2002 - LETNIK 17
POVZETKI ŠTEVILKE 3-4

Dr. Milena Valenčič Zuljan

KOGNITIVNO-KONSTRUKTIVISTIČNI MODEL POUKA IN NADARJENI UČENCI

COGNITIVE AND CONSTRUCTIVIST LESSON/INSTRUCTION MODEL AND GIFTED STUDENTS

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK 371.3:37.037 UDC 371.3:37.037
DESKRIPTORJI: nadarjeni učenec, problemske metode, izkušenjsko učenje, modeli pouka, konstruktivizem
DESCRIPTORS: gifted student, problem solving methods, experiential learning, lesson models, constructivism
POVZETEK - Kakovosten pouk predstavlja temeljni in nenadomestljiv dejavnik optimalnega razvoja nadarjenega učenca. V prispevku avtorica predstavlja dva modela pouka: tradicionalni, pretežno transmisijsko usmerjen model pouka ter kognitivno-konstruktivistični ali transformacijski model pouka. Slednji zahteva problemsko naravnane metode in pristope, kjer je učitelj pozoren ne samo na "kvantiteto", temveč tudi na "kvaliteto" učenčevega predznanja. Učitelj načrtno izvablja učenčeve izkušnje, stališča in poglede, jih sooča z nepopolnostjo in konfliktnostjo ter s prilagojeno podporo pomaga učencem pri rekonstrukciji znanja. Poudarjen je pomen učenčeve aktivnosti v vseh učnih etapah, sodelovanje in izmenjava izkušenj ter pogledov med učenci in na načrtnem pridobivanju spretnosti učenja. Pri takem pouku učenec postopoma prevzema vse večji del odgovornosti za proces pridobivanja znanja in osebnega razvoja ter se usposablja za vseživljenjsko učenje. Izhajajoč iz značilnosti in potreb nadarjenih učencev avtorica predpostavlja, da kognitivno-konstruktivistični model pouka predstavlja primeren način dela z nadarjenimi učenci, ki omogoča njihov optimalni razvoj. ABSTRACT - Quality instruction represents the most fundamental and irreplaceable factor in the development of the gifted student. The paper discusses two instruction models: the traditional, predominantly transmission oriented model and the cognitive and constructivist or transformational model of instruction. The latter requires the use of problem oriented methods and approaches, where the teacher is attentive not only to the "quantity" but also to the quality of gifted students' prior knowledge. S/he tries to extract from the students their experiences, attitudes and opinions, makes them aware of the imperfection and existence of conflicts and offers the necessary support in the process of reconstructing knowledge. Throughout all phases, emphasis is on student activities, on the collaboration and exchange of experiences among the students, and on the planned acquisition of learning skills. In such instruction, the student gradually takes on more and more responsibility for acquiring knowledge and for personal development and is being trained for life-long learning. Considering the characteristics and needs of gifted students, the author believes the cognitive and constructivist model of instruction to represent an appropriate way of working with the gifted, which also enables them their optimum development.

Dr. Ivan Ferbežer

NOVI TRENDI V RAZISKOVANJU SAMOPODOBE NADARJENIH OTROK

NEW TRENDS IN RESEARCH OF SELF-CONCEPT IN GIFTED CHILDREN

Referat na znanstvenem posvetovanju Conference paper
UDK 37.037 UDC 37.037
DESKRIPTORJI: nadarjeni učenec, samopodoba, identifikacija, edukacija, kariera
DESCRIPTORS: gifted student, self-image, identification, education, career
POVZETEK - Avtor predstavlja okvirni proces razvojnih sprememb v raziskovanju samopodobe nadarjenih otrok z vidika metodologije in znanstveno raziskovalnih rezultatov. Poleg različnih spoznavnih virov omenjenega raziskovalnega problema predstavlja tudi različne poudarke v raziskovanju sestavin samopodobe nadarjenih otrok. Sodobne raziskovalne trende prikazuje tudi z vidika objektivnih dosežkov in storitev, z vidika razlik med sestavinami samopodobe, z vidika višine intelektualnih sposobnosti, z vidika položaja nadarjenih v skupini in z vidika razvojno-psiholoških sprememb.
Omenjeni raziskovalni trendi osvetljujejo samopodobo nadarjenih otrok z vidika spola, starosti, razvojno psihološkega obdobja in umeščenosti v razred. Samopodoba bo prikazana tudi v procesu identifikacije in edukacije nadarjenih učencev. Obravnava tudi konsekvence različne samopodobe, samopodobo v luči socialno-ekonomskega in kulturnega okolja, terminološke nedorečenosti (samopodoba, samospoštovanje), samopodobo nadarjenih in poklicno kariero, metaoceno nadarjenih o svoji samopodobi idr. Samopodoba nadarjenih učencev je osvetljena z vidika učenčevih, učiteljevih in starševskih prepričanj in stopnje makiavelizma. Dotika se tudi učinka akceleracije na samopodobo nadarjenih učencev.
ABSTRACT - The study presents the framework of changes that have taken place in the research of self-concept in gifted children from the viewpoint of methodology and results. It then focuses on the different components of gifted children's self-concept. Modern trends are presented from the viewpoint of objective achievements, differences in the components of self-image, intellectual abilities, the situation of gifted children in the group and from the viewpoint of developmental changes.
The mentioned trends illustrate the self-concept of gifted children with regard to gender, age or developmental period, and with regard to the homogeneous or heterogeneous grouping within the classroom. The self-concept is presented in the process of identification and education of gifted children. We have studied the consequences of different self-concepts, the self-concept in the light of social, economic, and cultural environment, the specific differentiation in terminology (self-concept, self-respect), the self-concept of gifted children in their professional career, the meta-evaluation of gifted children about their self-concept, etc. The self-concept of gifted children is illustrated on the basis of pupils', teachers' and parents' beliefs and on the degree of machiavelism. The article presents also the effect of acceleration on the self-concept of gifted children.

Dr. Stipan Jukić

Z NADARJENIMI UČENCI MORAJO DELATI NADARJENI UČITELJI

GIFTED STUDENTS REQUIRE GIFTED TEACHERS

Referat na znanstvenem posvetovanju Conference paper
UDK 371.12:37.037 UDC 371.12:37.037
DESKRIPTORJI: usposabljanje učiteljev, učiteljske kadrovske šole, odkrivanje nadarjenih študentov
DESCRIPTORS: teacher training, teacher training institutions, identifying gifted students
POVZETEK - Avtor išče način, kako priti do nadarjenih študentov pedagoških fakultet, kako jih usposobiti za učiteljski poklic, posebno za delo z nadarjenimi učenci osnovne in srednjih šol. Za uspešnejše delo z nadarjenimi učenci že imamo nekaj predlogov, npr. modernizacija univerzitetnega pouka, pravočasno odkrivanje nadarjenih študentov, uvajanje pedagoškega in psihološkega izobraževanja univerzitetnih učiteljev, sodelovanje fakultet z osnovnimi in srednjimi šolami, uvajanje pedagoško-psihološke službe na fakultete, usposabljanje strokovnjakov nepedagoških fakultet, ki delajo v šoli ipd. ABSTRACT - The author is in search of gifted students of teacher training faculties as well as of ways how to prepare them for teaching, especially for work with gifted primary and secondary school students. Some of the suggestions for more successful work with the gifted are: modernising university education, timely identification of gifted students, implementation of university teacher education in the area of teaching techniques and psychology, collaboration of faculties with primary and secondary schools, implementation of a teaching and psychological service for the faculties, training of professionals from non-teacher oriented faculties working in schools, etc.

Dr. Marjan Blažič

UČITELJI IN ALTERNATIVNI DIDAKTIČNI KONCEPTI

IMPLEMENTING ALTERNATIVE TEACHING CONCEPTS INTO PRIMARY SCHOOLS

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK 37.02:373.3 UDC 37.02:373.3
DESKRIPTORJI: osnovna šola, alternativni didaktični koncepti
DESCRIPTORS: primary school, alternative teaching concepts
POVZETEK - Skupna značilnost šolskoreformskih gibanj v prejšnjem stoletju je njihov pedagoški optimizem, ki je iniciral razvoj različnih alternativnih didaktičnih konceptov in dal antropološki dimenziji nov zagon. Nekatere smeri s svojimi originalnimi didaktičnimi zamislimi so se ohranile kot celoviti didaktični koncepti. Te pedagoške zamisli, posebej izstopata waldorfska šola in pedagoški model M. Montessori, so se ohranile do danes v skoraj nespremenjeni pedagoški podobi. Prizadevanja za učinkovitejšo šolo so prispevala k implementaciji posamičnih elementov alternativnih didaktičnih konceptov v množično javno osnovno šolo.
V okviru našega preučevanja smo empirično preverili, v kolikšni meri so učitelji v slovenskih osnovnih šolah seznanjeni z različnimi alternativnimi didaktičnimi koncepti, kakšno je njihovo stališče do uporabe posamičnih segmentov alternativnih didaktičnih konceptov v redni osnovnošolski pouk, in kako pogosto le-te tudi vključijo v svoje delo.
ABSTRACT - Anthropological basis of all alternative teaching concepts defines their pedagogical optimism, which is also the common characteristic of school reform movements of the previous century. Due to their original teaching concepts, certain directions have survived in its entirety until today. These ideas, among which Waldorf education and the M. Montessori teaching model are the most outstanding ones, have remained in their almost unchanged form to these days. The endeavours for a more effective schools have contributed to the implementation of individual elements of these alternative teaching concepts into the mainstream primary schools.
In our study we tried to examine to what extent the Slovene teachers are acquainted with alternative teaching concepts, what is their attitude towards using certain segments of alternative teaching concepts in mainstream lessons and how frequently they actually implement them.

Branka Kavaš

MATEMATIČNO NADARJENI UČENCI V OSNOVNI ŠOLI

MATHEMATICAL GIFTED STUDENTS IN PRIMARY SCHOOL

Referat na znanstvenem posvetovanju Conference paper
UDK 372.851:37.037:373.3 UDC 372.851:37.037:373.3
DESKRIPTORJI: matematična nadarjenost, ustvarjalnost, razvoj, motivacija, individualni pristop
DESCRIPTORS: mathematical giftedness, creativity, development, motivation, individual approach
POVZETEK - Visoka matematična nadarjenost že dolgo vzbuja posebno zanimanje raziskovalcev. Matematično nadarjeni otroci izražajo določene lastnosti, značilnosti, na katere moramo biti pozorni že v njihovem otroštvu. Pozorni moramo biti na zgodnje prepoznavanje matematične nadarjenosti in postopke staršev, vzgojiteljev in učiteljev pri delu z njimi v otroštvu in puberteti. Za te učence so značilne visoke matematično-logične sposobnosti, ki se kažejo v sposobnosti uporabe in operiranja s simboli. Učitelj lahko pri svojem konkretnem delu v razredu matematično nadarjenega učenca spodbuja in razvija tudi z raziskovalnim pristopom in nalogami, ki vsebujejo različne tipe problemov.
Raziskava, ki je omejena na problematiko matematično nadarjenih učencev v osnovni šoli, kaže, katere značilnosti so učitelji razrednega pouka in predmetni učitelji matematike opazili pri teh učencih, katere najpogostejše oblike dela uporabljajo pri pouku z njimi, ali se udeležujejo matematičnih tekmovanj in drugih (izvenšolskih) dejavnosti, ki so namenjene razvijanju nadarjenih učencev, ali učitelji vedo, kje so nadarjeni učenci nadaljevali s šolanjem, ter mnenje učiteljev, ali v okviru rednega pouka dovolj storimo zanje.
ABSTRACT - High mathematical giftedness is the area which has been receiving special attention of many researchers. Mathematically gifted children exhibit certain qualities or characteristics which we need to be attentive to in their childhood. Mathematical giftedness needs to be identified as early as possible, and the approaches of parents and teachers to them intheir childhood and puberty should also deserve our atmost attention. Mathematically gifted students exhibit high mathematical and logical competence, the basis of which lies in the abilities of applying and working with symbols. In his work in the classroom, the teacher can encourage and develop a mathematically gifted student by applying a research approach and such tasks which contain various types of problems.
The research, which focuses on the issue of mathematically gifted primary school students, lists the characteristics the class and subject teachers have observed in mathematically gifted students, presents the most frequent approaches in their work with the gifted, analyses to what extent the students take part in mathematical competitions and other (extracurricular) activities organised for the development of the gifted, if the teachers know the students' further education, and it presents the opinion of the teachers on whether the mathematically gifted stiudents receive sufficient attention within regular classes.

Maja Jurečič

GLASBENO NADARJENI UČENCI V PRVIH TREH RAZREDIH OSNOVNE ŠOLE

MUSICALLY TALENTED STUDENTS IN THE FIRST THREE GRADES OF PRIMARY SCHOOL

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK 372.878:37.037:373.32 UDC 372.878:37.037:373.32
DESKRIPTORJI: osnovna šola, glasbena nadarjenost, talentiranost, ustvarjalnost
DESCRIPTORS: primary school, music talent, giftedness, creativity
POVZETEK - Prvi del prispevka govori o nadarjenih učencih s poudarkom na glasbeni nadarjenosti, kaj je glasbena nadarjenost in kako jo pri učencih odkrijemo oziroma opazimo in o glasbenem pouku na razredni stopnji osnovne šole.
V empiričnem delu so z interpretacijo predstavljeni rezultati testiranja glasbenih sposobnosti učencev prvih treh razredov podružnične osnovne šole Orehovica. S preizkusom so želeli odkriti glasbeno nadarjene učence.
Zaključek vsebuje didaktična navodila učiteljem, kaj lahko naredijo za glasbeno nadarjene učence.
ABSTRACT - The first part of the paper introduces musically gifted children. It then defines musical giftedness, how it is identified or detected and discusses music lessons at the lower primary level.
The empirical part interprets the results of testing musical abilities of primary students from grades one to three at the Orehovica Primary School. The testing was carried out in order to identify musically gifted students.
The paper ends with suggestions for teaching instructions, and what teachers can do for musically gifted students.

Dr. Janja Črčinovič Rozman

VLOGA GLASBE V RISANKAH IN NAČIN NJENEGA POSLUŠANJA

ROLE OF MUSIC IN CARTOONS AND THE MANNER OF LISTENING

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK 78:778.543.662:534.88 UDC 78:778.543.662:534.88
DESKRIPTORJI: glasba v risankah, odnos, način poslušanja, doživljanje
DESCRIPTORS: music in cartoons, relation, manner of listening to music, experience.
POVZETEK - V članku sta prikazana razvoj uporabe glasbe v risankah in rezultati empirične raziskave, katere namen je bilo ugotavljanje odnosa mladih do risank in poslušanja njihove glasbe. Odnos do glasbe v risankah in način njenega poslušanja sta bila preučevana teoretično na osnovi odgovorov na anketni vprašalnik in praktično z opisovanjem lastnosti glasbe in doživljanja slušno ter slušno-vizualno posredovanih dražljajev.
Ugotovljeno je bilo, da študenti poznajo veliko risank. Pozorni niso le na sliko, temveč tudi na njihovo glasbo, vendar v večji meri takrat, kadar jo poslušajo. Glasba ob gledanju risanke pri večini sproži globlje doživljanje, ki je usklajeno z vsebino vizualnega dogajanja.
ABSTRACT - The article addresses the evolution of the use of music in cartoons and presents the results of an empirical research intended to establish the attitudes and listening habits of young people toward cartoons and their music. Attitudes toward music and listening to the music of cartoons were investigated theoretically on the basis of answers to a questionnaire, and practically with descriptions of the characteristics and experiences of auditory and audio-visual stimuli.
The research indicates that students are familiar with many cartoons, and pay attention not only to the visual aspects but to the music as well, which happens to a greater extent in situations when they are actually listening to it. In the majority of the students, music triggers a deeper perception corresponding to the contents of the visual images.

Dr. Vlasta Hus

PRIMERJAVA NEKATERIH DIDAKTIČNIH DIMENZIJ POUKA SPOZNAVANJE OKOLJA IN SPOZNAVANJE NARAVE IN DRUŽBE V PRVEM RAZREDU OSNOVNE ŠOLE

THE COMPARISON BETWEEN THE TEACHING DIMENSIONS IN THE SUBJECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION, AND EARLY SCIENCE AND SOCIAL STUDIES

Pregledni znanstveni članek Review
UDK 372.48 UDC 372.48
DESKRIPTORJI: kurikularna prenova, predmet spoznavanje okolja, predmet spoznavanje narave in družbe, učne oblike, učne metode, učna sredstva, viri znanja
DESCRIPTORS: curricular renovation, environmental education, early science and social studies, teaching forms, teaching methods, teaching aids, knowledge resources
POVZETEK - V prispevku je poudarek na prikazu empiričnih izsledkov o uveljavljanju nekaterih didaktičnih dimenzij pri pouku spoznavanja okolja in spoznavanja narave in družbe v prvem razredu devetletne oz. osemletne osnovne šole. Podatki so pridobljeni na osnovi sistematičnega spremljanja pouka obeh predmetov. Raziskava kaže, da je pouk spoznavanja okolja bolj kvaliteten kot pouk spoznavanja narave in družbe. Prevladuje namreč skupinska učna oblika, laboratorijsko-eksperimentalne učne metode, kar oboje zagotavlja večjo aktivnost učencev pri pouku. Med učili prevladujejo naravni objekti, materiali, neposredna stvarnost pa kot temeljni vir znanja in informacij. ABSTRACT - The article focuses on the empirical findings about the implementation of teaching dimensions in the subjects of environmental education, and early science and social studies as they are taught in the first grade of the nine/eight year primary school. The results, achieved on the basis of systematic observation of both subjects, show that environmental education is more effective (with respect to quality) than early science and social studies. The predominating teaching forms are group work and the experimental teaching method, both of which ensure higher pupils' participation during lessons. The basic resources of knowledge and information are natural objects, materials and the immediate reality.

Dr. Zlatka Cugmas, Klementina Sambolić

MNENJA UČITELJIC O NASILJU NAD OTROKOM V DRUŽINI

TEACHERS' VIEWS ON THE VIOLENCE CHILDREN EXPERIENCE IN THE FAMILY

Pregledni znanstveni članek Review
UDK 179.2:173:371.12-055.2(049.3) UDC 179.2:173:371.12-055.2(049.3)
DESKRIPTORJI: vrste nasilja, psihosocialne značilnosti žrtve in storilca, posledice, mnenja, pogledi na problematiko
DESCRIPTORS: kinds of violence, psychosocial characteristics of the victim and perpetrator, consequences, views
POVZETEK - V uvodnem delu prispevka avtorici definirata različne vrste nasilja, naštejeta značilnosti otrok kot žrtev, staršev kot storilcev in družine, v katerih se dogaja nasilje nad otrokom. Poudarita spolno nasilje, dejavnike, ki vplivajo na pojavljanje le-tega, in tiste, ki otroka ali roditelja, ki neposredno v nasilju ni udeležen, pripravijo k molčanju o nasilju. Poročata o raziskavi, v kateri je sodelovalo 95 učiteljic iz osnovnih šol in šol s prilagojenim učnim programom. Proučili sta, kakšna so njihova mnenja o pogostosti pojavljanja nasilja nad otroki v družini in spregovorili o dejavnikih, ki vplivajo nanj, ter o usposobljenosti učiteljic za odkrivanje in ukrepanje v tovrstnih primerih. Raziskava je pokazala, da število primerov zlorabe otroka v družini iz leta v leto narašča. Izrazila se je potreba po večjem številu organiziranih oblik strokovnega izpopolnjevanja na področju nasilja nad otrokom v družini. ABSTRACT - In the introduction, the article defines various kinds of violence, and presents the characteristics of children as victims, parents as perpetrators and the family as place of violence. The authors focus on sexual abuse and the factors influencing its occurrence, as well as those which force the child or the parent not directly involved in the violence to remain silent. In the research involving 95 teachers of main-stream primary schools and schools with an adapted programme, they examined the teachers' opinions about the prevalence of violence children experience in the family. They also discussed the factors causing violence and the teachers' ability of detection and an appropriate course of action in such cases. The research showed an increasing number of child abuse cases from year to year. Therefore more organised forms of professional training in the area of violence children are experiencing in the family should be provided.

Breda Pirnat

ODKRIVANJE OTROŠKIH PREDSTAV O SORODSTVENIH ODNOSIH

EXAMINING CHILDREN'S UNDERSTANDING OF FAMILY RELATIONS

Pregledni znanstveni članek Review
UDK 372.36:392.31 UDC 372.36:392.31
DESKRIPTORJI: otroške predstave, sorodstveni odnosi, 6 do 8 letni otroci
DESCRIPTORS: children's understanding, family relations, 6- to 8-year old children
POVZETEK - V članku prikazujem usklajenost ciljev z otrokovim razvojem in razumevanjem sorodstvenih izrazov. Proučevala sem, kakšno je otroško individualno razmišljanje in pri tem prišla do novih spoznanj. Ugotovila sem, da otroci dobro poznajo sorodstvene odnose, ki so navedeni v učnem načrtu in jih pravilno poimenujejo. Vedo, da sodijo v družino, in jih ustrezno uporabljajo. Kljub temu se v berilih in učbenikih srečajo z nekaterimi sorodstvenimi izrazi, ki jih ne poznajo ali imajo o njih napačne predstave. Starejši otroci pravilneje in podrobneje razlagajo sorodstvene odnose. Po sedmem letu so otroci že sposobni povezovati več sorodstvenih vlog hkrati. ABSTRACT - The article discusses the harmony of goals with the child's development and his/her understanding of family relations. The focus of the research has been the child's way of thinking. The findings show that children have a good understanding of the family relations listed in the curriculum. They can name and use them correctly and are aware that they are part of the family. The reading texts in their course books, however, include words for certain family relations they do not know or have a false understanding of. Older children define family relations better and in more detail. After seven years of age the children are capable of understanding and connecting several family relations simultaneously.

Mag. Jasmina Starc

POSEBNOSTI V IZOBRAŽEVANJU ODRASLIH NA SAMOSTOJNIH VISOKOŠOLSKIH ZAVODIH V SLOVENIJI

SPECIFIC FEATURES OF ADULT EDUCATION IN INDEPENDENT HIGH EDUCATION INSTITUTION IN SLOVENIA

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK 374:378(497.4) UDC 374:378(497.4)
DESKRIPTORJI: izobraževanje odraslih, samostojni visokošolski zavodi, kvaliteta, sposobnosti, motivacija
DESCRIPTORS: adult education, independent high education institutions, quality, abilities, motivation
POVZETEK - Na osnovi teoretičnega preučevanja strokovne literature s področja izobraževanja odraslih in na osnovi empiričnih rezultatov na vzorcu 400 izrednih študentov drugih letnikov samostojnih visokošolskih zavodov je avtorica prišla s pomočjo raziskovalnega projekta do zanimivih in pomembnih zaključkov o posebnostih izobraževanja odraslih, ki jih utemeljuje v svojem prispevku. ABSTRACT - In her article, the author presents interesting and relevant conclusions about the specific situation of adult education. Her findings are the result of a research project, where professional literature in the area of adult education was examined and an empirical study covering a sample of 400 part-time second year students of independent high education institutions was conducted.

Dr. Slavko Cvetek

PEDAGOŠKA PRAKSA IN NJEN POMEN ZA IZOBRAŽEVANJE UČITELJEV

TEACHING PRACTICE AND ITS ROLE IN TEACHER EDUCATION

Pregledni znanstveni članek Review
UDK 371.13/.16 UDC 371.13/.16
DESKRIPTORJI: pedagoška praksa, izobraževanje učiteljev, programska evalvacija
DESCRIPTORS: teaching practice, teacher education, programme evaluation
POVZETEK - Avtor na začetku pregleda različna pojmovanja o vlogi pedagoške prakse za profesionalni razvoj študentov ter navede nekaj podatkov o vključenosti pedagoške prakse v programe za izobraževanje učiteljev. Avtor ugotavlja, da je v sodobnem izobraževanje učiteljev v Evropi in svetu praksa (izkustvo) vse manj razumljena zgolj kot uporaba teoretičnih spoznanj in principov, ki so jih študenti pridobili s predavanji na fakulteti, ter da dobiva v izobraževanju učiteljev ključno vlogo in pomen. Izhajajoč iz izkustva (prakse), študenti na osnovi kritičnega premisleka preverjajo posredovane teorije in principe ter gradijo svoje profesionalno znanje.
Avtor zatem oceni vlogo in status pedagoške prakse v izobraževanju učiteljev v Sloveniji. Pri tem izhaja iz podatkov in ugotovitev, objavljenih v znanstveni in strokovni periodiki, ter iz ugotovitev obsežne evalvacije programa za izobraževanje učiteljev angleškega jezika na Pedagoški fakulteti Univerze v Mariboru, ki jo je opravil avtor v letih 2000/2001. Avtor ugotavlja, da pedagoška praksa v izobraževanju učiteljev pri nas nima ustrezne vloge, kar je, med drugim, razlog za to, da študenti ob zaključku študija na fakulteti niso ustrezno usposobljeni za poučevanje in pedagoško delo v šoli.
ABSTRACT - The author starts with a review of different conceptions of the role of teaching practice in student teachers' professional development, and provides information on the inclusion of teaching practice in study programmes. He finds that in modern teacher education in Europe and the world there is an increasing understanding that practice is not mere application of theory and principles students receive at the faculty but has instead acquired a key role and crucial importance in teacher education programmes. Based on experience (practice) and reflection on that experience, students can critically examine the acquired theories and principles and in this way build up their professional knowledge.
The author then evaluates the role and status of teaching practice in teacher education in Slovenia. His evaluation is based on the results of published research and on the results of an extensive evaluation of the programme of initial education of English language teachers at the Faculty of Education, University of Maribor, which the author conducted in 2000-2001. The author has established that teaching practice is not given an appropriate role which is, among other things, a major reason why students are not adequately prepared for teaching after the completion of the programme.

Mag. Eva Konečnik

PEDAGOŠKA PRAKSA IN ZAKONITOSTI NARAVNIH SISTEMOV

TEACHING PRACTICE AND THE LAWS OF NATURAL SYSTEMS

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 372.891 UDC 372.891
DESKRIPTORJI: naravni sistemi, ekosistemsko mišljenje, didaktika geografije
DESCRIPTORS: natural systems, eco-system thinking, teaching methods in geography
POVZETEK - Avtorica predstavlja osnovne zakonitosti, po katerih delujejo naravni sistemi. Te zakonitosti ohranjajo stabilnost biosfere kot osnovnega sistema ter stabilnost vseh podsistemov biosfere. Kot podsistem bi lahko razumeli tudi razred. V članku je s preprostimi primeri nakazano, kako se posamezne zakonitosti naravnih sistemov uresničujejo oziroma bi jih lahko uresničevali v razredu, da bi ustvarili kakovostno in stabilno učno okolje. ABSTRACT - The article presents the basic laws governing natural systems. These laws preserve the stability of the biosphere as the fundamental system as well as the stability of all biosphere sub-systems, of which the classroom could be one example. On the basis of simple examples it shows their possible implementation in the classroom, resulting in a stable learning and teaching environment.

Slavica Bragato, Neva Pahor, Nataša Skrt Leban

DELAVNICE USTVARJALNOSTI - OBOGATITVENI PROGRAM ZA UČENCE RAZREDNE STOPNJE OSNOVNE ŠOLE

CREATIVE WORKSHOP - ENRICHMENT PROGRAMME FOR STUDENTS OF LOWER PRIMARY SCHOOL

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 373.32:37.036 UDC 373.32:37.036
DESKRIPTORJI: nadarjeni učenec, delavnice ustvarjalnosti, didaktični pristopi, projekt
DESCRIPTORS: gifted student, creativity workshops, teaching approaches, project
POVZETEK - V članku so prikazane izkušnje pri delu z učenci razredne stopnje v Delavnicah ustvarjalnosti na OŠ Ivana Roba v Šempetru pri Gorici. Gre za obogatitveni program, s katerim želijo spodbuditi učenčevo ustvarjalnost, obenem pa v njem razviti strpnost do drugačnosti (do nenavadnih odgovorov vrstnikov, do različnih stališč in rešitev, ki se porajajo v skupini, do vprašanj, do drugačnih poti reševanja problemov, ...). Največ pozornosti je posvečeno spremljanju in beleženju učenčevih domislic, rešitev, dosežkov, da bi lahko posameznik razvil občutek neponovljive enkratnosti, ki je v vsakem človeku. Hkrati so želeli povečati občutljivost učiteljev razredne stopnje pri spremljanju, odkrivanju, identifikaciji ter spodbujanju razvoja nadarjenih učencev ter izdelati in preveriti pripomočke za spremljanje učenčeve ustvarjalnosti in nadarjenosti. Članek obravnava dileme, ki so se porajale pri delu z učenci nižjih razredov ter možne odgovore in rešitve, ustvarjanje pozitivne klime oziroma naravnanosti do drugačnosti kot vrednote, spodbujanje lastne iniciative učenca in s tem večanje občutka odgovornosti, spoznavanje učenčevih močnih področij, dela v manjši skupini. To so le nekatere spremembe, ki omogočajo drugačno, bolj poglobljeno delo v razredu. ABSTRACT - The paper presents experiences in the work with lower primary students during the "Creativity workshops" at the Ivan Rob Primary School, Šempeter pri Gorici. The programme was intended to stimulate pupils' creativity as well as develop their tolerance of differences (such as their friends' unusual answers, different points of view and solutions within a group, questions, different ways of solving problems, ...). The emphasis was on monitoring and recording pupils' ideas, solutions and achievements because we wanted to develop each individual's feeling of uniqueness, which is present in every human being. At the same time we endeavoured to increase the lower primary teachers' sensitivity to monitoring, identifying and stimulating the development of gifted students. Our aim was also to create and test instruments for monitoring students' creativity and talent. The article treats the dilemmas arising from the work with lower primary students and suggests some solutions and answers. The creation of a positive atmosphere, accepting differences as values, stimulating pupils' own initiative and feeling of responsibility, learning about pupils' strengths and abilities, and small group work represent only some of the changes which enable a different and a more engaged approach to work in class.