2001 - LETNIK 16
POVZETKI ŠTEVILKE 2

Dr. Marjan Blažič

RAZVOJ TEORIJE NADARJENOSTI IN REFLEKSIJA V PRAKSI

THE DEVELOPMENT OF GIFTEDNESS THEORY AND REFLECTION IN PRACTICE

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK 371.212.3 UDC 371.212.3
DESKRIPTORJI: nadarjenost, talentiranost, koncepti, modeli, polifaktorska teorija nadarjenosti, identifikacija, pospeševanje razvoja
DESCRIPTORS: giftedness, talent, concepts, models, polyfactor theory of giftedness, identification, accelerating development
POVZETEK - V zadnjih dvajsetih letih je pojmovanje nadarjenosti dobilo nova obeležja. Izoblikovali so se koncepti, ki presegajo prvotno enodimenzionalno opredelitev. Razvile so se polifaktorske teorije nadarjenosti, ki poleg večdimenzionalnih psihomotoričnih konceptov inteligence vključujejo tudi kognitivne, socialne, emocionalne, kulturne, antropološke in druge določilnice. S tem postaja tudi diferenciacija med pojmoma nadarjenost in talentiranost vse bolj konsistentna.
Različni koncepti, modeli in programi za pospeševanje razvoja nadarjenih predstavljajo potrebno osnovo za konkretne pedagoške aktivnosti znotraj rednega učnega dela kakor tudi izven njega, pri čemer pa mora delo z nadarjenimi učenci in mladostniki temeljiti na načelu znanstveno raziskovlne klime v okviru hevrističnih učnih pristopov. Nekateri možni didaktični pristopi so tudi predstavljeni.
Avtor ugotavlja, da je zaradi nekaterih objektivnih, večinoma pa subjektivnih dejavnikov razkorak med stopnjo razvitosti teorije in dejanskimi operativnimi možnostmi nadarjenih, v primerjavi s tujimi izkušnjami, prevelik.
ABSTRACT - The past twenty years have witnessed a new conception of giftedness. Concepts have been formed, which go beyond the original one-dimensional definition. Alongside the multidimensional and psychomotor concepts of giftedness, polyfactor theories have been developed, which include cognitive, social, emotional, cultural, anthropological and other dimensions of giftedness. This allows for a more consistent differentiation between the concepts of giftedness and talent.
Various concepts, models, and programmes for accelerating the development represent a necessary foundation for concrete pedagogical activities internally, in regular teaching and learning settings as well as externally, whereby work with gifted children and youth must be based on the principles of scientific and research climate within the framework of heuristic learning principles. The book presents applicable teaching approaches.
Due to certain objective but predominantly subjective factors, the author finds the discrepancy between the stage of theoretical development and actual operational opportunities for the gifted to be too large in comparison with the situation abroad.

Dr. Jana Bezenšek

NEKATERI VIDIKI DRUŽBENE NEENAKOSTI NADARJENIH IN IZOBRAŽEVANJE

ASPECTS OF SOCIAL INEQUALITY OF GIFTED PERSONS AND THEIR EDUCATION

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK 316.344.232 UDC 316.344.232
DESKRIPTORJI: družbena neenakost, izobraževanje, nadarjeni učenci, družina, družba
DESCRIPTORS: social inequality, education, gifted students, family, society
POVZETEK - Družbena neenakost je imanentna značilnost modernih družb. Del sociologov jo opredeljuje kot neracionalno sestavino, ki ogroža stabilnost družbenega sistema, del pa jo razume kot prispevek h koheziji posamične družbe in je v tem smislu racionalna. Glede razlikovanja učinkovitosti neenakosti lahko protisloven značaj družbene neenakosti opredelimo tudi kot kazalec družbene (ne)pravičnosti. Kot racionalna izbira za družbeni sistem v celoti je lahko na področju izobraževanja in vzgoje v specifičnih razmerah celo dejavnik destabilizacije sistema. Tako tudi Rawls obstoj družbene neenakosti utemeljuje z dejstvom, da se na ta način izboljšuje položaj najmanj privilegiranih. Malnar (1996) pa dodaja, da je zato neenakost legitimna tudi z vidika družbene pravičnosti, a le pod pogojem, da imajo od neenakosti vsi koristi. ABSTRACT - Social inequality is an immanent characteristic of modern societies. Some sociologists define it as an irrational element, threatening the stability of a social system, while others see it as a contribution to the cohesion of individual society, and as such rational. With regard to the differentiation of the effectiveness of inequality, the contradictory nature of social inequality can also be defined as an indicator of social (in)justice. As a rational choice for the social system as a whole, it can act under specific conditions in the area of education as a factor of its destabilisation. According to Rawls, the existence of social inequality can be justified with the fact that it improves the situation of the least privileged. Malnar (1966) adds that, therefore, inequality becomes legitimate also from the aspect of social justice but only under the condition that everybody profits from this inequality.

Dr. Majda Pšunder

MOŽNOSTI ZAZNAVE POTENCIALNE NADARJENOSTI V PREDŠOLSKI DOBI

ARE PARENTS AWARE OF THE POTENTIAL GIFTEDNESS OF THEIR PRE-SCHOOL CHILD?

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK 159.928 UDC 159.928
DESKRIPTORJI: potencialna nadarjenost, predšolski otrok, družina
DESCRIPTORS: potential giftedness, pre-school child, family
POVZETEK - Prispevek ima štiri poglavja. Pri poskusu definiranja nadarjenosti smo izpeljali petplastno koncepcijo nadarjenosti: dedne dispozicije in okolje vplivajo na kreativnost, sposobnosti in osebnostne lastnosti. Opredelili smo zgodnje znake potencialne nadarjenosti, vrste nadarjenosti in se usmerili v družino. Družina ima biološko reproduktivno, čustveno, ekonomsko, pravno in vzgojno vlogo. Ker smo se v naslovu usmerili v družino in prepoznavanje nadarjenosti v njej, smo pojasnili otrokov položaj v družini in označili nekatere značilnosti spodbudnih staršev. Raziskavo smo opravili na manjšem vzorcu štiriletnih otrok, kjer smo z metodo opazovanja potrdili subjektivno mnenje vzgojiteljice o potencialni nadarjenosti vzorca. Z anketnim vprašalnikom za starše so lahko opredelili razvojne potenciale vzorca in odgovorili na zastavljeno vprašanje. ABSTRACT - In the attempt to define giftedness, we developed a five layer concept, where genetic dispositions and the environment influence creativity, abilities and personal characteristics. We defined the early signs of potential giftedness and the kinds of giftedness, and examined the family, which plays a important biological, reproductive, emotional, economic, legal and edu-cational role. As the title suggests, we focused on the family and on the identification of giftedness within it. We tried to explain the child's position in the family and define certain characteristics of encouraging parents. The research was carried out on a small sample of four-year olds. The observation method was used to confirm the subjective opinion of the early-years teacher about the potential giftedness of the sample. The questionnaire for parents helped them to define the developmental potentials of the sample and to answer the title question.

Dr. Milena Valenčič Zuljan

POJMOVANJE POKLICA PRI ŠTUDENTIH RAZREDNEGA POUKA NA ZAČETKU ŠTUDIJA

HOW BEGINNING STUDENTS OF PRIMARY EDUCATION UNDERSTAND THEIR FUTURE PROFESSION

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK 371.13/.16 UDC 371.13/.16
DESKRIPTORJI: pojmovanje poklica, pouk, učiteljeva poklicna vloga, razredna klima in motivacija, pedagoška praksa, učitelj mentor
DESCRIPTORS: understanding the profession, lessons, teacher's professional role, class climate and motivation, teaching practice, teacher mentor
POVZETEK - Temelj učiteljeve poklicne kompetence zagotovo predstavlja kvalificirano poučevanje. Pomemben je celoten kontekst učiteljevega poklicnega delovanja in življenja, potrebne so različne kognitivne, praktične in moralne kompetence, ki prispevajo k učiteljevemu razvoju in s tem k dolgoročno kakovostnemu poučevanju. Le učitelj, ki se sam razvija, lahko v tem procesu pomaga tudi učencem. Na to, koliko smo pripravljeni na poklicne izzive, pa med drugim vpliva tudi naše pojmovanje poklica. V prispevku nas je zanimalo, kako pojmujejo poklic študenti razrednega pouka na začetku študija.
Iz analize dobljenih podatkov ugotavljamo, da študenti poudarjajo čustveno-motivacijski vidik tako pri razmišljanju o izbiri poklica in zgledih lastnih učiteljev kot pri opazovanju učiteljev na pedagoški praksi in vrednotenju mentorja. Prav tako izstopajoče je razumevanje poklica kot razlaganje in posredovanje znanja.
ABSTRACT - Quality teaching is undoubtedly the basis of teacher's professional competence. Actually, the whole context of teacher's professional activity and life is important. Further, the teacher needs various cognitive, practical and moral competencies, which all contribute to his/her development and thus to quality teaching. Only the teacher who is prepared to develop on his/her own can assist his/her students to do the same. How well we are actually prepared for professional challenges depends to a great extent on our understanding of the profession. In this connection we wanted to find out how beginning students of primary education understand their future profession.
The data analysis shows that in deciding about their future profession, in having own teachers as examples, as well as in the observation of teachers during practice or in the evaluation of their mentors students lay great emphasis on the emotional and motivational aspects of the profession. The understanding of the profession as being one where knowledge is explained and transferred to the students also proved to be an important point.

Dr. Marina Tavčar Krajnc

PROBLEMI TRANSFORMACIJE SOCIOLOGIJE V ŠOLSKI PREDMET - ANALIZA IN KOMPARACIJA UČBENIKOV

THE PROCESS OF TRANSFORMING SOCIOLOGY AS A SCIENCE INTO A SCHOOL SUBJECT - TEXTBOOK ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK 372.83 UDC 372.83
DESKRIPTORJI: sociologija, učbeniki, komparacija, vsebine, sociološke teorije, družbena stvarnost, študija primera.
DESCRIPTORS: sociology, textbooks, comparison, contents, sociological theories, social reality, case study
POVZETEK - Drugi del razprave o transformiranju sociologije kot znanstvene discipline v šolski predmet opravi analizo in primerjavo štirih socioloških učbenikov iz različnih družbenih okolij. Izbrani so bili glede na primerljivost nivoja zahtevnosti ter kot ustrezni referenčni okvir, na katerega se opira sam slovenski učbenik. V komparaciji so bili upoštevani predvsem naslednji vidiki: vključene vsebine in teoretska izhodišča, didaktično-metodična izhodišča, opremljenost z informacijami o dodatnih virih, oblikovanost učbenika ter povezanost med teorijo in prakso. Vključena je tudi študija primera enega izmed obravnavanih učbenikov, in sicer tistega, ki se po pristopu do obravnavane problematike najbolj razlikuje od ostalih treh, hkrati pa prinaša veliko kvalitetnih informacij, ki bi lahko predstavljale zgled v oblikovanju novejših učbenikov. ABSTRACT - The second part of the discussion about the process of transforming sociology as a science into a school subject deals with the comparison of four sociology textbooks from different societies. The choice of textbooks was based on the criteria of comparability as to their level, and as to their relevance for the Slovene textbook. The comparison consists of the following points: basic contents and theories, pedagogical principles, supporting information about further reading sources, the connection between theory and social life. The article presents a case study of one of the compared textbooks which brings a lot of high quality information that could be used as a good example in the process of preparing new textbooks.

Dr. Vlasta Hus

VREDNOTENJE UČNIH CILJEV ZA PREDMETA SPOZNAVANJE OKOLJA IN SPOZNAVANJE NARAVE IN DRUŽBE V PODROBNIH UČNIH NAČRTIH

ASSESSMENT OF TEACHING GOALS FOR THE SUBJECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION AND EARLY SCIENCE AND SOCIAL STUDIES, AS THEY ARE PRESENTED IN DETAILED CURRICULA

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK 372.48:371.214 UDC 372.48:371.214
DESKRIPTORJI: kurikularna prenova, podrobni učni načrt, predmet spoznavanje okolja, predmet spoznavanje narave in družbe
DESCRIPTORS: curricular renovation, detailed curriculum, environmental education, early science and social studies
POVZETEK - Spremenjena strategija načrtovanja kurikuluma spoznavanja okolja zahteva spremembe tudi v učiteljevem načrtovanju. Zanimalo nas je, kako učitelji v podrobnih učnih načrtih načrtujejo učne cilje in ali prihaja glede tega do pomembnih razlik v primerjavi s predmetom spoznavanje narave in družbe. Najbolj se razlike v analiziranih podrobnih učnih načrtih med predmetoma izkazujejo v samem mestu zapisa učnih ciljev v podrobnih učnih načrtih, v njihovi časovni opredeljenosti in s tem povezanem številu učnih ciljev ter v njihovi korelaciji z drugimi predmeti. Večjih razlik med predmetoma pa ni opaziti v razmerju zastopanosti posameznih vrst učnih ciljev in v nivoju zapisa učnih ciljev. ABSTRACT - The changed strategy of planning the curriculum for environmental education requires also a change in teacher's planning. We were interested in how teachers plan their goals and whether any significant differences in comparison with the subject of early science and social studies could be observed. The differences are most significant in the actual place of noting the teaching goals in the detailed curricula, in the time plan and the number of goals connected with it and, finally, in the correlation with other subjects. There are no major differences between the two subjects as to the representation of individual kinds of teaching goals and in the level of the notation thereof.

Mag. Claudio Battelli

ANALIZA UPORABNOSTI KLJUČA ZA DOLOČANJE ALG

ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICABILITY OF THE ALGAE IDENTIFICATION KEY

Pregledni znanstveni članek Review
UDK 582.263 UDC 582.263
DESKRIPTORJI: slikovni morfološki ključ, določanje, makrobentoške zelene alge, slovensko obalno morje.
DESCRIPTORS: pictorial morphological key, identification, macrobenthos green algae, the sea along the Slovene coast
POVZETEK - Avtor predstavlja analizo postopka prepoznavanja deset makrobentoških zelenih alg, ki so najbolj značilne in dostopne v slovenskem obalnem morju ter analizo preverjanja uporabnosti slikovnega morfološkega ključa. V preverjanje so bili vključeni dijaki četrtih razredov Gimnazije Koper in Gimnazije Piran ter študenti Pedagoške fakultete v Ljubljani - enota v Kopru. Iz rezultatov odgovorov sledi, da je slikovni morfološki ključ za nestrokovnjake, predvsem za srednješolsko in visokošolsko populacijo uporaben. ABSTRACT - The author presents the analysis of the process of identification of ten macrobenthos green algae, which are most typical and most accessible in the sea along the Slovene coast, and the analysis of testing the applicability of the pictorial morphological key. The senior students of the Koper and Piran high schools and the Faculty of Education students from Koper took part in the identification process. The results show that for lay people and especially for the secondary and higher education population the pictorial and morphological key can prove very useful.

Mag. Jelka Razpotnik

INFORMACIJSKA TEHNOLOGIJA PRI POUKU ZGODOVINE

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN TEACHING HISTORY

Pregledni znanstveni članek Review
UDK 372.893:371.68 UDC 372.893:371.68
DESKRIPTORJI: poučevanje zgodovine, računalnik v izobraževanju, izobraževalna tehnologija
DESCRIPTORS: teaching history, computers in edu-cation, education technology
POVZETEK - Informacijska tehnologija, ki je značilnost informacijske dobe, bo po mnenju didaktikov zgodovine imela velik vpliv na poučevanje zgodovine. Zaradi potreb informacijske dobe morajo dijaki pridobiti nove spretnosti in znanje, čemur mora slediti tudi poučevanje zgodovine. S pomočjo uporabe informacijske tehnologije se pri pouku zgodovine spodbuja samostojno individualno in skupinsko raziskovanje preteklosti z uporabo različnih virov informacij, učenci sprašujejo, analizirajo, argumentirajo in prihajajo do lastnih zaključkov. Informacijska tehnologija ponuja pri pouku zgodovine v glavnem tri možnosti, in sicer internet, CD-ROM (zgoščenke) in uporabo elektronske pošte. Vendar uporaba informacijske tehnologije pri pouku zgodovine ne bo nadomestila učitelja v razredu, ampak bo spremenila njegovo vlogo v razredu. V prihodnosti bodo učitelji zgodovine bolj kot posredovalci znanja in informacij, predvsem organizatorji, koordinatorji in nadzorovalci učenčevega dela. ABSTRACT - According to the methodology of teaching history, information technology, which is characteristic of the information age, will have an important influence on teaching history. Information age requires students to acquire new skills and knowledge which should also become part of history lessons. In history lessons, information technology can help students to investigate the past actively, individually or in groups by using different sources to carry out enquiries, it can also help them to analyse, give arguments and reach their own conclusions. Information technology offers three different possibilities: the Internet, CD-ROMs and electronic mail. The application of information technology in teaching history will not substitute the teacher but will change his/her role. In the future, history teachers will not act as disseminators of knowledge but rather as organisers, co-ordinators and supervisors of students' work.

Dr. Milena Ivanuš Grmek, Petra Klemenčič

ŠOLSKA KAZEN V 19. IN 20. STOLETJU

PUNITIVE MEASURES IN SCHOOLS OF THE 19TH AND 20TH CENTURY

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK 371.5 UDC 371.5
DESKRIPTORJI: šolska kazen, zgodovinski pregled, razredna stopnja osnovne šole, učenci, učitelji
DESCRIPTORS: school punitive measures, historical review, lower primary level, students, teachers
POVZETEK - V prispevku predstavljamo vrste in načine izvajanja šolske kazni v 19. in 20. stoletju. Ugotovili smo pomemben vpliv družbenega sistema na način kaznovanja in vrsto prevladujoče kazni. Za vsako obdobje so značilne drugačne kazni, saj se je najpogosteje rabljena kazen spreminjala in tako prešla od krute telesne kazni v administrativno in demokratično usmerjene kazni.
Empirično smo preučili obstoječe stanje na področju šolskega kaznovanja, preučili razlike v mnenjih o šolski kazni in izvrševanju le-te med učenci 4. razredov in učitelji razredne stopnje osnovne šole. Rezultati so pokazali, da večina učencev meni, da šolska kazen mora obstajati. Večina učiteljev pa je prepričanih, da šolska pravila nudijo dovolj možnosti za nemoten potek pouka.
ABSTRACT - The article presents kinds and ways of school punishment in the 19th and 20th century. Through history, the societal system played an important role in the manner and kind of predominating punitive measures. Each period is characterised by different measures. The most frequently applied punishment changed from being a cruel physical measure to an administrative and democratically oriented one.
An empirical study was carried out to determine the present situation as regards school punishment. We analysed the opinions about punishment and its actual application as it pertains to the 4th graders and teachers of the lower primary level. The results show that the majority of students are convinced that school punishment must exist. The majority of teachers, however, believes that school rules provide sufficient possibilities for undisturbed school instruction.

Dr. Majda Schmidt

ZNAČILNOSTI VZGOJE IN IZOBRAŽEVANJA OTROK S POSEBNIMI POTREBAMI V VZHODNI IN SREDNJI EVROPI

CHARACTERISTICS IN THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL NEEDS IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

Pregledni znanstveni članek Review
UDK 376 UDC 376
DESKRIPTORJI: otroci s posebnimi potrebami, Srednja in Vzhodna Evropa, integracija, inkluzija
DESCRIPTORS: children with special needs, Central and Eastern Europe, integration, inclusion
POVZETEK - V prispevku predstavljam značilnosti vzgoje in izobraževanja otrok s posebnimi potrebami v Srednji in Vzhodni Evropi ter procesa integracije in inkluzije. Analize posebnega izobraževanja opozarjajo na prepreke, ki zavirajo širjenje inkluzije. V Sloveniji tako kot v drugih državah beležimo upad števila otrok v posebnih institucijah. Osnove nadaljnjega razvoja inkluzije so že pridobljene izkušnje, izobraževanje učiteljev ter pridobivanje podpore v skupinah staršev, ki lahko mobilizirajo politične sile za izboljšanje pogojev izobraževanja marginaliziranih skupin otrok. ABSTRACT - The article presents the characteristics in the education of children with special needs in Central and Eastern Europe and the development of the integration process and inclusion. The analysis in the field of special education reveals barriers that inhibit the spreading of inclusion. In Slovenia, the same as in other countries, it has been observed that the number of children in special institutions has decreased. The important starting points for further development of inclusion are practical experiences, teacher education and involvement of parent groups that could mobilise political forces in order to improve educational provisions for marginal groups of children.

Tatjana Jereb Miklavčič

OTROCI IMAJO TEŽAVE - KAKO JIH REŠUJEJO?

CHILDREN EXPERIENCE DIFFICULTIES - HOW CAN THEY SOLVE THEM?

Poročilo Report
UDK 159.92-053.5 UDC 159.92-053.5
DESKRIPTORJI: razredna stopnja, šolski parlament, reševanje težav
DESCRIPTORS: lower primary level, school parliament, solving difficulties
POVZETEK - Avtorica poroča o pripravi in izpeljavi šolskega parlamenta s posebnim ozirom na razredno stopnjo. Tematika parlamenta se nanaša na področje težav mladih in na reševanje le-teh. ABSTRACT - The author reports how the school parliament is prepared and then carried out at the lower primary level. The parliament theme is about the difficulties of young people and their solution.