2001 - LETNIK 16
POVZETKI ŠTEVILKE 1

Dr. Zlatka Cugmas

KAKO PRVOŠOLCI ZAZNAVAJO REŠEVANJE NALOG USTVARJALNOSTI IN MATEMATIČNIH NALOG

HOW DO FIRST GRADERS PERCEIVE THE SOLVING OF CREATIVE AND MATHEMATICAL TASKS

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK 372.851:373.32 UDC 372.851:373.32
DESKRIPTORJI: prvošolci, ustvarjalnost, naloga, rešitev, interes
DESCRIPTORS: first graders, creativity, task, solution, interest
POVZETEK - Med cilji šolanja in posameznih predmetov je pogosto omenjeno razvijanje učenčeve ustvarjalnosti. V raziskavi, ki smo jo izvedli s 138 prvošolci, smo ugotavljali, kako otroci zaznavajo reševanje nalog ustvarjalnosti in ali obstajajo razlike v njihovi zaznavi reševanja nalog ustvarjalnosti (divergentno mišljenje) in zaznavi reševanja matematičnih nalog (konvergentno mišljenje). Predpostavljali smo, da otroci podobno zaznavajo reševanje nalog ustvarjalnosti kot matematičnih nalog, saj se v šoli srečujejo tako z nalogami, ki zahtevajo ustvarjalne rešitve, kakor tudi z nalogami, ki imajo le eno pravilno rešitev. Rezultati pričakovanj niso povsem potrdili. Na osnovi reševanja nalog ustvarjalnosti in matematičnih nalog so prvošolci matematične naloge ocenili kot najmanj težke. Najbolj so bili zadovoljni z rešitvami pri matematičnih nalogah in so najbolje prepoznali zahteve teh nalog. ABSTRACT - Student's creativity is often cited as an important educational aim and objective of individual school subjects. The research that was done on a group of 138 first graders tried to establish how children perceive the solving of creativity tasks and whether there exist differences with regard to their perception of solving creativity tasks (divergent thinking) as opposed to the solving of mathematical tasks (convergent thinking). We hypothesised that the children perceive both kinds of tasks in a similar way because in school they, on the one hand, meet with tasks demanding creative solutions and, on the other hand, with tasks requiring a single correct solution. The results did not completely meet our expectations. When solving creative and mathematical tasks, the first graders assessed the latter as being the least difficult. They were more satisfied with the solutions of mathematical tasks and were quick in recognising how to solve them.

Dr. Marjan Blažič

VPLIV NAČINA ZAZNAVANJA UČENCEV NA IZBOR UČNEGA MEDIJA

THE INFLUENCE OF THE STUDENTS' PERCEPTION ON THE CHOICE OF THE TEACHING MEDIUM

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK 65.012 UDC 65.012
DESKRIPTORJI: zaznavanje, čutila, dražljaji, učni medij, izbira
DESCRIPTORS: perception, senses, stimuli, teaching medium, choice
POVZETEK - Avtor v svojem prispevku najprej opredeli vpliv različnih energijskih procesov, ki nenehno delujejo na organizem in jih razdeli glede na njihov izvor. Ugotavlja, da so spoznavni procesi možni le tedaj, če je živčni sistem dovolj vzburjen. Na tej osnovi loči štiri osnovne značilnosti občutkov.
V drugem delu razprave poroča o empiričnem prouče-vanju vpliva načina zaznavanja učencev na izbor učnega medija. Razlike v kognitivnem stilu učencev so precejšnje, zato jih naj bi učitelj upošteval med drugim tudi pri izbiri učnih medijev, da bi lahko zagotovil njihove optimalne učinke.
ABSTRACT - In the article the author first defines the impact of various energy processes that constantly affect the human organism and classifies them according to their origin. He states that the cognition processes can only take place when the nervous system is sufficiently aroused. On this basis he distinguishes four fundamental characteristics of feelings.
The second part of the article is a report about an empirical study of the influence that the students' perception has on the choice of the teaching medium. Differences in the students' cognitive styles are considerable, therefore they should be taken into account when deciding on the use of a specific teaching medium. In this way the teacher can ensure its optimal effectiveness.

Dr. Bogomir Novak

INTEGRATIVNI MODEL IZOBRAŽEVANJA UČITELJEV - REALNOST ALI UTOPIJA?

INTEGRATIVE TEACHER EDUCATION MODEL - REALITY OR UTOPIA

Pregledni znanstveni članek Review
UDK 371.13/.16 UDC 371.13/.16
DESKRIPTORJI: izobraževanje učiteljev, integrativni model, paradigma šole, vrste znanja, kurikularna reforma, partikularizem
DESCRIPTORS: teacher training, integrative teacher education model, school paradigm, teacher professionalisation, types of knowledge, curricular reform, particularisation
POVZETEK - V prispevku so razčlenjene značilnosti, pogoji, izzivi (spodbude) in cilji dodiplomskega (pre-service) in podiplomskega, stalnega (in-service) izobraževanja učiteljev. Zunanji dejavniki nastajanja novega modela izobraževanja učiteljev so v procesih evropske integracije, družbenih spremembah v deželah tranzicije, vrednotnih spremembah in v rasti edukacijskih potreb, notranji pa evalvaciji dosedanje pedagoške prakse, interakciji med šolo in univerzo in sprejemanjem teorij, ki vodijo k interdisciplinarnemu sodelovanju med učitelji različnih strok. ABSTRACT - The paper analyses the characteristics, conditions, challenges (encouragement) and goals of pre-service, in-service and lifelong teacher education.The external factors affecting the new teacher education model are the processes of European integration, and the social changes in the countries in transition; they can also be found in the changed values and in the growing educational needs. On the other hand, the internal factors are to be found in the evaluation of the present educational practice, in the interaction between school and university and in the acceptance of theories leading to interdisciplinary co-operation among teachers of different subjects.

Dr. Ivan Ferbežer

KURIKULARNI MODEL OBOGATENE TRIADE J. S. RENZULLIJA

THE RENZULLI CURRICULAR MODEL OF THE ENRICHMENT TRIAD

Pregledni znanstveni članek Review
UDK 37.037 UDC 37.037
DESKRIPTORJI: edukacijski programi za nadarjene učence, kurikulum za nadarjene učence
DESCRIPTORS: educational programmes for gifted pupils, curricular teaching and learning strategies for gifted pupils
POVZETEK - V smislu temeljne teze o interaktivni enotnosti med koncepcijo - identifikacijo in edukacijo nadarjenih učencev predstavljamo Renzullijev kurikularni model obogatene triade. Individualizirano in diferencirano v dinamični perspektivi so razdelani trije dinamični tipi učnih aktivnosti in splošne raziskovalne aktivnosti v procesu učenja. ABSTRACT - On the basis of the main thesis on interactive unity between conception - identification and education of gifted pupils, we are presenting the Renzulli curricular model of the enrichment triad. Three dynamic types of learning activities and general research activities taking place within the learning process are viewed from a dynamic perspective, both individually and in a differentiated way.

Dr. Rudi Kotnik

DILEME POUČEVANJA FILOZOFIJE Z VIDIKA SODOBNE DIDAKTIKE

DILEMMAS IN TEACHING PHILOSOPHY FROM THE STANDPOINT OF MODERN TEACHING METHODS

Pregledni znanstveni članek Review
UDK 371.3:1 UDC 371.3:1
DESKRIPTORJI: filozofija, vrednote, vsebina, metode, didaktična načela
DESCRIPTORS: philosophy, values, contents, methods, teaching principles
POVZETEK - Prispevek se ukvarja s problemom možnosti utemeljevanja vsebine in metod poučevanja filozofije. Prikazani so rezultati teoretske raziskave dokumentov v dveh sistemih z razvito metodologijo poučevanja filozofije in teorije didaktike. Ugotavlja, da so vsebina in metode praviloma izpeljane iz okvirja, ki ga določajo splošna in specifična didaktična načela, splošni in specifični didaktični smotri ter pojem filozofije kot šolskega predmeta. Možnosti za utemeljevanje posameznih koncepcij poučevanja filozofije znotraj didaktike filozofije ne vidi zgolj v sklicevanju na filozofsko tradicijo in sodobnost, ampak tudi v priznanju temeljnih didaktičnih načel kot vrednot. ABSTRACT - The paper examines the problem of the justification of contents and methods used in teaching philosophy. For this purpose, the author presents the results of his theoretical research of documents within two systems with a developed methodology and theory of teaching philosophy. He establishes that the contents and methods usually play a subordinate role within the framework of general and specific teaching principles, general and specific aims and objectives, and within the concept of philosophy as a school subject. The justification of a particular concept of teaching philosophy is possible not only by referring to philosophical tradition and contemporary times but also by acknowledging basic teaching principles as values.

Dr. Majda Pšunder

KAKO ZAZNATI LEGASTENIKA IN MU POMAGATI

HOW TO IDENTIFY AND ASSIST THE DYSLECTIC CHILD

Pregledni znanstveni članek Review
UDK 371.26:616-009 UDC 371.26:616-009
DESKRIPTORJI: motnje branja in pisanja, črkovna in besedna legastenija, ožji in širši sindrom, legastenične faze, diagnosticiranje, pomoč.
DESCRIPTORS: reading and writing disorders, letter and word dyslexia, specific and general syndrome, dyslectic phases, diagnosticising
POVZETEK - Prispevek opredeljuje legastenijo, torej motnjo branja in pisanja, pri kateri sta najpogostejši črkovna (literarna) in besedna (verbalna). Etiologija še ni povsem razjasnjena, lahko je dedna in eksogena. Legastenijo označuje ožji in širši sindrom. Ožji zajema motnje v branju in pisanju, širši pa vzporedne in reaktivne znake. Legastenija se pojavlja fazno. Avtorica opredeljuje prepoznavne znake legastenije, njeno odkrivanje, diagnosticiranje, prognostično oceno ter pomoč legastenikom pri pisanju in branju. Predstavljena je raziskava, ki je bila opravljena na vzorcu 92 učiteljev razrednega pouka z ugotovitvijo, da je v nereprezentativnem vzorcu 0,33 odstotkov legasteničnih otrok na razredni stopnji osnovne šole. ABSTRACT - The article defines dyslexia, i.e. the reading and writing disorder, with the letter (literary) and word (verbal) disorders being the most frequents ones. Aetiology is still not completely clear and can be hereditary as well as exogenic. It is characterised by specific and general syndromes. The specific syndrome covers the reading and writing disorders, the general one the parallel and reactive signs. Dyslexia appears in phases. The author describes the typical dyslectic signs, the identification of the condition, the process of diagnosticising, the prognostic assessment and the assistance to dyslectic children in reading and writing. The article presents the research done on a sample of 92 primary school teachers, where it was established that in the non-representational sample 0.33% of the chil-dren at the class level were dyslectic.

Nataša Dražumerič, dr. Saša A. Glažar, dr. Dušan Krnel

KONSTRUKTIVIZEM NA MEDNARODNI OSNOVNI ŠOLI DANILE KUMAR V LJUBLJANI

CONSTRUCTIVISM AT THE DANILE KUMAR INTERNATIONAL PRIMARY SCHOOL IN LJUBLJANA THE STUDY OF LESSONS ABOUT THE WATER CYCLE IN NATURE

Pregledni znanstveni članek Review
UDK 372.36:372.857 UDC 372.36:372.857
DESKRIPTORJI: konstruktivizem, osnovna šola, kroženje vode
DESCRIPTORS: constructivism, primary school, water cycle
POVZETEK - Ideje konstruktivizma so v mednarodni osnovni šoli prisotne tako v metodičnem kot v izvedbenem kurikulu ter v načrtu za preverjanje znanja. Konstruktivistični pristop pogojujejo zlasti velike razlike v predznanju otrok, ki v mednarodno šolo prihajajo iz različnih okolij in šolskih sistemov. V empiričnem delu raziskave je bil konstruktivističen pristop od stopnje elicitacije preko stopnje intervencije in uporabe novih znanj preizkušen z vsebinami kroženja vode v naravi. Izbor primernih dejavnosti na stopnji intervencije, prilagojenih zamislim učencev, se je pokazal kot ustrezen. Vsi učenci so glede na začetne zamisli o obravnavanem pojavu napredovali do naravoslovno pravilnejšega razumevanja. Zamisli učencev in njihovo napredovanje po intervenciji je bilo odkrito s pomočjo individualnih intervjujev. To raziskovalno metodo vpogleda v zamisli otrok lahko pri pouku nadomestimo s primernejšimi pristopi. ABSTRACT - At the International Primary School, the ideas about constructivism are present in teaching itself, in the implemented curriculum, and in the assessment of knowledge. The constructivist approach s necessary due to the extensive differences in the prior knowledge of the children who come from very different environments and school systems. In the empirical part of the research, the constructivist approach was tested first in the elicitation stage, then in the intervention stage, and finally in the use of newly acquired knowledge. The specific content used for this purpose was the water cycle in nature. The choice of appropriate activities at the intervention level, which were adapted to the student's ideas, proved as appropriate. With regard to the initial ideas about the discussed phenomenon, all the students progressed towards a scientifically more correct understanding. The student's ideas and their progression following the intervention were revealed through individual interviews. The described research method of acquiring an insight into children's ideas can be substituted by approaches more suitable to class instruction.

Mag. Maja Umek, Irena Hergan, Alenka Kavčič, Veronika Kern

POZNAVANJE LJUBLJANE PRI UČENCIH RAZREDNE STOPNJE

LEARNING ABOUT LJUBLJANA IN LOWER PRIMARY SCHOOL

Pregledni znanstveni članek Review
UDK 372.48 UDC 372.48
DESKRIPTORJI: Ljubljana, prostorske predstave, učenci, razredni pouk
DESCRIPTORS: Ljubljana, spatial concepts, students, class teaching
POVZETEK - Z vrsto manjših raziskav smo z metodo vodenega intervjuja z odprtimi vprašanji in uporabo fotografij ugotavljali, kako se od prvega do četrtega razreda razvijajo predstave ljubljanskih učencev o Ljubljani. Zanimalo nas je, kaj si učenci predstavljajo pod besedo Ljubljana, katere ljubljanske znamenitosti poznajo, kako se poznavanje Ljubljane spreminja glede na starost otrok, kako vpliva lega šole na poznavanje posameznih delov Ljubljane in katera ljubljanska območja učenci najpogosteje obiščejo s šolo. Raziskava je pokazala, da učenci Ljubljano poznajo bolje kot znajo to povedati in da širjenje poznavanja imen ljubljanskih območij od prvega do četrtega razreda odraža značilnosti razvoja prostorske kognicije. ABSTRACT - The aim of the research was to find out how students from the first to the fourth class develop spatial concepts connected with the city of Ljubljana. The methods used were aguided open-question interview and the use of photographs. We were interested in what associations the word Ljubljana has for the students, which sights of Ljubljana they recognise, how their knowledge of Ljubljana develops with age, how the location of the school conditions their ability to name different parts of Ljubljana, and which parts of Ljublja-na are most frequently visited by schools. The findings of the research show that the students know Ljubljana much better than they can express IN words. It can also be concluded that the growth of student's ability to name the different parts of Ljubljana through the years is characteristic of the development of spatial cognition.

Dr. Tatjana Ferjan

NEKAJ MISLI O RAZISKOVALNIH NALOGAH

THOUGHTS ABOUT RESEARCH WORK

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 371.388 UDC 371.388
DESKRIPTORJI: raziskovalna naloga, priprava in zbiranje gradiva, nadarjeni učenci, motivacija
DESCRIPTORS: research work, preparation and collection of materials, gifted students, motivation
POVZETEK - Avtorica v prispevku opredeljuje pojem raziskovalne naloge in njene sestavne dele ter potek izdelave. Posebno pozornost posveča posameznim etapam, ki omogočajo ustvarjalno delo učencev. Ugotavlja, da je za kvaliteto tovrstnih izdelkov pomembna ustrezna motivacija. ABSTRACT - The article defines the concept of research work, its constituent parts and the process of execution. Special attention is paid to individual stages which enable the students to be creative. The author establishes that appropriate motivation is required in order to ensure the necessary quality of this kind of work.

Simona Napast

CILJI ZGODNJEGA UČENJA TUJEGA JEZIKA

GOALS OF EARLY FOREIGN LANGUAGE INSTRUCTION

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 372.880:373.3 UDC 372.880:373.3
DESKRIPTORJI: tuj jezik, jezikovni, psihološki in kulturni vidik, učiti, poslušati in govoriti v tujem jeziku
DESCRIPTORS: foreign language, linguistic, psychological and cultural aspect, teaching listening and speaking in a foreign language
POVZETEK - Učenje tujega jezika v sebi združuje jezikovno, psihološko in kulturno plat. Zgodnje jezikovno učenje zajema le kratke fraze, ki jih otroci usvajajo med igrami, pesmimi, izštevankami, različnimi gibalnimi igrami ipd. Tuj jezik ni zgolj učenje jezika kot takega, njegovih besed, besednih zvez in odnosov med besedami, temveč zajema tudi kulturo nekega naroda, kar pripomore k večji razgledanosti otrok.
Otroke je potrebno naučiti poslušati in govoriti v tujem jeziku s pomočjo kratkih sporočil, navodil in zgodbic. Potrebno je uporabljati veliko slikovnega materiala, predvsem pa morajo vse dejavnosti temeljiti na pesmih, rimah, plesu in gibanju nasploh.
ABSTRACT - Early learning is characterised by linguistic, psychological and cultural aspects. Early foreign language instruction consists of short phrases that students learn during singing, playing games and doing various physical activities. Foreign language instruction is not only teaching words in general, it means meeting other cultures and customs.
Little children have to be taught how to listen and speak in a foreign language. For this purpose we teach them short verses, poems, songs, short instructions or stories. Picture material is of great importance, as are all kinds of activities based primarily on songs, dance and physical movement.

Simona Sanda

MEDVRSTNIŠKO NASILJE - RAZLIKE V POGLEDIH STARŠEV IN NJIHOVIH OTROK

PEER VIOLENCE - DIFFERENCES IN PARENTS' AND CHILDREN'S ATTITUDES

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 371.5-058.53 UDC 371.5-058.53
DESKRIPTORJI: učenci, starši, nasilje, permisivnost, represivnost
DESCRIPTORS: students, parents, violence, permissiveness, repression
POVZETEK - Nasilje med vrstniki je velik problem sodobne šole. V želji, da bi čim bolj uspešno reševali probleme nasilja, moramo biti seznanjeni s stališči staršev do tega problema. Če obstajajo razlike med stališči staršev in njihovih otrok, moramo te razlike upoštevati v preventivnih in kurativnih programih. Naša raziskava se dotika tega področja in daje veliko iztočnic za iskanje novih poti dela s starši s ciljem - zmanjšati intenzivnost nasilja med vrstniki. ABSTRACT - Peer violence is a major problem of modern school. In a desire to successfully solve this problem, we have to become acquainted with the parents' attitudes about it. If we find differences between the attitudes of parents and their children, we have to take them into account in the prevention and treatment programmes. Our research shows how parents and children think about this issue and offers several strategies about how to design programmes for parents or children in order to accomplish our goal, which is to decrease the intensity of peer violence.

Dr. Alojzija Židan

DIDAKTIČNI VZOREC OBRAVNAVE UČNE ENOTE "SPOL KOT DRUŽBENA KATEGORIJA"

EXAMPLE OF A TEACHING UNIT: "GENDER AS SOCIAL CATEGORY"

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 372.857:372.83 UDC 372.857:372.83
DESKRIPTORJI: spol, spolna vloga, spolna asimetrija, družba, kultura
DESCRIPTORS: gender, gender role, gender asymmetry, society, culture
POVZETEK - V prispevku avtorica prikazuje vzorec za možno didaktizacijo socioloških učnih vsebin, zajetih v učni enoti Spol. Vzorec je oblikovan smerno, kar pomeni, da ga učitelj lahko nenehno glede na konkretno situacijo prilagaja. Mogoče ga je nadgrajevati in s tem doseči boljšo kvaliteto poučevanja. ABSTRACT - The article offers an example of how sociological contents dealing with gender issues can be presented in the classroom. The example has been designed in such a way so as to allow the teacher to adapt it each time to the concrete situation. It is possible to build on it and thus achieve an even higher quality of teaching.