2005 - LETNIK 20
POVZETKI ŠTEVILKE 1

Dr. Vida Medved Udovič

ZGODNJE BRANJE ZA UČINKOVITO BRALNO PISMENOST

EARLY READING FOR EFFICIENT READING LITERACY

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK 087.5:028.5 UDC 087.5:028.5
DESKRIPTORJI: bralna pismenost, recepcija slikanice, predšolski književni kurikul, pripovedovanje zgodb, mladi bralec, mednarodne raziskave znanja.
DESCRIPTORS: reading literacy, receptivity of a picture book, pre-school literature curriculum, story telling, young reader, international knowledge research
POVZETEK - V besedilu je prikazana recepcija slikanice brez besedila, ki temelji na opomenjanju slikovne naracije otrok, starih od pet do šest let. Slikanica razvije svoj učinek šele takrat, ko prihaja do zlitja vizualnega/likovnega in besednega/zgodbenega. Pomen slikanice se aktualizira v hkratnem bralnem in vidnem procesu. Izhajajoč iz mednarodnih izsledkov raziskav o bralni pismenosti slovenskih otrok (1991, 2001), je posebej poudarjen pomen zgodnjega branja in pripovedovanja zgodb v predšolskem obdobju, ki bistveno prispevata k učinkoviti bralni pismenosti v šolskem obdobju. Likovno oblikovana pripoved s poudarkom na književni osebi in dogajalnem prostoru osmišlja otrokovo "branje" slikovne zgodbe vse do trenutka, ko otrok usvoji osnovno bralno tehniko in vstopi v svet branja in pisanja. Članek se zato tudi zavzema za predšolski književni kurikul s kakovostnimi primeri slovenskih slikanic brez besedila. ABSTRACT - The article presents the receptivity of a picture book without text, which is based on the narration of children about it. The children are 5 to 6 years old. The picture book develops its full impact only when the visual/artistic and verbal/story components are integrated. The meaning of the picture book is realised in the simultaneous reading and visual process. Based on international findings on reading literacy of Slovene children (1991, 2001), the importance of early "reading" and story telling in pre-school period is emphasised because they greatly impact the efficient reading literacy during schooling. The artistically created story with emphasis on the literary character and place of action helps the young reader to make sense of the picture story up to the time when s/he learns the basic reading skills and enters the world of reading and writing. The article pleads for a pre-school literature curriculum based on quality Slovene picture books without text.

Dr. Janja Črčinovič Rozman, dr. Samo Fošnarič, dr. Mihaela Brumen

RAZVOJ VREDNOSTNIH KATEGORIJ ŠTUDENTOV RAZREDNEGA POUKA PRI PRESOJANJU IN OCENJEVANJU UČENCEV NA PEDAGOŠKI PRAKSI

DEVELOPMENT OF VALUE CATEGORIES IN STUDENTS OF PRIMARY SCHOOL EDUCATION WHEN ASSESSING AND EVALUATING PUPILS DURING SCHOOL PRACTICE

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK 373.3-057.87:165.4 UDC 373.3-057.87:165.4
DESKRIPTORJI: učenci, študenti, vrednostne kategorije, znanje, obnašanje
DESCRIPTORS: pupils, students, value categories, knowledge, behaviour
POVZETEK - Namen raziskave je bil ugotoviti razvitost sposobnosti študentov razrednega pouka za vrednotenje učencev. Zanimale so nas predvsem vrednostne kategorije, ki jih pri vrednotenju uporabljajo v praksi, in vrednotenje z osnovnima kategorijama "dobro-slabo". V raziskavi je sodelovalo 81 študentk in študentov razrednega pouka Pedagoške fakultete v Mariboru. Učence so opazovali na 72 različnih osnovnih šolah in jih vrednotili v sklopu tritedenske pedagoške prakse. Po končani praksi so svoja opažanja in mnenja zapisali v odgovorih na anketni vprašalnik. Analiza rezultatov je pokazala, da so kot dobre učence opisovali predvsem tiste, ki so bili učno uspešni. Manj težav so imeli z izobraževalnimi kot z vzgojnimi vidiki pouka. V vrednotenje niso bili sposobni zajeti vseh vrednostnih kategorij, ki so jih teoretično spoznali med študijem. ABSTRACT - The purpose of this research is to present the assessment abilities of students of the Department of Primary School Education. We were interested in value categories used by the students during their teaching practice, and in students' assessment using two main categories "good-bad". 81 students of the Department of Primary School Education at the Faculty of Education in Maribor participated in the research. Pupils were observed at 72 different primary schools. Students assessed pupils during their 3 week teaching practice. To collect the data, we administered a questionnaire following their teaching practice. The analysis of the results shows that students described as "good pupils" only those who were successful in their learning. Students had fewer difficulties with issues of instruction than with moral values teaching. However, they were not able to include in their assessment all the categories they had learnt during their studies.

Mag. Marija Javornik Krečič

SEMINAR V TEORIJI IN PRAKSI

SEMINAR IN THEORY AND PRACTICE

Pregledni znanstveni članek Review
UDK 378.147 UDC 378.147
DESKRIPTORJI: seminar, predavanje, vaje, aktivnost, sodelovanje, diskusija, seminarska skupina, odnosi, metodične, vsebinske značilnosti seminarja
DESCRIPTORS: seminar, lectures, exercises, activity, participation, discussion, seminar group, relations, methodological and content seminar characteristics
POVZETEK - Prispevek predstavlja seminar kot eno od pomembnih oblik visokošolskega pouka. V prvem (teoretičnem) delu predstavimo značilnosti seminarja: kako se seminar razlikuje od predavanj in vaj, kakšni so nameni seminarja ter kako naj bi načrtovali in izvedli seminar (torej potek seminarja). V drugem delu so predstavljeni rezultati empirične raziskave na manjšem (nereprezentativnem) vzorcu, ki kažejo značilnosti seminarja v praksi. Osrednje vprašanje prispevka je, ali je seminar v praksi v skladu s svojo definicijo in nameni - kje so odstopanja in kje prekrivanja s teorijo. ABSTRACT - The article presents seminar as one of the important forms of higher education studies. The first (theoretical) part discusses seminar characteristics: how it differs from lectures and exercises, what its intent is and how it can be properly planned and implemented (seminar delivery). The second part presents the results of an empirical research carried out on a small (non-representative) sample, which reflects seminar characteristics in practice. The focal question is whether the actually implemented seminar complies with its definition and goals; when deviations occur and where theory and practice match.

Dr. Ivan Ferbežer

DABROWSKI - TEORIJA POZITIVNE DEZINTEGRACIJE

DABROWSKI'S THEORY OF POSITIVE DISINTEGRATION

Pregledni znanstveni članek Review
UDK 371.212-056.4 UDC 371.212-056.4
DESKRIPTORJI: nadarjeni učenci, osebnost nadarjenih, teorija pozitivne dezintegracije, razvojni potencial, prekomerna razdražljivost
DESCRIPTORS: gifted children, personality of gifted children, theory of positive disintegration, developmental potential, overexcitability
POVZETEK - Poznavanje in upoštevanje osebnostnega, emocionalnega in moralnega razvoja nadarjenih vse bolj postaja ključnega pomena za njihov celoviti razvoj. Predstavljamo Teorijo pozitivne dezintegracije poljskega, v Ameriki živečega psihologa Dabrowskega. Razvil je teorijo o razvoju individualne osebnosti, ki temelji na razvojnem napredovanju od spodnje integracije, skozi sekvence dezintegracije in doseganja višje integracije. Nadarjeni učenci dosežejo višjo raven pri razvoju potencialov in povečano dezintegracijo ter osebnostno rast. S terminom "prekomerna razdražljivost" avtor razlaga preobčutljivost pri komunikacijskem vstopanju in prilagajanju. Teorija pozitivne dezintegracije zahteva pet oblik prekomerne razdražljivosti. Je tudi teorija o moralnem razvoju, ki izhaja iz osebne življenjske motivacije in vodi v empatijo in altruizem. Učitelji bi pri edukaciji nadarjenih učencev morali poznati omenjeno teorijo, saj se nanaša na podcenjevan socialni, emocionalni in moralni razvoj. ABSTRACT - Knowing and taking into account the personal, emotional and moral development of the gifted is becoming more and more the driving force of the comprehensive development of the gifted. The article presents the theory of positive disintegration by the Polish psychologist Dabrowski, who lives in the USA. He developed the theory of individual personality development built on the developmental progress from lower integration through sequences of disintegration and achieving higher integration. The gifted children achieve a higher level in the field of developing potentials, higher disintegration and higher personal growth. The author uses the term overexcitability to describe their oversensitivity in adapting to the environment. Dabrowski's theory of positive disintegration consists of five manifestations of overexcitability. The theory of positive disintegration is also a theory of moral development ensuing from personal life motivation and leading to empathy and altruism. Teachers should be familiar with the mentioned theory, which refers to the undervalued social, emotional and moral development in the framework of the education of gifted children.

Marjana Ivanjko

RAZLIČNI PRISTOPI K FILOZOFIRANJU Z OTROKI

VARIOUS APPROACHES TO PHILOSOPHISING WITH CHILDREN

Pregledni znanstveni članek Review
UDK 1:37-053.5 UDC 1:37-053.5
DESKRIPTORJI: filozofiranje z otroki, filozofija za otroke, filozofija z otroki
DESCRIPTORS: philosophising with children, philosophy for children, philosophy with children
POVZETEK - Obstajajo različni pristopi, kako filozofirati z otroki. Najbolj znan in razširjen je program Filozofija za otroke Matthewa Lipmana in njegovih kolegov. Gre za program, ki ga izvajajo po vseh celinah sveta in ima izdelano metodologijo in pripravljene materiale za pomoč pri izvajanju šolskega predmeta. Pogosto pa naletimo tudi na izraz filozofija z otroki. Ker na področju filozofiranja z otroki dobimo občutek, da sta izraza zamenljiva, poskuša prispevek opredeliti razliko med njima, predstaviti možne alternative in ugotoviti, ali je program Filozofija za otroke holističen ali se bolj drži anglo-ameriške filozofske tradicije. ABSTRACT - There exist various approaches to philo-sophising with children. The most popular one is the philosophy for children developed by Matthew Lipman and his co-workers. This is a world-wide programme with a structured methodology and support materials for classroom practice. In our work, we frequently also encounter the expression philosophy with children. Since the expressions seem to be used interchangeably, the article tries to define the differences between the two, present the possible alternatives as well as find out whether the philosophy for children programme is a holistic approach or whether it more or less ties on to the Anglo-American philosophical tradition

Dr. Marina Tavčar Krajnc

SOCIOLOGIJA NA MATURI - SEMINARSKA NALOGA

SOCIOLOGY AS PART OF THE MATURA EXAM - SEMINAR PAPER

Pregledni znanstveni članek Review
UDK 372.831.6 UDC 372.831.6
DESKRIPTORJI: sociologija, matura, seminarske naloge, interno, eksterno ocenjevanje, korelacija, izkušnje dijakov
DESCRIPTORS: sociology, matura exam, seminar paper, internal, external assessment, correlation, pupils' experience
POVZETEK - Prispevek obravnava maturitetne seminarske naloge pri sociologiji kot posebno obliko samostojnega dela dijakov, ki jo za razliko od pisnega dela izpita iz sociologije interno ocenijo učitelji, ki tako delo tudi mentorsko vodijo. Med internimi in eksternimi ocenami je bila v preteklem desetletju ugotovljena nizka korelacija, kar opozarja na določene probleme pri ocenjevanju. Članek predstavlja doslej uporabljena merila internega ocenjevanja in predvidene spremembe, predstavlja pa tudi izkušnje dijakov s seminarskim delom. Dosedanje pozitivne izkušnje kažejo, da bi bilo potrebno interni del izpita iz sociologije v tej obliki ohraniti tudi v prihodnje, postopoma pa odpraviti pomanjkljivosti tako v ocenjevanju kakor v postopku izdelave in spremljanja. ABSTRACT - The article discusses the seminar paper for the subject of sociology, which represents a special part of the independent work to be performed by pupils and, as opposed to the written parts of the matura exam, is internally assessed by the teachers who prepare them for the exam. There has been low correlation between internal and external assessment, which is an indicator of difficulties in this area. At the same time, the article presents the criteria of internal assessment, anticipated modifications as well as pupils' experience in preparing these seminar papers. The positive experience up to now indicates that the internal part of the matura exam in sociology should maintain a similar form in the future, while weaknesses in the assessment, in the work process, and in tutorial supervision should gradually be eliminated.

Mag. Jasmina Starc

SKRITA DINAMIKA - ČUSTVA PRI DELU

THE CONCEAL DYNAMICS - FEELINGS AT WORK

Pregledni znanstveni članek Review
UDK 159.95:65.012.4 UDC 159.95:65.012.4
DESKRIPTORJI: čustva, čustvena inteligenca, teorije čustvene inteligence, čustveno inteligentni zaposleni, čustveno inteligentno podjetje, čustveno inteligentni vodja
DESCRIPTORS: feelings, emotional intelligence, teories of emotional intelligence, emotionally intelligent employees, emotionally intelligent company, emotionally intelligent leader
POVZETEK - Avtorica v prispevku obravnava pomen občutij, čustev in čustvene inteligence kot dejavnikov za uspešno delo zaposlenih v delovnih organizacijah. Ugotavlja, da bo v prihodnosti vse bolj pomembno kakovostno ravnanje s čustvi, katerega rezultat bo (je) optimalno izkoriščanje človeškega potenciala, ki se odraža v večjem zadovoljstvu, uspešnosti in učinkovitosti zaposlenih in celotne organizacije. V današnjem poslovnem svetu so čustva in razum postala predmet velikega zanimanja, saj so raziskave pokazale, da inteligenca sama ni zadostna za doseganje najboljših uspehov, rezultati so bistveno boljši, če razum uporabljamo skupaj s čustvi. Za dobro uveljavitev na delovnem mestu moramo razvijati svojo čustveno inteligenco, ne glede na to, katero delovno mesto zasedamo. ABSTRACT - The aurhoress deals with the role of feelings, emotions and emotional intelligence as factors for efficient work in work organizations. She finds out that quality in dealing with emotions will be more and more inportant which will result in opimal usage of human potential and consequently in higher satisfaction, success and effectiveness of employees and company. In today's business world emotions and intellect have come into the centre of interests deu to the fact that researches have shown that intelligence itself does not lead to the best results, and the results are much better when connected with emotions. The perequisite condition for success at work is emotional intelligence which has to be developed, no matter which part we are in.

Dr. Jana Bezenšek

IZOBRAŽEVANJE, DRUŽINA, MEDIJI

EDUCATION, FAMILY, MEDIA

Referat na znanstvenem posvetovanju Conference paper
UDK 316.77:173.5/.6 UDC 316.77:173.5/.6
DESKRIPTORJI: dvostarševska družina, enoroditeljska družina, množični mediji, izobraževanje, post-moderna družba, habitus, življenjski stil
DESCRIPTORS: two parent family, single family, mass media, education, post-modern society, living environment, life style
POVZETEK - Na optimalni osebni razvoj posameznika vpliva veliko dejavnikov. Med najpomembnejšimi sta zagotovo socialno in življenjsko okolje, v katerem posameznik živi in družina z ustrezno spodbudo staršev ter kulturnim in socialnim kapitalom, pa tudi mediji, ki (so)oblikujejo posameznikov vrednostni sistem in odnos do življenja nasploh. Avtorica v svojem prispevku poglobljeno razmišlja o vplivih medijev na življenje družine in posameznika v njej, na njegov odnos do drugih ljudi in samega sebe. ABSTRACT - Optimal personal development is influenced by several factors. The most important among them are certainly the social and living environment of a person and his/her family, appropriate parental stimulation, cultural and social capital, as well as mass media, which model the individual's value system and his/her attitude to life in general. In her article, the author analyses the influence of mass media on the life of the family and on the individual as part of it, his/her relations to others and to him/herself.

Dr. Darinka Sikošek

PREDMET MENTORSTVO MLADIM KEMIKOM - RAZISKOVALCEM

MENTORSHIP OF YOUNG CHEMISTS - RESEARCHERS

Referat na znanstvenem posvetovanju Conference paper
UDK 378.094:372.854 UDC 378.094:372.854
DESKRIPTORJI: mentorstvo, mladi raziskovalci, aktivno učenje
DESCRIPTORS: mentorship, young chemists - researchers, active learning
POVZETEK - Bistveno vlogo pri odkrivanju, razvijanju in uveljavljanju mladih kemikov - raziskovalcev kakor tudi pri vzgoji bodočih poklicnih raziskovalcev na področju kemijskih dejavnosti imajo učitelji - mentorji. Uveljavljanje metod aktivnega učenja še zlasti informacijsko podprtega raziskovalnega učenja in problemskega pristopa daje učiteljem katerega koli predmeta (tudi kemije) izzivalno priložnost, da se intenzivno posvetijo mentorstvu mladih raziskovalcev. Da bi lahko učitelji kemije to mentorstvo kar najbolj učinkovito opravljali, jih je potrebno na to vlogo posebej pripraviti. ABSTRACT - As mentors, chemistry teachers play an essential role in detecting, developing and assisting young chemists as researchers. Just as important is their support in the education of future professional researchers in various activities of chemical interests. Using active learning methods, especially the information supported heuristic and problem solving learning, it is possible for teachers of any subject (chemistry as well) to take up the challenge and devote themselves to the mentorship of young researchers. Chemistry teachers are aware that they need a special training programme to provide them with the necessary experience and skills.

Sofija Vrcelj, PhD

ZASEBNO ŠOLSTVO NA HRVAŠKEM - NOVA PARADIGMA KAKOVOSTI ALI PROMOCIJA VISOKE DRUŽBE?

PRIVATE EDUCATION IN CROATIA - A NEW PARADIGM OF QUALITY OR A PROMOTER OF HIGH-CLASS SOCIETY?

Referat na znanstvenem posvetovanju Conference paper
UDK 37.058(497.5) UDC 37.058(497.5)
DESKRIPTORJI: zasebno šolstvo, kvaliteta, socialna stratifikacija
DESCRIPTORS: private education, quality, social stratification
POVZETEK - Namen prispevka je prikazati pomen zasebnega šolstva na Hrvaškem - ali predstavlja novo kakovost v izobraževanju, ali pa je naloga zasebnih šol pravzaprav promocija visoke družbe in sredstvo socialnega ločevanja? Obstajajo nasprotujoča mne-nja o pomenu in funkciji zasebnega šolstva; na eni strani so njegovi zagovorniki, ki menijo, da lahko z zasebnim šolstvom dosežemo nov, kakovosten napredek v izobraževanju, medtem ko njegovi nasprotniki trdijo, da je zasebno šolstvo privilegij visoke družbe in da je odličen uspeh učencev in dijakov rezultat visokih šolnin, ne pa kakovostnega dela. ABSTRACT - The aim of this paper is to investigate the meaning of private education in Croatia - is it a new quality in education or is the function of private schools a kind of promotion of high-class society and a means of social division? There are opposing opinions about the meaning and function of private education in Croatia; on the one hand there are supporters of private education who consider that with private education we can achieve a new, qualitative progress in education in general. On the other hand, there are opponents of private education who consider that private education is assigned to the high-class society, and that the high achievements of the students are not the result of quali-tative work in private schools, but of the high fees.

Metod Černetič, PhD, Marjan Blažič, PhD

GLOBALIZACIJA IN RAZVOJ - SOCIOLOŠKI IN EKONOMSKI VIDIKI

GLOBALISATION AND DEVELOPMENT - FROM THE SOCIOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC POINTS OF VIEW

Referat na znanstvenem posvetovanju Conference paper
UDK 316.34:659.2, 658.3:001.891 UDC 316.34:659.2, 658.3:001.891
DESKRIPTORJI: globalizacija, proaktivna politika, število raziskovalcev, razvoj
DESCRIPTORS: globalisation, proactive policies, number of researchers, development
POVZETEK - V novi državi razvojnih strategij ne primanjkuje, niti ne moremo očitati vladi, da ni uspela pritegniti k sodelovanju akademskih krogov. [tevilni raziskovalci različnih strokovnih profilov so pomembno prispevali s svojim znanjem in izkušnjami k oblikovanju razvojnih dokumentov. Nobena država ne odklanja načrtovanja, postavljanja ciljev, oblikovanja scenarijev in razvojnih vizij, kar velja tudi za Slovenijo. Da bi dohitele razvoj in ga nato uspešno nadaljevale, morajo Slovenija in ostale države Srednje in Vzhodne Evrope, ki se priključujejo Evropi, v naslednjem desetletju preobraziti zlasti sedanjo administracijo in vodenje družbe. ABSTRACT - There has been no lack of development strategies in the new state. Nor can we reproach the government and say that it did not succeed in persuading the academic spheres to co-operate. An abundance of different expertise and various academic profiles contributed to the formation of developmental documents. No country has renounced planning, setting goals, shaping scenarios and having a vision of development and luckily this also includes Slovenia. In order to catch up with development and to achieve successful lasting development, Slovenia and the remaining Central and Eastern European countries joining the EU will especially have to transform their current administration and governance of society within the next decade.

Mag. Dušan Dvorščak

UVOD V DRUGOST GLUHOTE

INTRODUCTION TO THE OTHERNESS OF DEAFNESS

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 376.3:316.62 UDC 376.3:316.62
DESKRIPTORJI: drugi, drugost, norma, Zaviršek, Foucault
DESCRIPTORS: other, otherness, norm, Zaviršek, Foucault
POVZETEK - V prispevku razpravljamo o logiki izključevanja, ki so je (bili) deležni gluhi in naglušni v naših krajih. Samo izključevanje raziskujemo skozi koncept drugega in drugosti ter koncept norme. S pomočjo koncepta drugega in drugosti pokažemo, da se gluhe/naglušne ljudi skozi zgodovino (vse do današnjih dni) ne razume zgolj kot drugačne in posebne, temveč veliko bolj kot druge ljudi. V tem smislu so za razliko od drugih ljudi deležni specifičnih strategij, ki predvsem ustvarjajo njihovo drugost, tujost, manjvrednost itd. Koncept norme v tem kontekstu odigra ključno vlogo prilagajanja gluhih/naglušnih dominantni družbeni formaciji oz. njihovim prepričanjem ter verjetjem. ABSTRACT - In our article, we discuss the logic of exclusion of deaf and hard-of-hearing persons in Slovenia. We research the theme of exclusion through the concept of the other and otherness and through the concept of the norm. With the former we try to show how we do not perceive the deaf/hard-of-hearing only as persons who are different but far more as others (people). In this sense, they are different from the hearing population as they embody specific strategies which construct their otherness, strangeness, and feelings of inferiority. The concept of the norm in this context plays a crucial part in the adjustment of the deaf and hard-of-hearing to the dominant social formation, its values and beliefs.

Zvonka Nose

VPLIV IZOBRAZBE STARŠEV IN VPLIV PREDZNANJA V BRANJU OB VSTOPU V ŠOLO NA USPEH PRI BRANJU V 3. RAZREDU

THE INFLUENCE OF PARENTS' EDUCATION AND OF THE READING AGE ON THE SUCCESS OF READING OF 3RD GRADERS

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 028:173.5/.6 UDC 028:173.5/.6
DESKRIPTORJI: tretješolci, branje, družina, knjiga, revije, kulturne prireditve
DESCRIPTORS: 3rd graders, reading, family, book, magazines, cultural events
POVZETEK - Z raziskavo smo želeli odkriti, kaj pri učencih v tretjem razredu osnovne šole vpliva na uspeh branja. Ugotovili smo, da boljše berejo tisti otroci, katerih starši imajo višjo izobrazbo, in tisti otroci, ki so že ob vstopu v šolo imeli boljšo tehniko branja. Starejši brat ali sestra ne vplivata na tehniko branja ob vstopu v šolo. Ugotovili smo, da je uspeh branja boljši pri tistih otrocih, ki živijo v družinah z boljšim standardom, saj le-ti večkrat obiskujejo kulturne prireditve, imajo več knjig v domači knjižnici in so naročeni na svojo najljubšo revijo. V zadnjem času je tudi opaziti, da televizija in računalnik izpodrivata branje knjig. ABSTRACT - In our research we wanted to find out about the influences on the success of reading of 3rd graders. We discovered that students whose parents are more educated and those who develop reading skills before school age are better readers. An older brother or sister has no influence on the development of the reading skills of school age children. Furthermore, the students from families with a higher standard of living develop better reading skills because they often visit cultural events, have more books at home and are often subscribed to their favourite magazine. We also found out that television and computers have a bad influence on reading habits. Nowadays students read far less than they used to.