2006 - LETNIK 21
POVZETKI ŠTEVILKE 2

Dr. Mojca Juriševič, Dijana Hasanbegović

VRTEC IN OBLIKOVANJE OTROKOVE SAMOPODOBE

KINDERGARTEN AND THE FORMATION OF CHILD'S SELF-IMAGE

Pregledni znanstveni članek Author review
UDK 373.2:159.9 UDC 373.2:159.9
DESKRIPTORJI: samopodoba, predšolski otrok, vrtec in samopodoba, spodbujanje razvoja samopodobe
DESCRIPTORS: self-image, pre-school child, kindergarten, encouraging the development of self-image
POVZETEK - V raziskavi nas je zanimalo, ali se šestletni otroci, ki različno dolgo obiskujejo vrtec - od jasličnega oddelka do oddelka priprave na šolo oziroma le enoletna priprava na šolo -, med seboj razlikujejo v svoji samopodobi. Predpostavili smo, da vrtec kot specifičen socialni sistem pomembno in pozitivno prispeva k oblikovanju samopodobe v naj-zgodnejšem obdobju življenja. Samopodobo otrok smo za namen raziskave ocenjevali s pomočjo lestvice PSPC (Harter in Pike, 1980, 1983), ki meri otrokovo zaznavo lastne kompetentnosti na telesnem, socialnem in spoznavnem področju. Ugotovili smo, da imajo otroci, ki vrtec obiskujejo dlje časa, višjo samopodobo v telesni sestavini samopodobe in na področju sprejetosti od matere. Od vrstnikov, ki so v vrtčevsko okolje vključeni le v programu enoletne priprave na šolo, pa se ne razlikujejo na področju sprejetosti od vrstnikov in v samozaznavi spoznavne kompetentnosti. ABSTRACT - The research tried to find out whether six-year olds who attend kindergarten for different periods of time - from the infant period up to school time, or for only a year before school - differ with regard to their self-image. The hypothesis was that the kindergarten represents a specific social system and as such contributes relevantly and positively to the formation of the self-image already during the earliest period of a child's life. For the purpose of the research, the self-image was measured with the PSPC scale (Harter in Pike, 1980, 1983), which assesses the child's perception of own competence in the physical, social and cognitive areas. We established that the children attending kindergarten for a long period of time develop a higher self-image in the physical part of the concept and in the area of being accepted by the mother. They do not, however, differ from the children who spend only one year in the kindergarten with respect to the acceptance by their peers and in the self-perception of cognitive competence.

Mag. Marija Javornik Krečič

POMEN INTERKULTURNEGA SVETOVANJA IN INTERKULTURNIH KOMPETENC ŠOLSKEGA SVETOVALNEGA DELAVCA

THE ROLE OF INTERCULTURAL COUNSELLING AND INTERCULTURAL COMPETENCIES OF THE SCHOOL COUNSELLOR

Pregledni znanstveni članek Author review
UDK 37.01 UDC 37.01
DESKRIPTORJI: interikulturnost, interkulturno svetovanje, šolski svetovalni delavec, interkulturne svetovalne kompetence
DESCRIPTORS: intercultural setting, intercultural counselling, school counsellor, intercultural counselling competencies
POVZETEK - V prvem delu prispevka avtorica ugotavlja, da je danes vprašanje sodelovanja med pripadniki večine in pripadniki kulturnih, verskih, socialnih in drugih manjšin eno bistvenih civilizacijskih vprašanj. V okviru tega je pomembna interkulturna pedagogika in interkulturna vzgoja. Tudi šolsko svetovalno delo ima zaradi multikulturnih pogojev določene posebnosti. V nadaljevanju prispevka avtorica definira in predstavi značilnosti interkulturnega svetovanja, ki je namenjeno tako učencem kulturnih manjšin, priseljencem kakor tudi drugim, ki s temi učenci živijo in delajo. V zadnjem delu prispevka avtorica predstavi interkulturne kompetence šolskega svetovalnega delavca. Svetovalni delavec naj bi namreč bil sposoben zaznati kulturne aspekte v odnosu s svetovancem, prepoznati njihov pomen za nastanek in rešitev svetovančevega problema ter jih vnesti v svetovalni odnos in proces. ABSTRACT - The first part of the paper presents the issue of cooperation between the members of the majority and members of cultural, religious, social and other minorities, which is one of the essential civilisation issues. Within its framework, intercultural teaching approaches and education play an important role. In a multicultural situation, the school counselling service has to deal with very specific issues. The article then defines and presents the characteristics of the intercultural counselling of students belonging to cultural minority groups, immigrants and those who live and work with them. The last part of the article presents the intercultural competencies a school counsellor should possess in order to be able to observe and become aware of the cultural aspects in his relationship with the counselee, recognise their importance for the problem itself as well as for the solution, and should then include them in the counselling situation and in the process.

Dr. Andreja Drobnič Vidic

PROBLEMSKO NARAVNANO UČENJE TUJEGA STROKOVNEGA JEZIKA

PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING OF A FOREIGN LANGUAGE FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES

Pregledni znanstveni članek Author review
UDK 372.880 UDC 372.880
DESKRIPTORJI: problemsko naravnano učenje, kurikulum, model učenja tujega strokovnega jezika za posebne namene
DESCRIPTORS: problem-based learning, curricu-lum, the model of learning a foreign language for specific purposes
POVZETEK - Problemsko naravnano učenje (ang. Problem- Based Learning) temelji na reševanju realnih problemov v majhnih skupinah. Predstavlja tako organizacijo pouka, ki omogoča srečevanje s primeri iz prakse, interdisciplinarni pristop k snovi, ki je pomembna za uspešno opravljanje poklica in razvoj raznih zmožnosti za samostojno delo in izobraževanje. Opišemo model problemsko naravnanega učenja na visokošolski stopnji pri učenju tujega strokovnega jezika, ki ga uspešno izvajajo učitelji tujega strokovnega jezika na nekaterih slovenskih fakultetah in visokih šolah. Model je izoblikovan tako, da povezuje učenje tujega strokovnega jezika z enim ali več strokovnimi področji. [tudenti rešujejo strokovne probleme v tujem jeziku in se učijo jezika in stroke. Problemi sprožijo učenje določene učne snovi. Kvaliteta oziroma uspeh izvedbe problemsko naravnanega učenja tujega strokovnega jezika je zato poleg učiteljev in študentov močno odvisen tudi od prave sestave problemov. Pomembno vlogo za uspešno izvedbo modela pa ima tudi spremenjeno ocenjevanje. ABSTRACT - Problem-Based Learning (PBL) is based on solving real-life problems by small groups of students. It is a way of constructing courses which give students an opportunity to confront problems they will encounter later on in their working life. It also provides an interdisciplinary approach to learning a subject, which is necessary for successful performance in future work. Moreover, PBL helps students to develop various skills needed for independent study and work. The article describes the Problem-Based Learning model of learning a foreign language for specific purposes at a higher-education level. This model has been successfully implemented by LSP (language for specific purposes) teachers at several Slovenian higher education institutions. It integrates learning a foreign language for specific purposes with the contents of one or more professional knowledge-areas. For this purpose, students use a foreign language to solve problems in a specific professional field and thus learn both, the foreign language and the content of that area. In PBL, problems act as a starting point for learning the contents of a specific subject.

Fernando D. Rubio Alcalá, PhD, José M. Bautista Vallejo, PhD

INTERAKTIVNA DIGITALNA TABLA IN KREPITEV SPOMINA

INTERACTIVE DIGITAL BOARD AND MEMORY STRENGTHENING

Pregledni znanstveni članek Author review
UDK 371.333 UDC 371.333
DESKRIPTORJI: učenje tujega jezika, nove tehnologije, spominski kanali, motivacija, pozornost, jezik v razredu, komunikacija, komunikacija med poukom tujega jezika
DESCRIPTORS: foreign language learning, new technologies, memory channels, motivation, attention, classroom language, communication in the foreign language classroom
POVZETEK - Članek opisuje metodološko osnovo in učno učinkovitost računalniške programske opreme Action Manager. Novo učno orodje je namenjeno interakciji med poukom angleščine. Glavne sestavine programa so krepitev spomina, visoka motivacija in pozornost. V poskusu, ki je bil izpeljan na ravni osnovne šole, so učenci pokazali optimalen priklic v okviru dveh spominskih testov tako na ravni delovnega kot tudi dolgoročnega spomina. ABSTRACT - This article describes the methodological bases and learning efficacy of the computer application software Action Manager. This pioneer teaching tool has been specifically designed for students' interaction in the English foreign language class. Memory strengthening, high motivation and attention are main elements in the program. In an experiment carried out in a primary education level context, students showed an optimal memory recall of the learning concepts in two memory tests for both working and long term memory.

Polonca Pangrčič

KAKO UČITELJI PRVE TRIADE POUČUJEJO GLASBENO VZGOJO

MUSIC EDUCATION IN THE FIRST THREE YEARS OF PRIMARY SCHOOL

Pregledni znanstveni članek Author review
UDK 373.3:372.878 UDC 373.3:372.878
DESKRIPTORJI: razredni učitelji, glasbena vzgoja, zgodnje učenje glasbe, nadarjeni
DESCRIPTORS: class teachers, music education, early music education, gifted children
POVZETEK - V teoretičnem delu članka predstavljamo, zakaj je tako zelo pomembno zgodnje učenje glasbene vzgoje in vlogo razrednih učiteljev pri glasbeni vzgoji. Izpostavljamo tudi problem odkrivanja glasbeno nadarjenih učencev s stališča glasbene izobraženosti učiteljev razrednega pouka. V empiričnem delu pa predstavljamo rezultate ankete, ki smo jo izvedli med učiteljicami razrednega pouka, pretežno v štajerski regiji. Raziskovali smo njihovo glasbeno predznanje - obisk pevskega zbora, glasbene šole - v času osnovnega, srednjega šolanja in v času študija. Tako smo dobili pregledno sliko o njihovi glasbeni izobrazbi. Nato smo raziskovali način obravnave nove pesmi - ali pojejo, ob tem zaigrajo na instrumente, ali učencem samo predvajajo pesem na CD-ju. Rezultati, ki smo jih dobili, so odraz problematike poučevanja glasbene vzgoje na razredni stopnji v naših šolah. ABSTRACT - The theoretical part of the article presents the reasons why early music education is important and tries to define the role class teachers play in it. It also deals with the problem of identifying children who are gifted in the music field. This is namely performed by class teachers who need to be qualified for such a task. The empirical part then presents the results of a survey administered to the class teachers in the [tajerska region. I examined the music education - singing in a choir, attending music school - they acquired during the time of their own schooling (primary and secondary education, university studies). Then I looked at how they present a new song to the class - do they sing it, do they accompany their singing on an instrument, or do they simply play them the song from a CD. The results reveal the problems connected with music education in lower classes of primary school.

Dr. Karin Bakračevič Vukman, Marta Licardo

NEKATERE POVEZAVE MED EMOCIONALNO KOMPETENTNOSTJO, EMOCIONALNO REGULACIJO TER ODZIVANJEM V STRESNIH SITUACIJAH PRI MLADOSTNIKU

LINKS BETWEEN EMOTIONAL COMPETENCE, EMOTIONAL REGULATION AND RESPONSE IN STRESS SITUATIONS DURING ADOLESCENCE

Pregledni znanstveni članek Author review
UDK 159.9 UDC 159.9
DESKRIPTORJI: emocije, emocionalna kompetentnost, stres, mladostništvo, emocionalna inteligentnost
DESCRIPTORS: emotions, emotional competence, stress, adolescence, emotional intelligence
POVZETEK - V članku se ukvarjamo z značilnostmi emocionalnega razvoja v obdobju mladostništva s poudarkom na emocionalni kompetentnosti, regulaciji in kontroli. Ta spoznanja povezujemo s preučevanjem stresa oziroma natančneje, odzivanjem v stresnih situacijah pri mladostnikih. Korelacijski koeficient kaže, da osebe z višjo emocionalno kompetentnostjo bolje reagirajo v stresnih situacijah. Prav tako se nakazujejo zanimivi izsledki razlik glede emocionalne kompetentnosti ter emocionalne regulacije in kontrole med dekleti in fanti ter med srednješolci in študenti. Razen tega obstajajo tudi razlike v reagiranju na stresne situacije med omenjenimi skupinami. Takšna integrirana spoznanja s področja emocij nakazujejo, da imajo emocije prilagoditveno funkcijo v stresnem procesu, hkrati pa se kaže povezanost med emocionalno kompetentnostjo ter konstruktivnim odzivanjem v stresnih situacijah, kar potrjujejo tudi sodobne raziskave konstrukta emocionalne inteligentnosti. ABSTRACT - The article deals with the characteristics of emotional development in adolescence, more specifically with emotional competence, emotional regulation and control, and how these relate to the stress coping strategies and reactions in stress situations during adole-scence. The correlation coefficient reveals that persons with higher emotional competence cope better with stress situations. There are interesting results regarding differences in emotional competence and emotional regulation and control between boys and girls and between pupils and students. There are also differences in the reactions to stress situations between the mentioned groups. Such integrated knowledge of the field of emotions indicates that emotions have an adapting function in the stress process, and that there exist links between emotional competence and positive stress coping strate-gies, which have been confirmed by contemporary research on emotional intelligence.

Dr. Mateja Pšunder

KAKO LAHKO ŠOLSKA POLITIKA IN PRAKSA SPODBUJATA NEPRIMERNO VEDENJE?

HOW SCHOOL POLICIES AND PRACTICES ENCOURAGE INAPPROPRIATE BEHAVIOUR

Pregledni znanstveni članek Author review
UDK 37.014 UDC 37.014
DESKRIPTORJI: šola, neprimerno vedenje, disciplina, učna storilnost
DESCRIPTORS: school, inappropriate behaviour, discipline, learning efficiency
POVZETEK - Neprimerno vedenje učencev je danes v šolah precej pogosto. Učitelji so prepričani, da so za takšno stanje v šolah odgovorni učenci oziroma dijaki in njihove družine, redkeje pa uvidijo in priznavajo, da lahko neprimerno vedenje (so)ustvarjajo okoliščine, povezane s šolo. V prispevku prikazujemo, kako lahko šola oziroma učitelji (so)ustvarjajo neprimerno vedenje učencev oziroma dijakov. Prispevek zaključujemo v prepričanju, da je nujno, da se učitelji zavedajo možnega lastnega vpliva na vedenje učencev oziroma dijakov, saj bodo le tako lahko naredili korak z zmanjševanju neprimernega vedenja v šoli. ABSTRACT - Inappropriate behaviour on the part of the students is a frequent phenomenon in modern schools. The teachers are convinced that it is the students and their parents who are responsible for this. Only rarely do they admit that inappropriate behaviour can be the result of circumstances connected with school. The article shows how the school and teachers can contribute to the inappropriate behaviour of their students. It ends with the conviction that the teachers should become aware of the impact they have on their students since this is the only way that such behaviour can be stopped or at least lessened.

Mag. Tatjana [ček Prebil

ZNANJE ZAPOSLENIH - PRILOŽNOST ZA RAZVOJ ŠOLE

KNOWLEDGE OF EMPLOYEES - OPPORTUNITY FOR SCHOOL DEVELOPMENT

Pregledni znanstveni članek Author review
UDK 331.5:159.953 UDC 331.5:159.953
DESKRIPTORJI: šola, učenje, intelektualni kapital
DESCRIPTORS: school, learning, intellectual capital
POVZETEK - [ole so, tako kot druge organizacije, izpostavljene spremembam, ki jih povzročajo notranji in zunanji dejavniki. S prilagajanjem na spremembe se spreminjajo šole, njihova kultura in vrednote. V članku bom predstavila različne poglede na učenje, poučevanje in znanje. Z učenjem se povečuje intelektualni kapital organizacije, ki je ključni proizvodni dejavnik. V dobri organizaciji omogočajo zaposlenim nenehno učenje in pridobivanje novega znanja, ki zagotavlja človeku preživetje in kakovost življenja. Intelektualni kapital kot kombinacija znanja, izkušenj in izobrazbe je danes najpomembnejše proizvodno sredstvo. Uspešna šola zagotavlja zaposlenim ustrezne pogoje za nenehno učenje in skrbno načrtuje njihov razvoj. ABSTRACT - Like other organisations, schools are subject to changes caused by internal as well as external factors. Adapting to these changes implies the change of the school, its culture and values. The article presents different views on learning, teaching and knowledge. The intellectual capital which is the key production factor of an organisation increases with learning, and a successful organisation enables its employees to keep on learning and acquiring new knowledge, which in turn offers better chances of survival and improves the quality of life. Intellectual capital which can be conceived as a combination of knowledge, experience and education is today the most important means of production. A successful school, on the other hand, ensures employees appropriate conditions for such learning and plans carefully their development.

Nela Erbežnik

VSEŽIVLJENJSKO UČENJE

LIFE-LONG LEARNING

Pregledni znanstveni članek Author review
UDK 374 UDC 374
DESKRIPTORJI: vseživljenjsko učenje, večrazsežnostno učenje, vrednote, zaposljivost, socialna kohezija
DESCRIPTORS: life-long learning, multi-dimensio-nal learning, values, employability, social cohesion
POVZETEK - Vseživljenjsko učenje je v današnjem času neizogibno, saj znanje, ki ga pridobimo v začetnem izobraževanju, ni dovolj za vse spremembe, ki se dogajajo kasneje. Hkrati je potrebno predrugačiti naš koncept učenja. Učenja ne smemo razumeti zgolj kot opremljanje človeka z znanjem in sposobnostmi za njegov poklic. Potrebne so tudi vrednote. Človek mora znati dajati znanju vrednost in ga uporabljati v dobrobit sebe in drugih. Na to nas opozarjajo naše negativne izkušnje v preteklem in v sedanjem življenju (vojne, terorizem, onesnaženost okolja, sposobnost samouničenja). Bistveno je, da izobraževanje vključuje poleg učiti se, da bi vedeli, in učiti se, da bi znali delati, tudi učiti se, da bi znali živeti drug z drugim, učiti se biti in učiti se učiti in imeti pozitiven odnos do učenja. Le tako lahko dosegamo cilje, kot so aktivno državljanstvo, zaposljivost in socialna povezanost, ki skupno omogočajo pravičnejše in dostojanstveno življenje za vse, hkrati pa dinamično gospodarsko rast. ABSTRACT - In modern times, life-long learning is unavoidable because the knowledge we acquire during our initial education does not suffice for all the changes occurring later on in life. With life-long learning we have to redefine our learning concepts. Learning should not be understood only as equipping a person with knowledge and skills for performing a job. One should also take into account the issue of values so that we can appreciate knowledge and use it for the benefit of oneself and for others. Our negative experiences in the past and in the present tell us that we have not been very successful (wars, terrorism, environmental pollution, ability of self-destruction), therefore it is essential that beside learning in order to know and to be able to work, education should enable us to be able to live with one another, to be, to learn how to learn, and to develop a positive attitude towards learning. Only in this way can the goals such as active citizenship, employability and social cohesion be achieved. With these goals we can ensure a just and dignified life for all as well as dynamic economic growth.

Andreja Rinc Uroševič

POJAVNOST SPOLNIH STEREOTIPOV MED ODRASLIMI

THE PHENOMENON OF SEXUAL STEREOTYPES AMONG ADULTS

Pregledni znanstveni članek Author review
UDK 176 UDC 176
DESKRIPTORJI: stereotipi, predsodki, socializacija, učni proces
DESCRIPTORS: stereotypes, prejudices, socialisation, learning process
POVZETEK - V teoretičnem delu prispevka podajam nekaj temeljnih spoznanj iz strokovne literature: opredelitev stereotipov na splošno in vzroki za nastanek zanje, spolni stereotipi in njihova povezava s socializacijo otrok ter spolni stereotipi med odraslimi v javnem življenju, družini in na delovnem mestu. V empiričnem delu predstavljam rezultate izseka raziskave, v kateri sem anketirala osnovnošolske učitelje. Zanimalo me je njihovo mnenje o pojavu spolne stereotipnosti v vzgojno-izobraževalnem procesu in vzgoji, ki so jo otroci deležni s strani staršev, o pojavu spolne stereotipnosti v šolskih učbenikih in knjigah ter o najpogostejših vzrokih za spolno tipizirano socializacijo otrok. Prav tako me je zanimala osebna stopnja nagnjenosti učiteljev k spolnemu tipiziranju. Pridobljena empirična spoznanja razkrivajo, da se spolna stereotipnost pojavlja tako v vzgojno-izobraževalnem procesu kot tudi v starševski vzgoji, malo manj pa v šolskih učbenikih in knjigah. Rezultati dopuščajo domnevo, da je spolne stereotipnosti v šolah in širši družbi danes nekoliko manj kot nekoč, vendar se ta še vedno pojavlja v večji meri, kot bi to bilo primerno in dopustno. ABSTRACT - The theoretical part presents some basic findings from professional literature: the general definition of stereotypes and why they have been created, the sexual stereotypes and their connection with children's socialization, as well as sexual stereotypes among adults in public life, family and at the workplace. The empirical part presents the results of my interviews with primary school teachers. I was primarily interested in their opinion about the presence of sexual stereotypes phenomenon in the educational process and upbringing, in school books and books in general, as well as in the most frequent reasons for sexually stereotyping children's socialization. I also tried to establish to what degree teachers are inclined to sexual stereotyping. The empirical results show that sexual stereotypes appear in the educational process as well as in the parental upbringing, and to a lesser degree also in school books and other books. The results lead us to assume that there are now fewer sexual stereotypes in schools and in the wider society than they used to be in the past. However, they can still be detected to the extent that is inappropriate and should not be allowed.