper
UDK 373.32-056.4 UDC 373.32-056.4
DESKRIPTORJI: izobraževanje, mlajši nadarjeni otrok, razvoj sposobnosti
DESCRIPTORS: education, young gifted child, development of abilities
POVZETEK - Avtor v prispevku proučuje edukacijo mlajših nadarjenih otrok in kurikularni model v konkretnem družbenem okolju. Mlajši nadarjeni otroci (od rojstva do osmih let) so izobraževalno med najmanj pedagoško oskrbljenimi populacijami, kljub temu, da ima zanje zgodnja pedagoška intervenca pomembne, če ne celo usodne, učinke na njihov nadaljnji razvoj. Predstavi tudi kurikularne modele, ki se uporabljajo v izobraževanju nadarjenih otrok in opredeli vlogo staršev in učiteljev v tem procesu. V drugem delu prispevka avtor poroča o modelu izobraževanja mlajših nadarjenih otrok v Italiji. ABSTRACT - The article examines the education of gifted young children and the curriculum model in a concrete social setting. Gifted young children (from birth to eight years of age) are a generation of children least provided for in the educational sense in spite of the fact that for them early teaching intervention exercises a fatal impact on their further development. The author presents curriculum models used in the education of gifted children and defines the parental and teachers' role in the process. The second part of the article reports about the education model of gifted young children in Italy.

Bojan Kovačič

NADARJENI V VELIKI DIDAKTIKI IN DANES

THE GIFTED AS THEY ARE DEALT WITH IN THE GREAT DIDIDACTICS BOOK AND THEIR STATUS TODAY

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 37.02-056.4 UDC 37.02-056.4
DESKRIPTORJI: šola, učenci, sposobnosti, nadarjeni
DESCRIPTORS: school, pupils, abilities, gifted children
POVZETEK - J.A. Komensky je v svoji Veliki didaktiki (1632) namenil posebno pozornost tudi nadarjenim učencem. Poskušal je definirati nadarjenost, opredelil je vrste nadarjenosti, razmišljal je o skrbi, negi in pomoči nadarjenim, o prezrtosti nadarjenih zaradi nedostopnosti šol ter surovih metod v šolah. Fenomen nadarjenosti obravnava primerno duhu takratnega časa. ABSTRACT - In his book, the Great Didactics (1632), J.A. Komensky pays special attention to gifted pupils. He tries to define giftedness, kinds of giftedness, and reflects on the care and attention that should be provided for the gifted. He believes that the gifted are neglected because of the inaccessibility of schools and because of the violent methods practiced by schools. The phenomenon of giftedness is treated in compliance with the spirit of the time.

Marija Kristan

DIDAKTIČNA IGRA PRI POUČEVANJU ANGLEŠKEGA JEZIKA NA RAZREDNI STOPNJI OSNOVNE ŠOLE

DIDACTIC GAMES IN TEACHING ENGLISH IN THE FIRST YEARS OF PRIMARY SCHOOL

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 37.02:372.880.20 UDC 37.02:372.880.20
DESKRIPTORJI: učitelj, učni proces, didaktična igra, izkušnje
DESCRIPTORS: teacher, learning process, didactic games, experiences
POVZETEK - Poučevanje angleškega jezika na razredni stopnji predstavlja novo področje učenja in poučevanja, ki zajema učence, katerih igra je del vsakdana. Prav zato se morajo učitelji še posebej posluževati metod, ki vključujejo igro. Namen raziskave je bil ugotoviti strokovni naziv učiteljev, ki poučujejo angleški jezik v tretji oziroma v četrti razredu devetletne osnovne šole in s katerimi težavami se ti učitelji srečujejo pri pripravi in sami izvedbi didaktičnih iger v učni uri. Da bi to ugotovili, smo tem učiteljem razdelili anketne vprašalnike. Rezultati so pokazali, da so učitelji, ki poučujejo angleški jezik v tretjem oziroma četrtem razredu devetletne osnovne šole, po večini profesorji angleškega jezika in se skoraj vsakodnevno poslužujejo didaktičnih iger, kljub temu da jim sama priprava didaktičnih iger in izvajanje le teh v razredu velikokrat predstavlja težave. ABSTRACT - Teaching English language in the first years of primary school has recently become a new area in teaching and learning languages. It includes young learners whose everyday life consists of games. Therefore teachers need to use methods that incorporate games into their lessons. The main aim of this research was to find out the education level of teachers who teach English in the 3rd and 4th class of the new nine-year primary school. In addition to that, we tried to determine what problems teachers encounter when preparing and executing didactic games for teaching English at the primary levels. The data were collected with a questionnaire. The findings of our research show that although teachers, mostly English language teachers, who teach in the 3rd and 4th grades of the new nine-year primary school, use didactic games almost every day although they admit to have certain problems when preparing and executing them in their classes.

Tanja Benčič Rihtaršič

UVAJANJE UČENCEV NA POT RAZISKOVALNEGA UČENJA

INTRODUCING RESEARCH LEARNING

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 37:001.8 UDC 37:001.8
DESKRIPTORJI: aktivno učenje, raziskovalna naloga, raziskovalno učenje
DESCRIPTORS: active learning, research task, research learning
POVZETEK - V prispevku je na kratko predstavljen pomen kakovostnega učnega procesa in učenja. Nakazane so primerne metode dela, ki spodbujajo večjo aktivnost učencev v vzgojno izobraževalnem procesu in vodijo k trajnejšemu znanju. Poseben poudarek je namenjen raziskovalnemu učenju kot eni izmed možnih oblik ali poti za doseganje kakovostnega znanja. Podani so izsledki, ki temeljilo na ugotovitvah in izkušnjah iz prakse z raziskovalnim načinom dela na osnovni in srednji šoli. Kritično so predstavljene prednosti, ki jih tak način dela prinaša v šolsko prakso. Povzete so tudi ugotovitve glede omejitev pri delu, ki so bile zaznane v praksi, in predstavljene spodbude za nadaljnje delo. ABSTRACT - The article presents the importance of learning processes and learning marked by quality. It further discusses methods that can encourage greater student activity in the learning process and which lead to long-lasting knowledge. The emphasis is on research learning as one of the possible ways to acquire quality knowledge. The results are based on the findings and experiences from practical research work in primary and secondary schools. A critical view of the advantages of such approaches in the school practice is offered, as well as the findings about the restrictions perceived in practice. The author offers some incentives for further work.

Mojca Perić

OGLAŠEVANJE IN OTROCI

ADVERTISING AND CHILDREN

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 659.1:316.346.32-053.2 UDC 659.1:316.346.32-053.2
DESKRIPTORJI: vzgoja za medije, oglaševanje, otroci, etična pravila, zakonodaja
DESCRIPTORS: education for media, advertising, children, rules of ethics, legislation
POVZETEK - V času vedno večjega poudarjanja svobode kot osnovne človekove pravice in strmega naraščanja potreb po informiranju postaja oglaševanje predmet številnih tako pozitivnih kot negativnih kritik. Prav posebno področje v zvezi oglaševanjem ostaja področje oglaševanja otrokom. Otroci so ena zmed najšibkejših skupin družbe, ki potrebuje in ima pravico do zaščite. Zato se je veliko oglaševalskih strok podalo v pridobitev osnovnih regulativ, s katerimi bi preprečili zlorabo nedolžne otroške zaupljivosti. ABSTRACT - In a time where freedom is emphasised as one of the fundamental human rights and where the need to be informed is rising exponentially, advertising is becoming a target of many criticisms and accolades. A special subcategory of advertising is advertising to children. As one of the most vulnerable groups in society, children need protection and have a right to it. Many advertising experts, therefore, strive for passing fundamental laws in order to prevent the abuse of the child's innocent trust.

Mag. Zvone Krušič

ODNOS MED INTELEKTUALIZMOM IN UMETNIŠKIM PRISTOPOM V PRODUKTIVNI VZGOJNI ORIENTACIJI

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INTELLECTUALISM AND ARTISTIC APPROACHES IN PRODUCTIVE EDUCATIONAL ORIENTATION

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 37.01 UDC 37.01
DESKRIPTORJI: otrok, družba, intelektualna naravnanost, umetniški pristop
DESCRIPTORS: child, society, intellectual orientation, artistic approach
POVZETEK - V članku obravnavamo za primerjavo med umetniškim in intelektualnim pristopom, ki pomeni primerjavo dveh temeljnih pristopov, značilnih za dojemanje stvarnosti na vzhodu in zahodu (umetniški in znanstveni pristop). Primerjava je povezana z vzgojnim področjem in s Frommovim pojmom produktivne orientacije v smislu razvijanja človekovih sil in uresničevanja njegovih inherentnih potencialov. Takšna orientacija je po avtorjevem mnenju vtkana v načelih in pristopih Steinerjeve waldorfske pedagogike, ki jo v ta namen primerja z javno šolo (še bolj vrtcem), za katero je, v temelju, značilen znanstven (intelektualen) pristop. ABSTRACT - The article brings a comparison between the artistic and the intellectual approach which are two basic approaches to perceiving reality in the east and in the west (artistic and scientific approach). The comparison has been made in the educational field and is connected with Fromm's concept of productive orientation in the sense of developing man's powers and realising his inherent potentials. The author is convinced that such an orientation is ingrained in the principles and approaches of Steiner/Waldorf education, which he compares with the mainstream school (even more with the kindergarten), the latter of which is based on the scientific (intellectual) approach.

Branka Lončarič

SOCIALNE IGRE KOT NAČIN VZPOSTAVLJANJA DISCIPLINE PRI POUKU

SOCIAL GAMES AS A DISCIPLINE TOOL

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 37:316.6 UDC 37:316.6
DESKRIPTORJI: kontrolna teorija, možnost izbire, socialne igre, disciplina
DESCRIPTORS: theory of control, possibility of choice, social games, discipline
POVZETEK - V prispevku je prikazan pomen socialnih iger za vzpostavljanje discipline pri pouku in za krepitev motivacije učencev pri učnem delu. Kot primer ustreznosti izvajanja socialnih veščin je v prispevku predstavljen oddelek petega razreda, kjer so imeli učenci težave v medsebojnih odnosih, bili so nemirni in nezreli v komunikaciji z vrstniki. Kontinuirano izvajanje socialnih iger z upoštevanjem načel kontrolne teorije je v procesu krepitve osebnosti pripeljalo do bolj odgovornega reagiranja posameznikov v tem oddelku, umirjenosti skupine kot celote ter uvida, da se je pri možnosti izbire smiselno odločiti za tisto, kar je učencem všeč, kar je po njihovi volji, vendar se morajo za to, da svojo izbiro ohranijo, tudi sami maksimalno potruditi. Izkazalo se je, da so vztrajnost, sodelovanje in upoštevanje dogovora tiste vrline, ki vodijo do uspešnega rezultata. In s socialnimi igrami smo v daljšem obdobju do tega tudi prišli, to pomeni, da so učenci postali bolj vodljivi in pripravljeni sodelovati pri pouku, posledično pa tudi učno uspešnejši. ABSTRACT - The article discusses the importance of social games for establishing discipline in class and for enhancing the motivation of students for learning. It presents the situation in a fifth grade, where students suffered from unhealthy relations, and were restless as well as immature in the communication with their peers. Regularly carried out social games based on the principles of control theory brought about a better response from the individuals in the class, and contributed to a calmer atmosphere, and to the insight that when presented with a choice, it is sensible to decide on the basis of what one likes and wishes. To preserve this choice, however, maximum effort has to be invested on the part of the students. Perseverance, cooperation, and staying with the agreed choice are the values that can bring about the desired results. Over a longer period, this was achieved and students became more manageable as well as more willing to cooperate during lessons, and ultimately more successful in their performance.

Lorena Kolonič

PLES IN PREDŠOLSKI OTROCI

DANCE AND PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 793.3-053.4 UDC 793.3-053.4
DESKRIPTORJI: predšolski otroci, ples, koreografija
DESCRIPTORS: preschool children, dance, choreography
POVZETEK - Avtorica poroča o plesni vzgoji kot izrazni govorici telesa in o pomenu te dejavnosti za harmonično oblikovanje otroka. Opiše tudi svoje koreografske izkušnje. ABSTRACT - The author presents dance as an expression of body language and considers dance education as an essential element of harmonious child development. In the continuation, it also presents author's choreographic experiences.