2004 - LETNIK 19
POVZETKI ŠTEVILKE 1

Dr. Milena Ivanuš Grmek

DIDAKTIČNE ZNAČILNOSTI POUKA V DEVETLETNI OSNOVNI ŠOLI

CHARACTERISTIC OF TEACHING METHODS IN THE NINE-YEAR PRIMARY SCHOOL

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK 371.3:373.3 UDC 371.3:373.3
DESKRIPTORJI: osemletna osnovna šola, devetletna osnovna šola, načrtovanje izobraževalnega dela
DESCRIPTORS: eight-year primary school, nine-year primary school, educational planning
POVZETEK - Avtorica razpravlja o spreminjanju koncepta znanja z vidika kurikularne reforme v R Sloveniji. Koncept tradicionalnega izobraževanja se počasi umika sodobnejšemu, za katerega je značilna večja aktivnost, kritičnost in dinamičnost učencev. Novo sprejeti učni načrti za devetletko usmerjajo učitelje k rabi različnih metod, oblik, sredstev in k medpredmetnemu povezovanju. To potrjujejo tudi izsledki empirične raziskave, predstavljene v drugem delu prispevka. Rezultati namreč kažejo, da je načrtovanje pouka v devetletni osnovni šoli bolj kot v osemletni procesno in ima manj značilnosti transmisijskega koncepta vzgojno-izobraževalnega dela. ABSTRACT - The article first presents the changes in the concept of knowledge from the aspect of the Slovene curricular reform. The concept of traditional education is gradually being replaced by a more modern one characterised by a higher degree of activities and a more critical and dynamic attitude on the part of the students. The newly adopted curricula for the nine-year primary school require the teachers to use different teaching methods, forms and means as well as link different subject. This is being confirmed by the empirical research results presented in the second part of the article. They namely show that in the nine-year primary school planning has become much more a process than it used to be in the eight- year school and it also exhibits fewer characteristics of a transmission concept in teaching.

Dr. Vlasta Hus

AKTIVNOSTI UČENCEV PRI POUKU SPOZNAVANJA OKOLJA IN SPOZNAVANJE NARAVE IN DRUŽBE V PRVEM RAZREDU OSNOVNE ŠOLE

ACTIVITIES OF FIRST GRADE PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS DURING LESSONS OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION AND EARLY SCIENCE AND SOCIAL STUDIES

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK 372.32:373.32 UDC 372.32:373.32
DESKRIPTORJI: DESKRIPTORJI: kurikularna prenova, spoznavanje okolja, spoznavanje narave in družbe, aktivnosti učencev, prvi razred osnovne šole
DESCRIPTORS: DESCRIPTORS: curriculum renovation, Environmental education, Early science and social studies, pupils' activities, first grade of primary school
POVZETEK - V skladu s konstruktivističnimi in humanističnimi izhodišči pouka v prenovljeni osnovni šoli se tudi pri predmetu spoznavanje okolja predvidevajo različne aktivnosti učencev. Z izdelanim protokolom smo sistematično spremljali pojavnost aktivnosti učencev pri pouku spoznavanja okolja in spoznavanje narave in družbe v prvem razredu pri treh skupnih tematskih sklopih. Ugotovili smo, da so razlike med poukoma glede aktivnosti učencev pri doseganju zastavljenih učnih ciljev statistično pomembne. Prevladujoči kognitivni učni cilji pri obeh predmetih so se pri pouku spoznavanja okolja v večji meri dosegali s fizičnimi in senzornimi aktivnostmi učencev, pri pouku spoznavanja narave in družbe pa z izraznimi in miselnimi. ABSTRACT - In accordance with the constructive and humanistic starting-points in a reformed primary school, different activities have also been foreseen in the lessons of Environmental education and Early science and social studies. With the elaborated protocol we systematically observed the phenomenon of pupils' activities in three common thematic clusters of both subjects in the first class. We have established that the differences between both lessons are statistically important with regard to pupils' activities in achieving target teaching goals. The prevailing cognitive teaching goals in the subject of Environmental education were to a higher extent achieved with physical and sensory pupils' activities while in the subject of Early science and social studies they were achieved more with expressive and mental pupils' activities.

Dr. Rado Pišot, Joca Zurc

GIBALNA/ŠPORTNA AKTIVNOST PRI UČENCIH IN UČENKAH DRUGEGA VZGOJNO-IZOBRAŽEVALNEGA OBDOBJA OSNOVNE ŠOLE

MOTOR/SPORTS ACTIVITIES OF BOYS AND GIRLS IN THE 2ND EDUCATIONAL PERIOD OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK 373.3:372.879.6 UDC 373.3:372.879.6
DESKRIPTORJI: osnovna šola, mlajši šolar, prosti čas, gibalna/športna aktivnost, razlike med spoloma, dečki, deklice
DESCRIPTORS: elementary school, young pupil, leisure, motor/sports activity, gender differences, boys, girls
POVZETEK - V prispevku predstavljamo rezultate raziskave, v kateri smo 9-letne deklice in dečke anketirali z namenom, pridobiti podatke o njihovi prostočasni gibalni/športni aktivnosti. Raziskavo smo izvedli na vzorcu 194 otrok 3. razreda osemletne osnovne šole v šolskem letu 2001/02. Razlike med spoloma smo ugotavljali s kontingenčnimi tabelami in hi-preizkusom. Na osnovi dobljenih rezultatov ugotavljamo, da obstajajo statistično značilne razlike med spoloma v vsebini športnih zvrsti. Razlike med spoloma pa niso bile statistično potrjene v količini prostočasne gibalne/športne aktivnosti. ABSTRACT - The authors present the results of an inquiry on the out-of-school motor/sports activities of nine- year old boys and girls. The research was carried out in the school year 2001/02 upon the sample of 194 respondents attending the third class of elementary school. Gender differences were determined by means of contingency tables and the chi-squared test. From the research results emerge statistically significant gender differences in the type of the sports discipline respondents participate in. No statistically significant gender distinctions were found in the extent of out-of-school motor/sports activity.

Dr. Sofija Vrcelj, dr. Jasminka Zloković

PEDAGOŠKI VIDIKI RAZVOJA IN SPODBUJANJA ODGOVORNOSTI

EDUCATIONAL ASPECTS OF DEVELOPING AND ENCOURAGING RESPONSIBILITY

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK 37.035 UDC 37.035
DESKRIPTORJI: vzgoja, odgovornost, starši, učitelji, šola
DESCRIPTORS: education, responsibility, parents, teachers, school
POVZETEK - Avtorici predstavljata rezultate raziskovanja fenomena odgovornosti. Zanimalo ju je, kako respondentje razumejo odgovornost, katere vrste odgovornosti poznajo in katere so po njihovem mnenju prioritetne (odgovornost do sebe, drugih oseb, družine, do denarja, države idr.). Preučevali sta vzorec 150 študentov različnih pedagoških usmeritev in letnikov Filozofske fakultete na Reki. Pri raziskovanju sta uporabili vprašalnik esejskega tipa. Rezultati usmerjajo na zaključek, da je odgovornost pomembna kot individualna in socialna razsežnost, katere razvoj in spodbujanje se pričakuje od družine kot primarne socialne sredine pa tudi od šole kot vzgojno-izobraževalne institucije. ABSTRACT - The authors present research results on the phenomenon of responsibility. They wanted to find out how the respondents understand the concept of responsibility, which kinds of responsibility they know, and which they believe to be the most relevant ones (responsibility towards oneself, towards others, family, money, country etc.). They studied the sample of 150 students of various educational study courses and different study years at the University of Rijeka. In their research they administered the essay type questionnaire. The results point to the fact that responsibility is important as an individual and social dimension, the development and encouragement of which is expected to ensue from the family as the primary social environment and from school as an educational institution.

Marija Javornik Krečič

OBRAVNAVA NOVE UČNE VSEBINE Z VIDIKA IZSLEDKOV EMPIRIČNE RAZISKAVE

HANDLING NEW TEACHING CONTENTS FROM THE ASPECT OF EMPIRICAL RESEARCH FINDINGS

Pregledni znanstveni članek Review
UDK 373.51 UDC 373.51
DESKRIPTORJI: obravnava učne vsebine, koncepti, strategije, problemskost, hevristične metode
DESCRIPTORS: handling teaching contents, concepts, strategies, problem situations, heuristic methods
POVZETEK - Prispevek prikazuje značilnosti središčne učne stopnje, tj. obravnavo nove učne vsebine. V prvem delu avtorica prikaže strategije, ki ustrezajo sodobnemu konceptu pouka, v drugem pa rezultate empirične raziskave, ki kažejo na ravnanje srednješolskih učiteljev pri obravnavi nove učne vsebine. Rezultati pokažejo razlike med srednjimi strokovnimi šolami in gimnazijami, in sicer: učenci srednjih strokovnih šol so pri obravnavi nove učne vsebine deležni več spodbud od svojih učiteljev kot gimnazijci. ABSTRACT - The article presents the characteristics of the central learning stage i.e. the handling of new teaching contents. First, the author describes the strategies of modern teaching concepts then she presents the results of empirical research about the secondary school teachers' approaches to teaching. The results point to the differences between secondary schools of different orientation and high schools, where the students of the former receive more encouragement from their teachers in the treatment of new contents.

Dr. Ana Vovk Korže, Igor Lipovšek

PRISPEVEK GEOGRAFIJE K OKOLJSKEMU IZOBRAŽEVANJU

CONTRIBUTION OF GEOGRAPHY TO ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION

Pregledni znanstveni članek Review
UDK 372.32:373.5 UDC 372.32:373.5
DESKRIPTORJI: geografija, okoljska vzgoja, okoljsko izobraževanje, učni načrt, učni cilji, viri onesnaževanja okolja
DESCRIPTORS: geography, environmental education, curricula, educational goals, sources of environmental pollution
POVZETEK - Članek opisuje probleme okoljskega izobraževanja v slovenskih šolah. Analizira razvoj okoljske zavesti v družbi in slovenski šoli. Poudarek je na vlogi pouka geografije za uveljavljanje okoljske vzgoje. Ocenjuje močne in šibke strani okoljskega pouka ter vzroke za njegove težave. Med cilji okoljske vzgoje se pojavlja težnja, da se dijaki jasneje zavedo medsebojne povezanosti ter odvisnosti naravnih in družbenih pojavov, posebej škodljivih vplivov človekovih aktivnosti na okolje in iz tega nastajajočih problemov ter konfliktov ob poskusih reševanja. Dati jim je treba priložnost, da pridobijo znanje, razumevanje, vrednote, stališča, zavzetost, veščine in spretnosti, potrebne za varstvo in izboljšanje okolja ter doseči, da dijaki razumejo, da razreševanje okoljskih problemov ni le tehnološka, temveč tudi etična, politična, socialna in ekonomska kategorija. V prispevku je predstavljen konkretni primer povezovanja geografskih in okoljskih vsebin s ciljem, da učiteljem geografije in tudi drugim približamo možnosti interdisciplinarnega pristopa poučevanja. ABSTRACT - The article describes the issues concerning environmental education in Slovene schools. It analyses the development of environmental awareness in society and in schools. The emphasis is on geography lessons as the basis of environmental education. The article tries to assess the strong points as well as the weaknesses of environmental lessons and the reasons for the difficulties of such instruction. In the goals of environmental education one finds the tendency to help students become aware of the interconnectedness of and dependence on natural and social phenomena, especially of harmful effects of human activities on the environment. This all leads to different problems and conflicts connected with the attempts at their solution. We need to give the students the opportunity to gain knowledge, understanding, values, attitudes, commitment and skills necessary to protect and improve the environment. The students should realise that solving environmental problems is not only a technological category but also an ethical, political, social and economic one. The article presents a concrete case of linking geography and environmental contents with the goal to show geography teachers and others the possibilities of an interdisciplinary teaching approach.

Dr. Milena Valenčič Zuljan

POJMOVANJA ZNANJA IN POUKA PRI ŠTUDENTIH - BODOČIH UČITELJIH

CONCEPTIONS OF KNOWLEDGE AND INSTRUCTION OF STUDENTS - FUTURE TEACHERS

Pregledni znanstveni članek Review
UDK 371.3 UDC 371.3
DESKRIPTORJI: pojmovanja znanja in pouka, taksonomija pojmovanj, spreminjanje pojmovanj, transmisijski model pouka
DESCRIPTORS: conception of knowledge and instruction, conception taxonomy, changing conception, transmission instruction model
POVZETEK - V pričujočem članku avtorica predstavlja pojmovanja študentov - bodočih učiteljev kot pomembno določilnico njihovega profesionalnega razmišljanja in ravnanja. V slovenskem šolskem prostoru se uvajajo številne spremembe, njihov uspeh pa je v mnogočem odvisen od učiteljevih pojmovanj pouka, znanja in drugih pedagoških dimenzij. Raziskava je pokazala, da pri študentovih pojmovanjih pouka na začetku študija prevladuje hierarhično najnižji taksonomski nivo. Čeprav v času prvega letnika prihaja do sprememb, se le-te nanašajo predvsem na premike v prvih dveh stopnjah taksonomije, ki še vedno ne presežejo nivoja transmisijskega modela pouka. Pri pojmovanjih znanja je podoba nekoliko drugačna. Tu je prevladujoča druga kategorija, v nekoliko večji meri pa je prisotna tudi tretja kategorija, ki poudarja predelano znanje in predstavlja premik h kognitivno-konstruktivističnem modelu pouka. ABSTRACT - The article presents conceptions of students - future teachers as an important determinant of their professional reflection and action. In the Slovene school arena we are witnessing numerous changes the success of which greatly depends on the teacher's conception of instruction, knowledge and other teaching dimensions. The research showed that at the beginning of their studies the student's understanding of instruction occupies the hierarchically lowest taxonomy level. Although changes do occur during the first study year, they mainly concern movements within the first two taxonomy levels which do not exceed the level of the transmission instruction model. In the understanding of knowledge, the situation is somewhat different. While the second category predominates, the third category is also present to somewhat greater extent. This is the one which emphasises processed knowledge and represents movement towards the cognitive-constructivist instruction model.

Gabrijela Rupnik

SOCIALNO PEDAGOŠKI PRISTOP K NADARJENOSTI

SOCIO-EDUCATIONAL APPROACH TO GIFTEDNESS

Referat na znanstvenem posvetovanju Conference paper
UDK 371.21:159.928 UDC 371.21:159.928
DESKRIPTORJI: nadarjenost, talentiranost, osebnostne lastnosti, samopodoba, socialno učenje, model socialnih veščin, socialne igre, interaktivne vaje
DESCRIPTORS: giftedness, talent, personal characteristics, self-image, social learning, social skills model, social games, interactive exercises
POVZETEK - V prvem delu prispevka je predstavljen osebnostni pristop k proučevanju nadarjenosti in pomen spodbudnega okolja za razvijanje oz. spodbujanje nadarjenosti. Pri razmišljanju o potrebah nadarjenih ne smemo pozabiti, da so tudi nadarjeni učenci ljudje s stiskami in težavami. Pogosto imajo učne težave, ne dosegajo pričakovanih uspehov, se pri pouku dolgočasijo, so za učenje nemotivirani, vedenjsko težavni ali pa imajo težave pri socialnem vključevanju. Za učenčevo uspešnost je pomembna ugodna klima v oddelku, ki jo lahko dosežemo z učenjem socialnih veščin. V drugem delu se tako osredotočim na socialno pedagoško prakso z vidika skupinskega dela, kjer podam nekaj predlogov dejavnosti spodbujanja razvoja nadarjenosti v osnovni šoli. ABSTRACT - The first part of the article discusses the personal approach to the study of giftedness and the importance of an encouraging environment for the development and stimulation of giftedness. When reflecting on the needs of the gifted we must keep in mind that gifted children encounter problems like everybody else. They are frequently faced with learning difficulties, do not achieve the expected results, are bored in classes and unmotivated for learning, behaviourally difficult or experience difficulties in social inclusion. To achieve, a student needs a favourable class climate that can be established if we teach them social skills. The second part focuses on the socio-teaching practice from the aspect of group work, where I try to propose activities for encouraging the development of giftedness in primary school.

Mag. Franci Potokar, dr. Jurij Jug

DRUŽBENI VIDIKI IZOBRAŽEVANJA ODRASLIH ZA POTREBE SODOBNIH TEHNOLOGIJ

SOCIAL VIEWS OF ADULT EDUCATION FOR THE NEEDS OF MODERN TECHNOLOGIES

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 374.7:004 UDC 374.7:004
DESKRIPTORJI: internet, izobraževanje odraslih, sodobna tehnologija, informacijska družba, permanentno izobraževanje
DESCRIPTORS: internet, adult education, modern technology, information society, permanent education
POVZETEK - Z vlogo in vplivom sodobnih informacijskih tehnologij pri izobraževanju odraslih bi se morali intenzivneje ukvarjati strokovnjaki s sodobnimi interdisciplinarnimi znanji, veščinami in izkušnjami pri delu z ljudmi. Zavedamo se, da z vključevanjem v Evropsko unijo širimo krog delovne sile, kapitala in znanja. V prispevku sta prikazana vloga in vpliv interneta - sodobnega informacijskega medija, ki vpliva na razvoj posameznika. Vsa sodobna informacijska tehnologija s svojim širokim spektrom delovanja prav tako vpliva na izobraževanje odraslih. V prispevku najprej opredelimo vzgojo in izobraževanje odraslih, preučimo in analiziramo vlogo in vpliv sodobnih informacijskih tehnologij - posebej interneta - na izobraževanje odraslih. V analizi podamo ugotovitve in učinke, ki jih ima internet na življenje in izobraževanje odraslih. Iz tega sledi povezanost sodobnih informacijskih tehnologij in izobraževanja odraslih. Opredelimo pa tudi kritične dejavnike razvoja interneta pri izobraževanju odraslih. Pridobljeni podatki kažejo, da ima internet močan vpliv na področje izobraževanja in usposabljanja tako mladih kakor tudi odraslih in na razvoj novih storitev. ABSTRACT - The role and influence of modern information technologies in adult education should be dealt with more intensively by the experts having modern interdisciplinary knowledge, skills and experiences in working with people. We are aware that by entering the European Union the circle of working force, capital and knowledge extends. In this article we present the role and impacts of the internet, a modern information media, on the development of an individual. All the modern information technology with its wide spectre of operations also influences on the adult education. In the article we first define the upbringing and adult education, we research and analyse the role and influence of modern information technologies, especially the internet, on adult education. Then follows the connection between modern information technologies and adult education. We also define critical factors of the internet development in adult education. The gathered data show that the internet has a strong impact on education and training of young people, as well as the adults, and on the development of new services.

Dr. Verena Koch, Gregor Torkar

MODEL MIKROPOUČEVANJA IN ORGANIZIRANOST PEDAGOŠKE PRAKSE NA IRSKEM

MICROTEACHING MODEL AND ORGANISATION OF TEACHING PRACTICE IN IRELAND

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 371.12 UDC 371.12
DESKRIPTORJI: mikropoučevanje, pedagoška praksa, izobraževanje učiteljev, učiteljski kandidat
DESCRIPTORS: microteaching, teaching practice, teacher education, student teacher
POVZETEK - Mikropoučevanje in pedagoška praksa sta zelo pomembna za izobraževanje študentov in učiteljev, ki si še nabirajo svoje prve pedagoške izkušnje. V članku je predstavljen model mikropoučevanja in organiziranost pedagoške prakse na St Catherine's College of Education for Home Economics. Primerjava s podobnimi študijskim programom v Sloveniji je pokazala, da imata naša študijska programa izobraževanja bodočih učiteljev manj pedagoške prakse in pomanjkljivejšo organizacijo mikropoučevanja. ABSTRACT - Microteaching and teaching practice are very important for education of students and young teachers, who are still collecting their first teaching experiences. The article presents the microteaching program and the organisation of teaching practice at St Catherine's College of Education for Home Econo-mics. We compared it to a similar program of teacher education in Slovenia and established that Slovenian students have less teaching practice and insufficiently organised microteaching.

Dr. Dragan Potočnik

ARHIV KOT VIR ZA POUČEVANJE ZGODOVINE

ARCHIVE AS ONE OF THE SOURCES OF TEACHING HISTORY

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 372.893:930.25 UDC 372.893:930.25
DESKRIPTORJI: arhiv, zbirke, arhivski fondi, učenec, pouk
DESCRIPTORS: archive, collections, learner, instruction
POVZETEK - Arhiv predstavlja institucijo, ki je v službi človeške družbe in njenega razvoja. Predstavlja pa tudi vzgojno-izobraževalno ustanovo, ki bi morala biti tesno povezana s šolami. Bogat zgodovinski material je pri posredovanju zgodovinskih spoznanj tudi izredno uspešno učno sredstvo. Koristi za pouk so tako didaktične kakor tudi pedagoške in psihološke. Ogled arhivskih razstav in arhivskih fondov povečuje interes in aktivnost učencev, povečuje njihovo znanje in razvija umske sposobnosti. Obravnavanje zgodovinske snovi s pomočjo arhiva pa nudi tudi obilo možnosti za poudarjanje vzgojnih vrednot. ABSTRACT - The archive represents an institution in the service of human society and its development. It also represents an educational institution which should be closely connected with schools. Rich historical material can be an extremely successful teaching aid in transmitting historical issues. The benefits for instruction are in the area of teaching methods, and educational as well as psychological approach. Visiting archive exhibitions and funds can increase the students' interest and activities, their knowledge and the development of mental abilities. Treating historical contents with the help of an archive also offers further possibilities for emphasising their educational values.

Urška Bučar

ELEMENTI MONTESSORI PEDAGOGIKE V NAŠI OSNOVNI ŠOLI PRI MATEMATIKI

ELEMENTS OF MONTESSORI EDUCATION IN PRIMARY SCHOOL MATHEMATICS

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 373.3:372.851:371.481 UDC 373.3:372.851:371.481
DESKRIPTORJI: učitelj, Montessori matematika, didaktični pripomočki, učenje s čutili, okolje
DESCRIPTORS: teacher, Montessori mathematics, teaching aids, sensorial learning, environment
POVZETEK - Avtorica poroča o raziskavi, s katero je želela izvedeti, v kolikšni meri učitelji osnovnih šol poznajo alternativni didaktični koncept Marije Montessori, katere značilnosti koncepta vključujejo v svoj način pedagoškega dela in kateri učni pripomočki, ki jih je razvila M. Montessori, so prisotni v naših šolah. Ugotavlja, da so šole z alternativnimi didaktičnimi sredstvi opremljene pomanjkljivo in neustrezno, kar pomembno vpliva na stališča do alternativnih specialnih didaktik. ABSTRACT - The author reports on a research which she carried out in order to find out to what extent the primary school teachers are familiar with the alternative teaching concept of Maria Montessori and which characteristics of the mentioned concept they deploy in their teaching. Which teaching aids that have been developed by M. Montessori can one encounter in our schools? She has established that our schools are neither sufficiently nor suitably equipped with alternative teaching aids, which in turn influences the attitudes towards alternative teaching approaches.