2005 - LETNIK 20
POVZETKI ŠTEVILKE 2

Dr. Alenka Lipovec

PREVERJANJE REŠITEV MATEMATIČNEGA PROBLEMA PRI POUKU MATEMATIKE V PRVI TRIADI

VALIDATION OF STRATEGIES USED FOR SOLVING MATHEMATICAL PROBLEMS IN THE FIRST TRIAD OF PRIMARY SCHOOL

Pregledni znanstveni članek Review
UDK 371.3:51 UDC 371.3:51
DESKRIPTORJI: poučevanje matematike, začetno šolanje, preprosta aritmetika, seštevanje, odštevanje, množenje, deljenje, inverzne operacije, pouk, problemskost, hevristične metode
DESCRIPTORS: mathematical lessons, initial education, simple arithmetic, addition, subtraction, inverse operations, problem situations, heuristic methods
POVZETEK - Predstavili bi radi najpogostejše težave, ki nastopijo pri uvajanju koncepta deljenja v osnovni šoli. V povezavi s tem bi opozorili na mehanično izvajanje preverjanja in posledično na premajhno stopnjo preverjanja matematičnega načina reševanja v modeliranju problemov iz vsakdanjega življenja pri pouku matematike na razredni stopnji osnovne šole. ABSTRACT - We would like to point out some difficulties that appear when the concept of division is introduced in primary schools. Teachers should be warned about the mechanical performance of proofs, the consequence of which is insufficient validation of mathematical strategies used for solving problems in modelling every day situations in math lessons in lower classes of primary school.

Dr. Samo Fošnarič, Magda Osvald

TEŽAVE UČENCEV PRI RAZUMEVANJU NARAVOSLOVJA NA PREHODU IZ PRVE V DRUGO TRIADO OSNOVNE ŠOLE

DIFFICULTIES OF PRIMARY SCHOOL STUDENTS WITH THE UNDERSTANDING OF NATURAL SCIENCE AS THEY TRANSFER FROM THE FIRST TO THE SECOND TRIAD

Pregledni znanstveni članek Review
UDK 372.85:37.037 UDC 372.85:37.037
DESKRIPTORJI: naravoslovje, razredni pouk, učne težave, učenci
DESCRIPTORS: natural science, classroom teaching, learning difficulties, students
POVZETEK - Izhodišče prispevka predstavlja raziskava, ki preučuje težave pri razumevanju naravoslovja na vzorcu učencev, starih od osem do deset let. Tako je v prvem delu prispevka prikazano učno delo in odnos učencev do šole, v nadaljevanju pa rezultati raziskave, ki primerjajo razumevanje naravoslovnih pojmov med skupinama učno težavnih učencev in drugih učencev v raziskovalnem vzorcu. Izsledki nakazujejo, da je skupina učencev z učnimi težavami na preizkusu znanja iz naravoslovja pri vseh nalogah dosegala nižje rezultate. Največ težav so imeli učenci pri razumevanju navodil za delo ter pri nalogah opisovanja, utemeljevanja in razlaganja. To nas usmerja v iskanje odgovora na vprašanja, kje in zakaj prihaja do problemov na kognitivnem področju. Da bodo tudi ti učenci dosegali boljše rezultate in ohranili interes za učenje naravoslovja, bo potrebno z manjšimi prilagoditvami tako organizirati pouk naravoslovja, da bodo tudi oni lahko uspešnejši. ABSTRACT - The article presents a research dealing with the difficulties of eight to ten year old students in understanding natural science. The first part discusses learning and the attitude of students toward school. Then the research results are presented. The understanding of natural science concepts by a group of learning disabled students and the control students' group is compared. The findings show that the former achieved lower scores in all the natural science test items. Most of the difficulties were experienced in the area of understanding instructions, and in the tasks requiring description, justification and explanation. The results suggest we should find answers to where and why problems in the cognitive area occur. In order for these students to reach better results and keep their interest for learning natural science, the natural science lessons will need to be adjusted and organised in such a way as to provide them with opportunities for positive experiences and success.

Dr. Ana Vovk Korže

UČINKI UVAJANJA PEDAGOŠKIH VIDIKOV SPOZNAVANJA PRSTI V GEOGRAFIJI

THE IMPACT OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF TEACHING ASPECTS IN LEARNING ABOUT DIFFERENT TYPES OF SOIL WITHIN THE SUBJECT OF GEOGRAPHY

Pregledni znanstveni članek Review
UDK 372.891 UDC 372.891
DESKRIPTORJI: geografija, pouk, prst, učni načrt
DESCRIPTORS: geography, lessons, soil, curriculum
POVZETEK - V geografski stroki spada preučevanje prsti med vsebine fizične geografije, kamor spada tudi preučevanje vegetacije, voda, površja in podnebja. Znanja o prsteh so do nedavna spadala med "zahtevnejša", ni bilo ustreznih pripomočkov za delo na terenu, niti za osnovno spoznavanje v razredu, zato so se tem vsebinam izogibali učitelji, pa tudi dijaki in učenci. V učbenikih so bile tem vsebinam dodeljene zadnje strani, tako da se jih pogosto pri pouku sploh niso dotaknili. Toda v zadnjih petih letih je bil narejen velik korak naprej, saj so vsebine geografije prsti povsem enakovredno zastopane (celo nadpovrečno) tako pri pouku v razredu kot pri praktičnih oblikah (terensko delo, tekmovanja in podobno). To spoznanje potrjujejo tudi izjave učiteljev, da si "upajo" organizirati in izvajati spoznavanje prsti v domači pokrajini. Zato želimo v prispevku pojasniti, kako se je geografija prsti "preselila" iz znastvenih okvirov v pedagoško uporabne vsebine. Kajti z uvajanjem pedagoških vidikov je geografija prsti pridobila veliko zanimanje med mladimi (seminarske naloge, diplomska dela ter magistrska in doktorska dela), kar vrednotimo kot izjemen napredek v geografski stroki. ABSTRACT - The soil, water, climate, vegetation and relief investigations belong to the contents of physical geography. Knowledge about different kinds of soil was till recently rather pretentious because there was neither any suitable help for fieldwork nor for basic work in the classroom. This was also the reason why teachers, pupils, and students avoided the mentioned contents. The textbooks usually dedicate the last few pages to soil investigation, which are usually not touched at in lessons. But during the last five years a big step forward has been made so that the contents of soil geography are now well-represented (even above average) in classroom work as well as in the practical forms of work (fieldwork, competitions, etc.). The changed situation has also been confirmed by geography teachers who claim that now they "dare" organize and carry out soil investigations in the local countryside. The article, therefore, tries to explain how soil geography moved from scientific frames to the pedagogically useful contents. With the introduction of pedagogical views, soil geography has become interesting for young people (seminar papers, diploma theses, master and doctoral theses), which can justly be considered as an exceptional contribution to the geography profession.

Mag. Snežana Mirkov, mag. Vera Spasenović, dr. Biljana Trebješanin

STRUKTURA IN DEJAVNIKI UČNIH CILJEV

STRUCTURE AND FACTORS OF PUPILS' LEARNING GOALS

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK 159.9:37 UDC 159.9:37
DESKRIPTORJI: učna motivacija, učni cilji, osnovna šola, intelektualna samopodoba, spol, šolski uspeh, izobrazbena raven staršev
DESCRIPTORS: motivation for learning, learning goals, primary school, intellectual self-concept, sex, academic achievement, parents' educational level
POVZETEK - V članku so predstavljeni rezultati raziskav o učnih ciljih 319 učencev 6., 7. in 8. razreda beograjskih osnovnih šol. Z namenom, da ugotovimo strukturo učnih ciljev, smo preučili distribucijo dvanajstih učnih ciljev, ki smo jih razvrstili v štiri kategorije. Nato smo analizirali distribucijo znotraj posamezne kategorije kakor tudi korelacijo med njimi, da vidimo, ali so omenjene dimenzije neodvisne, in sicer v kolikšni meri se medsebojno izključujejo. Raziskave so se osredotočale na učenčev spol, šolski uspeh, izobrazbeno raven staršev in učenčevo lastno dojemanje intelektualnih sposobnosti. Učni cilji v najvišji kategoriji so usmerjeni v možnost vpisa na želeno srednjo šolo, v zadovoljevanje inte-resov, zagotavljanje bodočega materialnega statusa in v pridobivanje pozitivnega odziva staršev. Rezultati kažejo, da so za učenje pomembne različne vrste ciljev, zatorej moramo pri šolskem delu uporabiti tudi različne vrste spodbud. Razvijanje pozitivnega dojemanja sebe je pomembno za razvoj notranjih ciljev, večjo angažiranost pri učenju in za boljši učni uspeh. ABSTRACT - The article presents research findings on learning goals of 319 students, 6th, 7th, and 8th graders of Belgrade primary schools. To find out the structure of learning goals, the distribution of twelve learning goals was investigated. Thereafter, learning goals were arranged in four categories. The distribution of each category was analyzed as well as the correlation between them, in order to establish whether these dimensions are independent, i.e. to which extent they are mutually exclusive. Investigations were conducted particularly with respect to pupils' sex, academic achievement, parents' educational level and pupils' self-perceptions of intellectual abilities. Learning goals of highest distribution are oriented towa-rds the possibility of enrolment in a desired secondary school, meeting of interests, securing future material status, and gaining parents' positive responses. Findings indicate that different types of goals are important for learning therefore different ways of encouragement sho-uld be employed in school work. Developing positive self-perception in pupils is significant for encouraging intrinsic goals, increased engagement in learning, and higher academic achievement.

Dr. Milena Ivanuš Grmek, mag. Marija Javornik Krečič

MNENJA ŠTUDENTOV O USTREZNI IZBIRI ŠTUDIJA

STUDENTS' VIEWS ON THE APPROPRIATENESS OF THEIR STUDY CHOICE

Pregledni znanstveni članek Review
UDK 378.637 UDC 378.637
DESKRIPTORJI: izbira poklica, motivacija, učiteljski poklic
DESCRIPTORS: choice of professions, motivation, teaching profession
POVZETEK - Namen članka je prikazati razloge študentov Pedagoške fakultete v Mariboru za izbiro pedagoške študijske smeri, torej za poklic učitelja. V raziskavo je bilo vključenih 237 študentov drugega letnika v študijskem letu 2003/2004 na Pedagoški fakulteti v Mariboru. Od petih skupin razlogov za izbiro študija (altruistični, materialni, samouresničitveni, alternativni razlogi ter razlogi iz aspiracije in stereotipov) študenti največkrat navajajo samouresničitvene razloge, kot so: poučevanje je koristno javno delo za celotno družbo, kot učitelj(-ica) bom lahko zgled otrokom in mladim,v tem poklicu imam možnost poklicnega razvoja za vse življenje ter poklic mi bo omogočal uporabo vseh mojih sposobnosti (talentov, npr. glasbenih, verbalnih, plesnih...). Vendar pa med študenti posameznih študijskih smeri obstaja pomembna razlika. ABSTRACT - The purpose of the article is to show why students of the Faculty of Education of Maribor decide for the teaching profession. The research performed at the Faculty of Education in Maribor during the academic year 2003/2004 included 237 sophomore students. Out of the five clusters of reasons for the choice of study (altruistic, material, self-realisation, alternative reasons and those of aspirations and stereotypes), the students most frequently mentioned the self-realisation ones, such as: teaching is a public job useful to society, as a teacher I can be an example to the children and youth, in this profession I have the possibility to develop professionally throughout my life, the profession will enable me to develop and apply all my abilities (talents such as music, verbal skills, dance...). However, there exist big differences among the students of different study programmes.

Dr. Vladimir Rosić, dr. Marko Mušanović

IZOBRAŽEVALNA TEHNOLOGIJA IN SOCIALIZACIJA UČENCEV

EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY AND STUDENT SOCIALISATION

Referat na znanstvenem posvetovanju Conference paper
UDK 316.6:371.68 UDC 316.6:371.68
DESKRIPTORJI: izobraževalna tehnologija, knjiga, televizija, računalnik, komunikacija
DESCRIPTORS: educational technology, communication, socialisation
POVZETEK - V prispevku avtorja predstavljata rezultate svojega raziskovalnega dela o vplivu izobraževalne tehnologije na proces socializacije učencev v učnem procesu. Izhajata iz ugotovitve, da se tehnologija proizvodnje materialnih dobrin razvija v smeri vse večje avtomatizacije in samoregulacije, s čimer se zmanjšuje količina živega dela v tem procesu. Tehnologija pouka v svojem zgodovinskem razvoju sledi razvoju tehnologije na področju materialne proizvodnje, zato se tudi učni proces vse bolj avtomatizira in samoregulira. Posledica tega je tudi zmanjševanje neposrednega učiteljevega dela. Ta proces vzporedno odpira pomembno vprašanje, kako bo potekal proces socializacije učencev v novih družbenih in tehnoloških pogojih, v katerih učenec ne bo vzpostavljal interpersonalnega odnosa z učiteljem in drugimi učenci. ABSTRACT - In this work the authors present the results of their previous researches on the technologies of teaching and the process of socialization of pupils in the course of the teaching process. Their starting point is the conclusion that the technology of the production process of material assets is developing in the line of an expanding degree of automation hence a decline in the participation of live labor. The teaching technology in its progress follows the courses of technological development in the sphere of material production and accordingly the teaching process is also increasing automatizion and self-regulating. Therefore, the participation of live teaching work is decreasing. If this trend continues, a point will be reached when the teacher will no longer be necessary.

Dr. Andreja Istenič Starčič

SODELOVALNO UČENJE PRI UPORABI RAČUNALNIKA NA PREDMETNI STOPNJI OSNOVNE ŠOLE

CO-OPERATIVE LEARNING IN COMPUTER SCIENCE AT THE SUBJECT LEVEL OF PRIMARY SCHOOL

Referat na znanstvenem posvetovanju Conference paper
UDK 373.3:004 UDC 373.3:004
DESKRIPTORJI: didaktika, učne metode, sodelovalno učenje, osnovna šola, računalnik
DESCRIPTORS: teaching methods, co-operative learning, primary school, computer
POVZETEK - Pri učenju z računalnikom so se uveljavile skupinske oblike učenja in med njimi metoda sodelovalnega učenja. V prispevku predstavljamo metodo sodelovalnega učenja pri uporabi računalnika na predmetni stopnji osnovne šole. Značilnost, ki sodelovalno učenje razlikuje od skupinskega učenja, je napredek/uspeh vsakega posameznika pri učenju v skupini in napredek/uspeh skupine kot celote. Vlogo skupinskih oblik učenja utemeljujemo s teorijo L.S. Vigotskega. ABSTRACT - Learning with computers has brought forth various forms of group learning, one of which is the co-operative learning method. The article presents the co-operative learning method as it is applied in computer use at the subject level of primary school. The characteristics of co-operative learning, which make it distinct from group learning, are the progress/achievement of each individual within the group and the progress/achievement of the group as a whole. The importance of group learning forms is justified with the theory of L.S. Vigotsky.

Tatjana Drovenik Čalič

NOVI UČNI MEDIJI IN MODELI USTVARJALNEGA SODELOVALNEGA UČENJA

NEW TEACHING MEDIA AND MODELS OF CREATIVE-COOPERATIVE LEARNING

Referat na znanstvenem posvetovanju Conference paper
UDK 371.68:004 UDC 371.68:004
DESKRIPTORJI: modeli ustvarjanja znanja, spoznavne infrastrukture, razvijanje znanja, skupnosti za inovativno znanje, računalnik
DESCRIPTORS: knowledge - creation school, epistemological infrastructure, knowledge building, innovative knowledge community, computer
POVZETEK - Računalniško podprto sodelovalno učenje je osnovano na ideji, da novi mediji lahko podprejo in razvijajo socio-spoznavne procese za sodelovalno izgradnjo znanja. Usmerili se bomo na spoznavne infrastrukture sodelovalnega učenja s pomočjo računalniške tehnologije. Za boljše razumevanje osnovnih spoznavnih procesov ob razvijanju znanja bomo analizirali tri modele skupnosti inovativnega znanja: Nonaka & Takeuchijev model organizacije, ki ustvarja znanje, Yryo Engestromov model ekspanzivnega učenja in model razvijanja znanja - Carla Bereiterja. Ti modeli predstavljajo učenje kot proces ustvarjanja in razvijanja znanja. Za pospeše-vanje sprememb v izobraževanju s pomočjo računalniške tehnologije je potrebna večja socialna infrastruktura, ki podpira spoznavne procese. Zaključujemo s primeri iz prakse, kjer se poslužujemo računalniške tehnologije pri ustvarjanju in razvijanja znanja. ABSTRACT - Computer supported cooperative learning (CSCL) is based on idea that new medias can scaffold and implement advanced socio-cognitive process for knowledge sharing and knowledge building. This paper will focus on the "epistemological infrastruc-ture" of computer supported cooperative learning We will analyze three models of innovative knowledge communities in order to better understand basic epistemological processes of knowledge advancement: Nonaka & Takeuchis model of knowledge-creating school, Yrjo Engestrom's expansive learning model, and Carl Bereiter's theory of knowledge building. As to these models learning is a process of knowledge creation and knowledge building. In order to facili-tate educational change through CSCL also certain kind of larger social infrastructure is needed that supports these epistemological processes. To finish with wežre giving some examples of knowledge creation and knowledge building supported by computer technogy.

Olga Dečman Dobrnjič, dr. Metod Černetič

INTELEKTUALNI KAPITAL - NOVI MODELI V EVROPI

INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL - NEW MODELS IN EUROPA

Referat na znanstvenem posvetovanju Conference paper
UDK 001:37 UDC 001:37
DESKRIPTORJI: intelektualni kapital, dijaški dom, okolje, izobraževanje, informacijska družba.
DESCRIPTORS: intellectual capital, boarding schools, environment, education, boarding schools models
POVZETEK - Zaradi vključitve Slovenije v Evropsko unijo nastajajo vsebinske prenove slovenskega šolstva, kar vpliva tudi na dijaške domove, ki v konceptu sekundarnega izobraževanja predstavljajo dodatno ponudbo kakovosti in omogočajo ugodne možnosti izobraževanja dijakom, ki se šolajo izven kraja bivanja. Globalne spremembe (demografske, socialne, migracijske ipd.) povzročajo upad vpisa števila dijakov v dijaške domove, zato dijaški domovi iščejo ustrezen menjalni odnos v globalno informacijski družbi v razširjenem evropskem okolju. Z ustreznim vodenjem in menedžmentom lahko dijaški domovi izkoristijo ključni vir, ki jim je na razpolago v notranjem okolju, to je upravljanje z znanjem - intelektualnim, socialnim in kulturnim kapitalom zaposlenih. ABSTRACT - Slovenia has joined the European Uni-on and is now undergoing a renovation of its education system, which also affects boarding schools. In the concept of secondary education, boarding schools represent an extra offer of quality which enables students to enjoy comparatively inexpensive education outside their hometowns. Global changes (demographic, social, mi-grational, etc.) cause a decrease in students' enrolment into boarding schools, which is why the boarding schools are searching for an adequate new interchanging re-lationship within the global information society of the enlarged European environment. Through adequate leadership and management, schools should implement the key resource to be found within their environment, which is knowledge management, and thus make available the intellectual, social and cultural capital of their employees. The boarding schools are expected to develop along different organizational models: the social welfare model, the education model and the tourist model of boarding school.

Dr. Mira Cencič

RAZVIJANJE POJMOV V UČNEM PROCESU

CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT IN TEACHING

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 371.214 UDC 371.214
DESKRIPTORJI: učenec, učitelj, učni proces, razvijanje pojmov
DESCRIPTORS: student, teacher, teaching process, concept development
POVZETEK - Avtorica v prispevku razpravlja o možnostih razvijanja pojmov v učnem procesu. Natančno opredeli glavne značilnosti pojmov, kot so vsebina, obseg in ime (beseda), ter nakaže pomembnost razvrščanja pojmov v sistem. ABSTRACT - In her article, the author discusses the possibilities of concept development in the teaching process. She defines the main concept characteristics such as content, extent and name (word), and stresses the importance of the classification of concepts into a system.

Dr. Majda Pšunder, dr. Mateja Pšunder

ALI SLABO DRŽO PRVOŠOLČKOV POGOJUJE TEŽKA ŠOLSKA TORBA?

IS POOR BODY POSTURE OF FIRST GRADERS THE RESULT OF HEAVY SCHOOL BAGS?

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 616.7:37 UDC 616.7:37
DESKRIPTORJI: slaba drža prvošolcev, šolska torba, šolske potrebščine
DESCRIPTORS: poor body posture of first graders, school bag, school accessories
POVZETEK - Slabo držo otrok zaznavajo strokovnjaki v obdobju intenzivnejše rasti. Najnevarnejša doba za nastanek slabe drže je mlajša šolska doba. Slaba telesna drža ne pomeni nastanek deformacij, pač pa nepravilnosti telesne mehanike in jo lahko povzroča več povzročiteljev, med katerimi smo izpostavili šolsko torbo. Ta je pretežka takrat, ko presega 10 odstotkov učenčeve teže in ko jo prenaša več kot eno uro na dan. V raziskavi na nereprezentativnem vzorcu prvošolcev smo ugotovili, da povprečna teža polne šolske torbe v tedenski meritvi predstavlja 13,6% teže vzorca, da pa jo vzorec nosi veliko krajši čas. Težo šolske torbe pogojuje že teža prazne šolske torbe, ki je v našem primeru znašala 4,4% povprečne telesne teže vzorca, povprečno razliko 9,2% pa zajemajo šolske potrebščine in nepotrebne stvari. ABSTRACT - Poor body posture of children is usually diagnosed during the period of intense growth. The most dangerous time for poor body posture to develop is the early school period. It does not signify an onset of deformations but rather some irregularities of body mechanics which can be attributed to several causes, one of them the school bag. The school bag is considered as too heavy when it exceeds 10% of child's weight and when he/she has to carry it for more than one hour per day. In a research based on a non-representative sample of first graders we established that the average weight of a full school bag during one week measurement amounted to 13,6% of the weight of the sample, but it was carried far less time than one hour. The weight of the school bag consisted of the weight of the bag itself, which in our case amounted to 4,4% of the average body weight of the sample, while the average difference of 9,2% was made up of school accessories and unnecessary items.

Dr. Alojzija Židan

KONSTRUKTIVISTIČNO OBRAVNAVANJE SOCIOLOŠKIH VSEBIN

CONSTRUCTIVIST TREATMENT OF SOCIOLOGICAL CONTENTS

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 372.831.6 UDC 372.831.6
DESKRIPTORJI: kurikulum, načini izobraževanja, informacijska družba, demokratična praksa, socializacija.
DESCRIPTORS: curriculum, education systems, information society, socialisation
POVZETEK - Avtorica je oblikovalka konstruktivističnega sociološkega učnega vzorca za mlade, v katerega vgradi problemske smerne prvine. Te vsak učitelj lahko ustvarjalno uporablja v svojih konkretnih pedagoških delovnih okoljih. Avtorica opozarja na potrebo po visoki profesionalnosti učiteljev sociologije. ABSTRACT - The writer of the article is the author of the constructivist sociological educational pattern for the young generation, wherein she has built problem oriented elements. Every teacher can apply these in his/her teaching environment. The author also brings to our attention the need for high professio-nalism of the sociology teacher.

Dr. Muhamed Škrgić

NEKATERA STALIŠČA O IZOBRAŽEVANJU V POGOJIH ANOMIJE

VIEWPOINTS ON EDUCATION UNDER ANOMIE CONDITIONS

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 37:001 UDC 37:001
DESKRIPTORJI: izobraževanje, anomija, vrednotenje znanja, učenci, starši
DESCRIPTORS: education, anomie, knowledge assessment, students, parents
POVZETEK - Avtor v svojem prispevku razpravlja o anomiji, ki inicira restrukturiranje zgodnjega vrednostnega sistema, ki ga praviloma spremlja splošni adaptivni stres. V empiričnem delu poroča o rezultatih proučevanja izbire delodajalca, predstavi stališča o pragmatičnosti že usvojenega znanja in o znanju, ki dobi praktično vrednost v novih okoliščinah, skladno s tem pa tudi o vplivu staršev na razvoj stališč otrok do izobraževanja. ABSTRACT - In his article, the author first talks about anomie as an environment strongly requiring the need for restructuring the earlier value system, which is almost always accompanied by general adaptive stress. In the second part of the discussion, the author presents the results of an empirical research on the impacts anomie has on the flexibility in choosing the employer. He further presents the attitudes regarding pragmatism of previously acquired knowledge, but also of the knowledge that plays a practical role in new circumstances, and the effect parents have on their children's attitude to education.

Majda Hafner

AVTONOMIJA UČITELJA V ŠOLI

TEACHER AUTONOMY IN SCHOOL

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 371.13/.16 UDC 371.13/.16
DESKRIPTORJI: avtonomija učitelja, razvoj, modeli organizacij, kakovost, odgovornost
DESCRIPTORS: teacher autonomy, development, organisational models, quality, responsibility
POVZETEK - Razvoj šolstva gre v smeri decentralizacije, v kateri se vse bolj uveljavlja tudi avtonomija šol in strokovnih delavcev kot temeljnih nosilcev resničnega trajnega kakovostnega napredka. Avtonomijo učitelja (šol) smo obeležili teoretično v modelih organizacij in empirično v smislu spoznavanja in percepcije avtonomije z vidika učiteljev. Učitelji pojem avtonomije smiselno zelo dobro razumejo. Avtonomija učitelja vodi k spodbujanju izboljšanja kakovosti kljub prevladujočim centralističnim in hierarhičnim strukturam. Rezultati raziskave kažejo razhajanje med teoretičnimi predstavami, zakonodajnimi določili na eni in šolsko resničnostjo na drugi strani. Za zagotavljanje strokovne avtonomije je treba zagotoviti ustrezne notranje pogoje. Med temi so načini in kakovost ravnateljevega pedagoškega vodenja šolskega kolektiva, ki se med drugim kaže tudi v zaupanju v učiteljevo strokovnost in odgovornost, spodbujanju kakovostnega in ustvarjalnega dela. Smiselno in spodbudno za razvoj šole je, da učitelji uresničujejo večjo samostojnost, s tem pa razširjeno odgovornost v šoli, kar kaže na racionalno perspektivo za šolsko reformo. ABSTRACT - Education is headed in the direction of decentralisation, where the autonomy of schools and their staff will play a great role as fundamental carriers of constant quality development. In my paper I describe teacher autonomy; theoretically through models of organisations, and empirically as to how teachers understand and perceive their own autonomy. They understand the importance of their autonomy and its essence very well. Greater autonomy enables each teacher to perform his or her job better. Current organi-sation of schools, however, gives priority to centralistic and hierarchic structures, which make it difficult to achieve autonomy. The results of the polls show that there exists substantial difference between the theoretical understanding of what should be done given the legal framework and the reality which teachers are faced with in schools every day. Certain conditions have to be fulfilled to achieve professional autonomy. One of them is definitely a positive attitude accompanied by competent leadership of the heads of schools, which they show by trusting and respecting teachers' professionalism and acknowledging their personal responsibility, in other words, when they support their creativity, innovative approaches and with them their autonomy.