2006 - LETNIK 21
POVZETKI ŠTEVILKE 1

Mag. Helena Smrtnik Vitulič

ZNAČILNOSTI RAZUMEVANJA POSAMEZNIH PODROČIJ TEMELJNIH ČUSTEV PRI OTROCIH IN MLADOSTNIKIH

CHARACTERISTICS OF UNDERSTANDING SPECIFIC AREAS OF BASIC EMOTIONS OF CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK 159.9-053 UDC 159.9-053
DESKRIPTORJI: razumevanje čustev, področja čustev, otroci, mladostniki
DESCRIPTORS:understanding emotions, areas of emotions, children, adolescents
POVZETEK - Prispevek prikazuje značilnosti razumevanja čustev veselja, žalosti, jeze in strahu pri otrocih in mladostnikih. Ugotovitve temeljijo na rezultatih raziskave, v kateri me je zanimalo, kako udeleženci (N=54) iz treh starostnih skupin (7, 9 in 11 let) razumejo posamezna področja izbranih temeljnih čustev, na primer prepoznavanje, nadzor, prikrivanje čustev in druga. Na podlagi pregleda rezultatov in njihove skladnosti z ugotovitvami nekaterih drugih avtorjev sem zaključila, da mlajši otroci čustva na večini področij razumejo razmeroma enostavno, kot situacijske, vedenjske in fiziološke odzive, ki so podobni pri vseh ljudeh. Pri starejših otrocih in mladostnikih razumevanje čustev na posameznih področjih postane celovitejše kot pri mlajših, saj čustva pogosteje od mlajših razumejo kot zapletene psihološke procese, ki so odvisni od osebnostnih lastnosti posameznika, njegovih želja in ciljev. Po njihovem mnenju naj bi čustva vključevala tudi procese mišljenja. Celovitejše razumevanje čustev se na vseh področjih ne pojavi sočasno, ampak na posameznih z razvojnim zamikom. ABSTRACT - The article deals with the characteristics of understanding emotions such as joy, sadness, anger, and fear in children and adolescents. The findings are based on the results of a research where I examined how children (N=54) from three age groups (7, 9 and 11 years) understand specific areas of chosen emotions, for example recognition, control, concealment of feelings and others. On the basis of the results, which proved to be in line with the findings of other authors, I concluded that younger children understand the emotions in most areas simply as situational, behavioural and physiological responses that are characteristic of all people. Older children and adolescents, however, experience emotions in different areas more comprehensively than younger children because they tend to see them as complex psychological processes which depend on the characteristics of individual's personality, his/her wishes and goals. According to them, emotions also involve thinking processes. A more comprehensive understanding of feelings does not develop simultaneously in all areas but rather separately in individual areas and with developmental delays.

Dr. Marjan Blažič, Mag. Jasmina Starc

UČENJE ZA ZNANJE

LEARNING FOR KNOWLEDGE

Pregledni znanstveni članek Author review
UDK 37:001 UDC 37:001
DESKRIPTORJI: učenje, znanje, učni krog, teorije učenja, učni stili
DESCRIPTORS:learning, knowledge, learning cycle, learning theory, learning styles
POVZETEK - Avtorica v prispevku poudarja vlogo in pomen učenja preko kognitivnih, vedenjskih in izkustvenih teorij učenja, ki vsaka na svoj način poudarjajo, da je učenje proces, s katerim lahko vsak posameznik trajno spremeni svoje vedenje, ki se pojavi kot rezultat prakse in izkušenj. Rezultat učenja pa je eksplicitno in implicitno znanje, s katerim posameznik obvladuje spremembe, rešuje probleme in nenazadnje tudi ustvarja novo znanje. ABSTRACT - The article emphasises the role and importance of learning on the basis of cognitive, behavioural and experiential learning theories. These namely all claim that learning is a process assisting every individual to permanently change his/her behaviour, which is the result of practice and experiences. The learning outcome is the explicit and implicit knowledge which helps the individual to cope with changes, solve problems and create new knowledge.

Dr. Vlasta Kokol Voljč

RAZVOJ OSNOVNIH MATEMATIČNIH POJMOV Z UPORABO PROGRAMOV ZA DINAMIČNO GEOMETRIJO - DINAMIČNA PONAZORITEV

DEVELOPMENT OF BASIC MATHEMATICAL CONCEPTS USING DGS-DYNAMIC

Pregledni znanstveni članek Author review
UDK 372.851 UDC 372.851
DESKRIPTORJI: pouk matematike, pouk geometrije, uporaba računalnika pri pouku matematike, programi za dinamično geometrijo (DGS), razvoj matematičnih pojmov, dinamična shematizacija
DESCRIPTORS:teaching mathematics, teaching geometry, use of technology in teaching mathematics, Dynamic Geometry Software (DGS), concept development, dynamic representation
POVZETEK - Geometrija je pomembno področje šolske matematike, pri katerem se učenci naučijo oblikovati matematični (geometrijski) model realne situacije že v prvih letih šolanja. Zato je zelo pomembno, da so geometrijski pojmi uvedeni ustrezno njihovi matematični vsebini (kot osnovni matematični pojmi) ter da nudijo široke možnosti posploševanja. Programi za dinamično geometrijo (Dynamic Geometry Software - DGS) ponujajo orodja in možnosti, ki lahko bistveno prispevajo h kvalitetnejši izgradnji geometrijskih pojmov - tako v prvih letih šolanja kakor tudi v nadaljevanju. V prispevku so v prvem delu predstavljeni programi za dinamično geometrijo, v drugem delu pa je z uporabo programa Cabri Geometre s primeri prikazano in analizirano, kako lahko uporaba DGS podpre matematični učni proces in razvoj generičnih geometrijskih pojmov v prvih letih poučevanja matematike. Predstavljen in analiziran je vidik dinamične shematizacije ter pojasnjeno in utemeljeno njegovo mesto v procesu razvoja matematičnih pojmov. ABSTRACT - Geometry is an important part of school mathematics - it is an area in which the students learn to develop a mathematical (geometrical) model of real situations already at primary school level. It is therefore of great importance that the geometrical concepts are developed appropriately - in terms of basic mathematical concepts offering large possibilities of generalisation. Dynamic Geometry Software (DGS) offers tools and possibilities which can considerably improve the teaching of basic geometrical concepts in primary (as well as in higher) grades. The first part of the article introduces the Dynamic Geometry Software, while in the second part Cabri Geometre II is used to show, discuss, and analyse examples on how DGS can support the development of generic geometrical concepts in the first years of learning mathematics. The dynamic representation aspect is introduced and analyzed, while its position in the concept development process is explained and justified. Development of Basic Mathematical Concepts Using DGS (Dynamic Geometry Software) - dynamic representation.

Dr. Karmen Kolenc Kolnik

DIDAKTIčNA VREDNOST UČENJA GEOGRAFIJE NA PROSTEM

DIDACTIC VALUE OF OUTDOOR LEARNING OF GEOGRAPHY

Pregledni znanstveni članek Author review
UDK 37.02:372.891 UDC 37.02:372.891
DESKRIPTORJI: didaktična analiza, geografija, učno okolje, učenje na prostem
DESCRIPTORS:didactic analysis, geography, learning space, outdoor learning
POVZETEK - Geografija je v programu osnovne in srednje šole učni predmet, ki mlademu človeku pomaga pridobiti znanje, sposobnosti in spretnosti, s katerimi se lahko orientira ter razume ožje in širše življenjsko okolje. Usmeritev k potrebam učencev (njihovi zaznavni in doživljajski raznolikosti) in k življenju (živimo v prostoru) je pomembna zakonitost učenja geografije. Učenci morajo preko različnih zaznavnih poti doživljati prostor kot sistematično kvaliteto soodvisne in napovedljive celote in neprecenljivo učno sporočilnost kognitivnega, afektivnega in psihomotoričnega učnega doživetja. V prispevku so prikazani izbrani elementi didaktične analize pomena učenja geografije na prostem. V didaktično analizo so zajeta izbrana didaktična načela, didaktična sredstva, učne metode učenja geografije na prostem ter učno okolje. Slednje je analizirano z vidika didaktične primernosti različnih učnih lokacij za pouk geografije na prostem. ABSTRACT - In the primary and secondary school curriculum, geography is a school subject that helps a young person to acquire knowledge and develop the capabilities and skills to interact with the narrower and wider living environment. Working towards the needs of pupils (their different perceptions and experiences) and for life as such is an important law of teaching geography. Through different ways of perception pupils should experience space as a systematic quality of a co-dependent and foreseeable whole as well as receive the invaluable learning message of the cognitive, affective and psycho-motor learning experience. The article presents selected elements of the didactic analysis concerning the meaning of teaching geography outdoors. The analysis captures: didactic principles, didactic means, methods and forms of teaching geography outdoors and the teaching environment. The teaching environment is also analysed from the viewpoint of the suitability of different locations.

Dr. Matjaž Duh

ZNAČILNOSTI DIDAKTIČNE KOMUNIKACIJE V FAZI VREDNOTENJA PRI LIKOVNI VZGOJI

CHARACTERISTICS OF DIDACTIC COMMUNICATION IN EVALUATING ART EDUCATION

Pregledni znanstveni članek Author review
UDK 372.87:316.77 UDC 372.87:316.77
DESKRIPTORJI: likovna vzgoja, didaktična komunikacija, likovno vrednotenje
DESCRIPTORS:art education, didactic communication, evaluation in art education
POVZETEK - Članek na podlagi analize definira didaktično komunikacijo med učiteljem in učenci pri likovnem vrednotenju. Poudarek daje vsebini komunikacije, ki je povezana s kriteriji vrednotenja in z razstavljenimi otroškimi likovnimi deli. Učitelj in učenci se svobodno in izmenoma dopolnjujejo, njihov položaj pa ostaja v funkciji vsebine komunikacije. Ob pričakovani aktivnosti učencev lahko učitelj in učenci s povratnimi informacijami spremljajo razumljivost sporočil, saj se njihov položaj v procesu vrednotenja nenehno spreminja. Tak način didaktične komunikacije v fazi vrednotenja pri likovni vzgoji omogoča razvoj ustvarjalnega izobraževalno-vzgojnega dela, v katerem postajajo učenci in učitelji avtorji svojega lastnega razvoja in napredovanja. ABSTRACT - With the help of an analysis, the present article defines didactic communication between the teacher and learners in the area of art appreciation. The emphasis is placed on the content of the communicative act, which is connected with the evaluation criteria and the displayed works of art created by children. The teacher and the learners freely and alternatively complement each other although their position remains in the function of the content of communication. They are able to understand the messages/exchanges the position of which constantly changes during the process of evaluation or appreciation through willingly provided feedback on the part of the learners.

Dr. Olga Denac

TEŽAVE VZGOJITELJEV PRI URESNIČEVANJU KURIKULUMA ZA VRTCE NA PODROČJU GLASBENE VZGOJE

DIFFICULTIES OF PRE-SCHOOL TEACHERS IN IMPLEMENTING THE CURRICULUM IN THE AREA OF MUSIC EDUCATION

Pregledni znanstveni članek Author review
UDK 372.878 UDC 372.878
DESKRIPTORJI: kurikulum za vrtce, glasbena vzgo-ja, načrtovanje vzgojno-izobraževalnega procesa
DESCRIPTORS:pre-school curriculum, music edu-cation, planning the educational process
POVZETEK - Problematika načrtovanja glasbene vzgoje je še posebej aktualna ob uvedbi Kurikuluma za vrtce (1999), ki prinaša novosti na sistemski in vsebinski ravni. Zato je sistematično spremljanje in ugotavljanje kakovosti načrtovanega in izvedbenega kurikuluma nujen pogoj za uspešno načrtovanje, izvajanje in vrednotenje vzgojno-izobraževalnega procesa glasbene vzgoje. V prispevku je predstavljenih nekaj rezultatov prve faze raziskovalne študije, v katero smo vključili 159 vzgojiteljev iz celotne Slovenije. Namen raziskave je bil ugotoviti mnenja vzgojiteljev o Kurikulumu za vrtce ter težave, s katerimi se vzgojitelji srečujejo pri uvajanju kurikuluma v neposredno prakso na področju glasbene vzgoje. Iz rezultatov raziskave lahko ugotovimo, da se vzgojitelji pri uvajanju kurikuluma v neposredno prakso srečujejo s težavami pri načrtovanju in vrednotenju splošnih in konkretnih glasbenih ciljev ter glasbenih vsebin, ki jih manj strukturiran, odprt in fleksibilen Kurikulum za vrtce ne predpisuje. ABSTRACT - The problems of planning music education have become of topical interest especially with the introduction of the Pre-school Curriculum (1999) since it has brought novelties both at the organic level as well as in content. It is for this reason that systematic observation and verification of the quality of the planned and performed curriculum is an indispensable precondition for successful planning, execution, and evaluation of the educational process in music education. The article offers results of the first phase of a research project including 159 preschool teachers from all over Slovenia. The aim of the study was to assess their opinions about the Pre-school Curriculum, and the problems they are confronted with in its implementation into practice. The research results show that introducing the curriculum into teaching practice has caused teachers to have difficulties in the planning and evaluation of general as well as concrete musical objectives and subject matter, which the rather less structured - open and flexible - Pre-school Curriculum does not prescribe.

Dr. Jurka Lepičnik Vodopivec, Maja Kreslin

OTROCI, STARŠI IN KNJIŽNICA V VRTCU

CHILDREN, PARENTS AND THE KINDERGARTEN LIBRARY

Pregledni znanstveni članek Author review
UDK 027.8:371.64 UDC 027.8:371.64
DESKRIPTORJI: okolje, vrtec, starši, predšolski otrok, knjižnica v vrtcu, količina in izbira knjig za branje, pogostnost obiskovanja knjižnice v vrtcu, bralna pismenost
DESCRIPTORS:environment, kindergarten, pre-school child, kindergarten library, amount and choice of books, frequency of attendance in the kindergarten library
POVZETEK - Prispevek govori o vedno aktualnem vprašanju povezanosti med otroki, starši in vrtcem na področju spodbujanja razvoja pozitivnega odnosa do knjig in s tem razvijanja bralne pismenosti predšolskih otrok. Predstavljena je knjižnica v vrtcu, ki že vrsto let deluje v vrtcu Tezno v Mariboru, ter ugotovitve, povezane z vprašanji o količini in izboru knjig ter obisku knjižnice v vrtcu. ABSTRACT - The article talks about the topical issue of the role parents and the kindergarten should play in helping children to develop a positive attitude toward books and their literacy. It presents such a library that was opened some years ago in the Tezno kindergarten in Maribor and the findings about the quantity, selection, and kindergarten library visits issues.

Dr. Ivan Ferbežer

NEENOTNOST MED KONCEPTOM, IDENTIFIKACIJO IN EDUKACIJO NADARJENIH

DISUNITY IN THE CONCEPTION, IDENTIFICATION AND EDUCATION OF ZOIS' SCHOLARSHIP-HOLDERS

Pregledni znanstveni članek Author review
UDK 37:159.9 UDC 37:159.9
DESKRIPTORJI: identifikacija nadarjenih učencev, edukacija, procesna diagnostika
DESCRIPTORS:identification of gifted pupils, education, process diagnostics
POVZETEK - V tej deskriptivni raziskavi smo kritično analizirali identifikacijski program izbire kandidatov za Zoisove štipendije. Raziskovalno smo osvetlili psihometrično sporno rabo klasičnega MFBR testa za identifikacijo nadarjenih učencev, poudarjen monodisciplinarni pristop, neenotnost med koncepcijo, identifikacijo in edukacijo in identifikacijo na osnovi statičnih in transferzalnih pristopov. ABSTRACT - The descriptive research analysed the identification program for the selection of candidates for Zois' scholarship (Scholarship for the Gifted in Slovenia). We elucidated the controversial psycho-metrical use of the classical MFBR test for the identification of gifted pupils. Further research was then aimed at analyzing the emphasized monodisciplinary approach, the disunity in the conception, identification and education, and the identification on the basis of statistical and transfer approaches. The constructive synthesis includes suggestions of up-to-date possibilities of solving the mentioned problem.

Dr. Jasminka Zloković

RIZIČNOST POJAVA NADARJENOSTI

RISKS CONCERNIG GIFTEDNESS

Pregledni znanstveni članek Author review
UDK 159.9:37 UDC 159.9:37
DESKRIPTORJI: starši, učitelji, nadarjeni učenci, nasilje
DESCRIPTORS:parents, teachers, gifted students, violence
POVZETEK - Avtorica v članku razpravlja o nekaterih destimulativnih in neprimernih oblikah obnašanja staršev in učiteljev, kar postavlja nadarjene otroke v rizično skupino. Različne oblike pritiskov in prisile, ki so jim nekateri otroci izpostavljeni, obravnava v kontekstu nasilja nad otroci in kršitev elementarnih pravic otroka do harmoničnega razvoja. Skozi primere iz pedagoške in družinske prakse opozarja starše in učitelje na rizičen položaj nadarjenih otrok v šolskem sistemu. Glede na številna dejstva, ki nas usmerjajo v zaključek, da številni starši v specifičnih in vsakodnevnih situacijah neprimerno reagirajo, posebej izpostavi vlogo šole pri njihovem educiranju in vzpostavljanju medsebojnega sodelovanja ABSTRACT - The article discusses some of the destimulating and inappropriate behaviours on the part of parents and teachers, which can represent risks for gifted children. Various forms of pressure and force experienced by some of the children are discussed within the context of violence against children, which can be seen as a violation of fundamental rights of children to harmonious development. The cases of teaching and family practice serve as a reminder for parents and teachers about the risks gifted children are exposed to within the school system. The fact that in specific and everyday situations numerous parents react inappropriately requires the schools to help them by educating them and by establishing mutual cooperation.

Dr. Rudi Kotnik

BOLONJSKI PROCES IN NJEGOVE IMPLIKACIJE: NUJNOST HOLISTIČNEGA POJMA KOMPETENTNOSTI

THE BOLOGNA PROCESS AND ITS IMPLICATIONS: THE NECESSITY OF THE HOLISTIC CONCEPT OF COMPETENCE

Pregledni znanstveni članek Author review
UDK 378 UDC 378
DESKRIPTORJI: cilji, bolonjski proces, rezultatski pristop
DESCRIPTORS:objectives, Bologna process, outcome-based approach
POVZETEK - Bolonjski proces z ‘rezultatskim pristopom’ oziroma ‘pristopom izidov’ prinaša ‘novo’ izobraževalno paradigmo, za katero pa lahko ugotovimo, da je kontroverzna. Prispevek obravnava implikacije te nove paradigme za naše izobraževanje na splošno in tudi za didaktiko. Po eni strani se pristop kaže ne le kot koristen, ampak tudi nujen, hkrati pa številne kritične razprave po svetu opozarjajo na skrben razmislek o načinu implementacije temeljnih načel. Ko se visokošolski prostor loteva teh sprememb, je vredno opozoriti tudi na že obstoječa uvajanja nove paradigme, ki so na določen način v našem prostoru navzoča že od uvedbe mednarodne mature pred več kot desetletjem in pol. Tako bi bilo smiselno te izkušnje resno raziskati, da bi ugotovili, ali so v tem procesu in specifiki našega kulturnega prostora lahko koristne tudi za visokošolsko izobraževanje. ABSTRACT - The outcome-based approach as a ‘new’ educational paradigm of the Bologna process seems not only to be useful but also inevitable for the current Slovenian higher education area. While ongoing discussions about our education call our attention to inappropriate aims and objectives, and to the incongruity between objectives and methods, the article directs our attention to the conceptual ground of curriculum design. However, there are other problema-tic aspects of this approach, especially in its indiscrimi-nate implementation. There are numerous scientific discussions showing that the approach is highly controversial. It would therefore make sense to join Europe in a more reflective way. On the other hand, we already have the experience of the new paradigm, i.e. of the International Baccalaureate, which was introduced in our country ten years ago. It would therefore be reasona-ble to explore these experiences and consider the question whether on our way to Europe higher education can learn something from pre-university education as well.

Bojan Jeraj

SPOL IN UPORABA RAČUNALNIKOV

GENDER AND THE USE OF COMPUTERS

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 004-055.1/.3 UDC 004-055.1/.3
DESKRIPTORJI: razlike med spoloma, stereotip, računalnik, IKT, vzor
DESCRIPTORS:gender differences, stereotype, computer, ICT, role model
POVZETEK - V pričujoči razpravi avtor osvetli razlike v uporabi računalnikov med dečki in deklicami kot eno izmed številnih razlik med spoloma. Predstavljena je raziskava PISE (2003), ki je preučevala razlike v evropskem prostoru. V naši družbi velja stereotipno prepričanje, da imajo dečki raje kot deklice delo z računalniki, zato se vse, kar je v povezavi z računalniško tehnologijo, označuje za "moški" svet. Raziskovalci ponujajo različne strategije, kako povečati interes deklet za delo z računalniki, saj v zgodnji starosti označujejo računalniške igre za dolgočasne in nesmiselne, kasneje pa se tudi malo deklet odloči za študij računalništva, kar vodi v spolno segregacijo v znanstvenih poklicih. Najpogostejši kritiki se nanašata na "naravo" računalniških iger, pri katerih programerji upoštevajo predvsem interese dečkov, ter na pomanjkanje ženskih vzorov na področju računalništva. ABSTRACT - The article illuminates the differences in the use of computers between boys and girls as one of numerous gender differences, and presents the research of Pisa (2003), which investigated the differences in the European environment. There is a stereotypical assumption in our society that computer work is more popular with boys than girls. Consequently, all that bears any relation to computer technology is marked as "men's" world. Researchers propose different strategies for increasing the interest of girls for computer work because at an early age girls tend to find computer games boring and meaningless, and are thus later in life less likely to study computer science. Such an attitude leads to gender inequality in scientific professions. Most frequent criticisms apply to the "nature of computer games which cater mostly for the interests of boys, as well as to the lack of female models in computer science.