2000 - LETNIK 15
POVZETKI ŠTEVILKE 5-6

Dr. Marjan Blažič

ZNAKI KOT SREDSTVO KOMUNIKACIJE

SYMBOLS AS MEANS OF COMMUNICATION

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK 003:159.92:130.2 UDC 003:159.92:130.2
DESKRIPTORJI: komunikacija, znak, teorije o znakih, modaliteta znakovnih sistemov
DESCRIPTORS: communication, symbol, symbol theory, modality of symbol systems
POVZETEK - Avtor v svojem prispevku najprej opredeli pojem znaka, nato pa znake klasificira na naravne, umetne in mešane ter določi njihove tri funkcije: ekspresivno (notranja stanja), apelativno (signali) in reprezentativno (simboli).
V drugem delu predstavi glavne teorije o znakih, in sicer Piercovo teorijo triadične relacije znakov, Morrisovo teorijo dimenzij semiotike in de Saussurovo teorijo jezika z bilateralno strukturo. Sisteme znakov nadalje razdeli na verbalne in neverbalne z vsemi svojimi pojavnimi oblikami in predstavi modalitete znakovnih sistemov.
ABSTRACT - In his article, the author first defines the concept of the symbol, then he classifies symbols into three categories: the natural, artificial and mixed ones, and states their three functions: the expressive (inner states), the appellative (signals) and the representational (symbols) one.
The second part of the article presents the main theories concerning symbols, such as the Pierce theory of the triadiene symbol relation, the Morris theory of semiotic dimensions and de Saussure theory of language as having a bilateral structure. These symbol systems are further subdivided into verbal and non-verbal ones, including all the possible forms. The author then presents the modalities of symbol systems.

Dr. Milena Valenčič Zuljan

DEJAVNIKI, KI VPLIVAJO NA OBLIKOVANJE IN SPREMINJANJE ŠTUDENTOVEGA IN UČITELJEVEGA POJMOVANJA

FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO THE FORMATION AND TRANSFORMATION OF STUDENT'S AND TEACHER'S THINKING

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK: 371.12 UDC: 371.12
DESKRIPTORJI: pojmovanje učiteljeve vloge, profesionalni razvoj, metode, oblike izobraževanja, zgled, pedagoška praksa
DESCRIPTORS: understanding the role of the teacher, professional development, methods, forms of education, example, teaching practice
POVZETEK - Ljudje se spreminjamo - osebnostno in poklicno zorimo in vendar ne vsi enako, ne v enaki meri, ne po enakih poteh. Tudi učitelji se v obdobju poklicnega udejstvovanja profesionalno spreminjajo. Na njihov razvoj med drugim pomembno vpliva sprejeto pojmovanje temeljnih pedagoških kategorij, ki so si jih oblikovali že kot učenci osnovne in srednje šole. V prispevku so prikazani dejavniki, ki so po mnenju študentov razrednega pouka vplivali na njihovo pojmovanje učiteljeve vloge ter oblikovanje lastnosti in spretnosti, ki so pomembne sestavine učiteljeve poklicne kompetence. Študentje, vključeni v raziskavo, so presojali tudi, kako so oziroma bodo različne metode in oblike poklicnega izobraževanja vplivale na njihov profesionalni razvoj. ABSTRACT - People change - they grow personally as well professionally. However, they do not all grow in the same way and to the same extent or following the same paths. During their career, teachers change professionally like everybody else. Their development is influenced among other things by the accepted understanding of basic teaching categories, which they have formed as students of primary and secondary schools. The article presents those factors, which the students of the primary teacher education programme have found as having an impact on their understanding of the teacher's role and on the development of characteristics and skills, which are important elements of teacher's professional competence. The students involved in the research were also asked to evaluate how the various methods and forms of vocational education had influenced their professional development and how they would do so in the future.

Dr. Marina Tavčar Krajnc

PROBLEMI TRANSFORMACIJE SOCIOLOGIJE V ŠOLSKI PREDMET - ANALIZA IN KOMPARACIJA UČNIH NAČRTOV

ISSUES CONNECTED WITH THE TRANSFORMATION OF SOCIOLOGY INTO A SCHOOL SUBJECT ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON OF CURRICULA

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK 372.83 UDC 372.83
DESKRIPTORJI: učni načrt, sociologija, komparacija, obsežnost, cilji, vsebine, didaktični napotki, učbeniki
DESCRIPTORS: curriculum, sociology, comparison, extension, goals, contents, teaching instructions, text books
POVZETEK - V okviru razprav o transformiranju sociologije kot znanstvene discipline v šolski predmet v sestavku obravnavam primerjave slovenskega učnega načrta za sociologijo v gimnaziji z ustreznim hrvaškim, angleškim in nemškim učnim načrtom. Komparacija je zajela predvsem obsežnost, namen in cilje, vsebine, didaktične napotke, opremljenost z didaktičnimi gradivi (učbeniki, za katere je bila prav tako opravljena komparativna analiza). Ugotovila sem sorodnosti med slovenskim in hrvaškim kurikulom, razlikujeta pa se predvsem po tem, da je slovenski manj ideološko zaznamovan. Prav tako je mogoče razbrati, da se je slovenski kurikulum močno zgledoval po angleškem. Bistveno težja pa je primerjava med slovenskim in nemškim kurikulom, saj gre v nemškem primeru za popolnoma drugačen kontekst. Vsekakor so sestavljalci prenovljenega učnega načrta za sociologijo iskali reference v sorodnih učnih načrtih v tujini, ki so jih usmerjale. ABSTRACT - Within the framework of the discussions around the issue of transforming sociology as a scientific discipline into a school subject, the article tries to compare the Slovene curriculum of sociology with the Croatian, English and German ones. The comparison first includes the extension of the syllabus, its main goals, contents, teaching instructions, and text books. Although many similarities between the Slovene and the Croatian syllabus can be established, there is also an important difference between the two, namely a stronger ideological impact in the Croatian one. It seems that the Slovene syllabus follows the English model, and is much more difficult to compare with the German syllabus because of the completely different context of the latter. It is obvious that the authors of the sociology curriculum followed the examples from abroad and were guided by them.

Dr. Janja Črčinovič Rozman

TEHNOLOGIJA PRI GLASBENEM POUKU

TECHNOLOGY IN MUSIC INSTRUCTION

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK 372.878 UDC 372.878
DESKRIPTORJI: glasbeni pouk, učna tehnologija, zvočni in slikovni posnetki, lastna zvočna produkcija, oprema za reprodukcijo in snemanje, računalnik
DESCRIPTORS: music education, educational technology, audio and video records, audio production, equipment for recording and reproduction, computer
POVZETEK - Glasbeno tehnologijo uporabljamo za demonstracijo zvočnih in slikovnih posnetkov in za lastno zvočno produkcijo. Služi kot povratna informacija o glasbenem izvajanju, za njegovo kritično presojo in izboljšanje. Glasbena tehnologija omogoča preprosto in hitro reprodukcijo široke ponudbe kvalitetnih posnetkov in snemanje lastnega izvajanja. Skoraj polovica učiteljev ni zadovoljna s kvaliteto in kvantiteto njihove zvočne snemalne opreme. Uporaba videa ni pereča s tehnične strani, vendar imajo televizorje in video posrednike le v maloštevilnih razredih osnovnih in srednjih šol. V prihodnosti lahko pričakujemo nadaljnji razvoj zvočne tehnologije in novih glasbenih medijev. Tudi računalnik bo verjetno postal del opreme glasbenih učilnic. ABSTRACT - We use music technology as an educational resource for the demonstration of audio and video records and for our own audio production. It serves as a useful feedback of music performance, and is used for critical judgement and improvement. Music technology enables simple and quick reproduction of a wide offer of good quality records and recordings of own production. Unfortunately, half of our teachers are satisfied neither with the quality nor the quantity of their audio recording equipment. From a technical perspective, the actual use of video is not problematic, however, only few music classrooms at primary and secondary schools are equipped with television sets and video players. In the future, we can expect further development of sound technology and new music media. The computer will undoubtedly also become a standard part of equipment of music classrooms.

Dr. Samo Fošnarič

DELOVNA PREDLOGA IN USPEŠNOST REŠEVANJA PREPROSTIH DELOVNIH OPRAVIL UČENCEV

WORKSHEET AND SUCCESSFUL SOLVING OF SIMPLE TASKS

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK 371.67 UDC 371.67
DESKRIPTORJI: obremenitev, ergonomski dejavniki, učna uspešnost
DESCRIPTORS: work stress, ergonomic factors, school achievement
POVZETEK - Današnje delo v šoli je dokaj stresno in na podlagi tega izpostavljeno številnim obremenitvam. Pri tem so udeleženci učnega procesa izpostavljeni obremenitvam, ki jih povzroča učenje ter hkrati tudi obremenitvam, ki jih povzroča delovno okolje.
Sestavni del delovnega okolja je tudi delovna predloga, ki lahko ob neprimerni razsvetljavi, ob premajhnih črkah ali slabšem odtisu v knjigi ter hkrati ob neprimerni delovni klimi onemogoča uspešno delo. Prispevek posreduje raziskovalne izsledke s tega področja ter nudi številna raziskovalna izhodišča za naprej.
ABSTRACT - Nowadays work in schools is rather stressful, which can lead to several difficulties. The participants of the learning process are exposed to various forms of stress caused by learning as well as those caused by the work environment.
The worksheet should be considered as a constituent part of this environment. Successful work is difficult to achieve when the lighting is not appropriate, the letters not big enough and the print not clear, or the work climate unsuitable. The article provides rese-arch findings in this area and offers several starting points for future research.

Mag. Vlasta Hus

PREDMET SPOZNAVANJE NARAVE IN DRUŽBE V TEORIJI IN PRAKSI

THE SUBJECT OF SCIENCE AND SOCIAL STUDIES IN THEORY AND PRACTICE

Pregledni znanstveni članek Review
UDK 372.48 UDC 372.48
DESKRIPTORJI: predmet spoznavanje narave in družbe, učni načrti, učbeniki, priročniki
DESCRIPTORS: social and science studies, curricula, textbooks, manuals
POVZETEK - V članku je prikazan razvoj predmeta spoznavanje narave in družbe od l. 1957, ko se pojavi v predmetniku osemletne osnovne šole, pa do njegove ukinitve l. 1998, ko ga zamenja predmet spoznavanje okolja v devetletni osnovni šoli. Predstavljene so temeljne ugotovitve o učnih načrtih in njihovih učinkih v vzgojno-izobraževalni praksi, o učbenikih in priročnikih (napotkih) za učitelje. ABSTRACT - The article presents the development of the subject Social and Science Studies since 1957, as it appeared in the curriculum of the 8-year primary school and was valid until its cancellation in 1998. In the 9-year primary school it was replaced by Environmental Studies. The article presents the basic evaluation of the curricula and their impact on the educational practice, on textbooks and teacher manuals.

Mag. Mojca Juriševič

POMEN OCENJEVANJA ZA OBLIKOVANJE UČENČEVE SAMOPODOBE

THE IMPORTANCE OF ASSESSMENT FOR THE FORMATION OF STUDENT'S SELF-ESTEEM

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK 371.26 UDC 371.26
DESKRIPTORJI: učenčeva samopodoba, oblikovanje učne samopodobe, ocenjevanje
DESCRIPTORS: student's self-esteem, formation of student's self-esteem, assessment
POVZETEK - Z raziskavo smo želeli ugotoviti, kakšna je samopodoba učencev četrtega razreda, ki so bili v prvih treh letih svojega šolanja različno ocenjevani: številčno ali opisno. Pri tem smo se oprli na novejša spoznanja s področja psihologije samopodobe, ki poudarjajo pomen učiteljevih povratnih informacij učencu za oblikovanje njegove (učne) samopodobe. Rezultati kažejo, da imajo do tretjega razreda opisno ocenjevani četrtošolci višjo samopodobo na področju zunanjega videza ter v vseh treh merjenih učnih sestavinah samopodobe (na področju branja, na področju matematike in na področju šolskega učenja na splošno) od svojih številčno ocenjevanih vrstnikov. Potrjujejo tudi nujnost upoštevanja večsestavinske narave samopodobe na področju pedagoško-psihološkega raziskovanja. ABSTRACT - The research tried to define the self-esteem of fourth grade students, who had been assessed in different ways during their first three years of schooling: either on the basis of numerical or descriptive assessment. We based our study on the recent findings from the area of the psychology of self-esteem, which emphasise the importance of teacher's feedback for the formation of the student's (learning) self-esteem. The results reveal a higher self-esteem in those fourth-grade students who had been descriptively assessed during their first three years of schooling. The self-esteem is higher in the area of appearance and in all three measured learning elements (in reading, arithmetic and in the area of academic achievement in general). The results also confirm the fact that in the area of pedagogical and psychological research the multi-faceted nature of self-esteem needs to be taken into account.

Dr. Marija Kavkler

KAKO IZBOLJŠATI RAVEN PISMENOSTI OTROK IZ REVNIH DRUŽIN?

HOW TO IMPROVE THE LEVEL OF LITERACY IN CHILDREN FROM POOR FAMILIES

Pregledni znanstveni članek Review
UDK 376.5/.64 UDC 376.5/.64
DESKRIPTORJI: raven pismenosti, otroci z učnimi težavami iz revnih družin, izobraževalne in socialne posebne potrebe, inkluzija
DESCRIPTORS: literacy level, children with learning difficulties from poor families, educational and social special needs, inclusion
POVZETEK - Če revščino pojmujemo kot prikrajšanost posameznika glede na možnosti udobja, samospoštovanja in tudi šolanja, ki se v določeni družbi smatrajo kot normalne, lahko ugotovimo, da tudi v Sloveniji problem revščine dobiva iz leta v leto večje razsežnosti. Približno 60 odstotkov otrok iz revnih družin ima tudi učne težave. Pri njih lahko diagnosticiramo posebne izobraževalne potrebe in potrebe, povezane s socialno integracijo. V odrasli dobi pa pogosto dosegajo nižje ravni pismenosti, so brezposelni in ostajajo na socialnem obrobju. Iz analize podatkov o ravni pismenosti odraslih oseb v Sloveniji (OECD, 2000) je razvidno, da je pomembna povezava med ravnijo pismenosti, ki jo posameznik dosega, in med njegovo izobrazbo, delovnim mestom ter izobrazbo njegovih staršev. ABSTRACT - If poverty is understood as a form of deprivation of the individual with regard to the possibilities of comfort, self-respect and schooling, which can all be considered as normal constituents of a certain society, we can establish that in Slovenia the problem of poverty is becoming more acute from year to year. Approximately 60% of children from poor families exhibit learning difficulties. They are diagnosticised as having special educational needs and needs connected with social integration. In adulthood they frequently exhibit lower levels of literacy, are unemployed and remain on the social edge. The analysis of data about the literacy level of adults in Slovenia (OECD, 2000) shows an important correlation between the literacy level an individual reaches and his/her education, work place and the education of his/her parents.

Andreja Burger

NEVERBALNA KOMUNIKACIJA

NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION

Pregledni znanstveni članek Review
UDK 371.335:159.925.8 UDC 371.335:159.925.8
DESKRIPTORJI: neverbalna komunikacija, gibanje telesa, mimika, zunanji videz, dotik, učitelj - učenec
DESCRIPTORS: non-verbal communication, body movement, mimicry, appearance, touch, teacher - student
POVZETEK - Avtorica v prvem delu prispevka opisuje tipe (izraz obraza, obnašanje oči, dinamika in gibanje telesa, osebni ali zunanji videz, obleka, dotik, medosebna razdalja, vpliv okolja, parajezik ter vonj in okus) in funkcijo (ponavljanje, namestitev/zamenjava, dopolnjevanje, varljivost/odkritost, uravnavanje in naglas/ poudarek) neverbalne komunikacije. Opredeljuje tudi neverbalno komunikacijo, ki poteka preko pisnega in slikovnega materiala - slike, pisma, internet. V empiričnem delu je opazovala neverbalno komunikacijo na razredni stopnji osnovne šole. ABSTRACT - The first part of the article describes the types (facial expression, eye movement, dynamics and body movement, personal or outer appearance, clothing, interpersonal space, impact of the environment, para- language, and smell with taste) and the function (repetition, placement/change, supplementing, deception/candour, regulation and accent/emphasis) of non-verbal communication. It also defines the non-verbal communication of written or picture material - pictures, letters, internet. The empirical part presents the observation of non-verbal communication at the class level of primary school.

Sonja Breznik Apostolovič

NEKATERI VIDIKI ODNOSNE KOMUNIKACIJE UČITELJ - UČENEC V LUČI NEKATERIH PSIHODINAMIČNIH TEORIJ

ASPECTS OF RELATIONSHIP COMMUNICATION OF TEACHER - STUDENT IN THE LIGHT OF PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORIES

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 371.32:316.77 UDC 371.32:316.77
DESKRIPTORJI: učitelj, učenec, medosebni odnosi, psihodinamika
DESCRIPTORS: teacher, student, interpersonal relations, psychodynamics
POVZETEK - Za uspešno sodelovanje med ljudmi je komunikacija izrednega pomena, saj med govorci ustvarja primerno klimo, ki omogoča pozitivne rešitve. Komunikacija pa je odvisna od mnogih dejavnikov, tako zunanjih kot notranjih, ki se med seboj prepletajo in drug na drugega učinkujejo. Glede na različne povezave in kombinacije so nastale nekatere psihodinamične teorije, ki proučujejo interakcijo in komunikacijo. Komunikacija je umetnost, ki zajema več vrst odnosov. Odnos med učiteljem in učencem temelji na racionalni bazi, ki je objektivna in hierarhično pogojena. Poleg profesionalnega odnosa med njima vlada tudi osebni odnos s subjektivnimi teorijami, stališči, mnenji, izkušnjami in pričakovanji. Na to razumsko podlago pa se močno veže emocionalna, ki prispeva k ugodni čustveni klimi, potrebni za spontano interakcijo. ABSTRACT - For successful co-operation among people communication is a very important element. It contributes to a pleasant atmosphere that brings about positive solutions. Communication depends on several factors - internal and external ones which are interwoven and influence one another. Different combinations and connections gave origin to several psychodynamic theories, which study interaction and communication. Communication is an art based on several kinds of relations. Relation teacher - student is based on a rational basis of an objective nature resulting from a hierarchical relationship. Besides the professional relationship between teacher and student, there is also a personal one, which is highly important. It is characterised by subjective theories, opinions, expectations and experience. The emotional basis, on the other hand, contributes to a favourable atmosphere necessary for spontaneous interaction.

Jožica Plešnik

JE UČENJE DRUGEGA TUJEGA JEZIKA RES LAŽJE?

IS LEARNING A SECOND FOREIGN LANGUAGE REALLY EASIER?

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 372.880 UDC 372.880
DESKRIPTORJI: učenci, večjezičnost, občutek za jezik, prvi tuji jezik, drugi tuji jezik, učne strategije
DESCRIPTORS: students, multilingual dimensions, feeling for language, first and second foreign language, learning strategies
POVZETEK - Pričujoči članek želi pokazati, da je učenje vsakega nadaljnjega tujega jezika lažje, če znamo pouk pravilno oblikovati. Učenec, ki se uči drugega tujega jezika, je običajno starejši in zrelejši, zato lahko pouk kritično sooblikuje, učitelj pa naj mu pomaga, da bo gradil na že pridobljenih izkušnjah. Ker se učne strategije pri učenju jezikov bistveno ne razlikujejo, naj se učitelj in učenec pri drugem ali tretjem tujem jeziku poslužita tega in izpopolnita že usvojene strategije. Učitelj lahko z oblikovanjem ustreznih vaj izkoristi tudi sorodnost nekaterih jezikov, kot sta npr. angleščina in nemščina. Tesno sodelovanje med učitelji tujih jezikov na šolah rodi boljše rezultate. ABSTRACT - The intention of the present article is to show that studying any language beyond mother tongue is easier provided it is taught correctly. A student who learns the second foreign language is usually older and wiser, that is why he is capable of critical co-operation in the process of language learning. The teacher is expected to help him/her in order to be able to build on his/her previous experiences. In language learning, strategies do not basically differ. When learning the second or third foreign language, the teacher and the student should make use of strategies applied previously. The teacher can prepare appropriate exercises and make good use of the languages that are closely related, for ex.: English and German. Close co-operation among the teachers of foreign languages can bring about better results.

Bojana Zafošnik

RAČUNALNIK KOT REHABILITACIJSKI PRIPOMOČEK

COMPUTER AS A REHABILITATION AID

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 376.4:681.3 UDC 376.4:681.3
DESKRIPTORJI: računalnik kot rehabilitacijski pripomoček, poslušanje, slušno razločevanje, pozorno poslušanje z razumevanjem
DESCRIPTORS: computer as a rehabilitation aid, listening, listening discrimination, attentive listening with comprehension
POVZETEK - V prispevku predstavljamo možnosti uporabe računalnika kot rehabilitacijskega pripomočka za otroke s posebnimi vzgojno izobraževalnimi potrebami. Z uporabo računalnika kot rehabilitacijskega pripomočka za otroke z motnjami v duševnem razvoju pomagamo otrokom premostiti ovire, ki izhajajo iz njihovih primanjkljajev ter pri razvoju in urjenju določenih sposobnosti in spretnosti. Poudarjena je otrokova lastna aktivnost, ki je gibalo razvoja in učenja. Predstavljene so vaje za razvijanje in urjenje pozornega poslušanja navodil z razumevanjem, ki jih izvajamo s programom Slikar. ABSTRACT - The article presents the possibilities of using the computer as a rehabilitation device for children with special educational needs. Children with disorders in mental development can be assisted in overcoming the obstacles resulting from their deficiencies and in the development and training of certain abilities and skills. The child?s own activity is emphasised as it represents the motive power of development and learning. There is a computer program Slikar (Painter), which provides exercises for developing and training attentive listening to instructions with comprehension.