2002 - LETNIK 17
POVZETKI ŠTEVILKE 2

Dr. Jan Makarovič

NADARJENOST V PSIHOLOŠKEM IN DRUŽBENEM KONTEKSTU

GIFTEDNESS WITHIN A PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIAL CONTEXT

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK 37.037 UDC 37.037
DESKRIPTORJI: nadarjenost, sposobnosti, osebnost, ustvarjalnost, družbeni vplivi
DESCRIPTORS: giftedness, abilities, personality, creativity, social impact
POVZETEK: Nadarjenost lahko razumemo kot izjemno visoko razvitost neke sposobnosti ali skupine sposobnosti. Toda dokler priznavamo samo količinske razlike v sposobnostih, ne pa tudi kvalitativnih, ostaja vprašanje, kaj je za nas pravzaprav "izjemno", odprto. V tem primeru se moramo pri definiciji nadarjenosti zadovoljiti z golo konvencijo. Nadarjenost se nam pokaže kot nekaj realnega šele tedaj, če predpostavimo, da se ljudje po svojih sposobnostih ne razlikujemo samo kvantitativno, marveč tudi kvalitativno. Do kvalitativne razlike v sposobnostih pa pride po avtorjevem mnenju šele v zvezi s kreativnostjo, tj. tedaj, ko neka sposobnost ne omogoča več samo analize in reprodukcije že danega, temveč produkcijo nečesa novega. Problem nadarjenosti se nam tako pokaže kot problem kreativnosti. Na osnovi teh izhodišč skicira avtor najprej teorijo kreativne osebnosti, nato pa to teorijo še razširi in obravnava kreativno osebnost in kreativni proces v družbenem kontekstu. Kreativnost se nam tako pokaže kot proces nenehnega součinkovanja med posameznikom in družbo. ABSTRACT: Giftedness can be understood as an outstanding development of a certain ability or groups of abilities. But until only quantitative differences in abilities and not the qualitative ones are recognised, the question remains as to what does "outstanding" really mean. When defining giftedness, we have to be satisfied with convention alone. Giftedness, however, is revealed as something real only then, when we assume that people differ in their abilities not solely with regard to quantity but also with regard to quality. The author believes that the qualitative differences in abilities appear only in connection with creativity, when a certain ability does not only result in the analysis and reproduction of the given, but rather in something new. The problem of giftedness can thus be considered as a problem of creativity. On the basis of such understanding, the author first outlines the theory of a creative personality, then the theory is extended to include the creative personality and the creative process within a social context. In this way, creativity is the process of constant interplay between the individual and the society.

Dr. Marina Tavčar Krajnc

SOCIOLOGIJA NA MATURI

SOCIOLOGY AS PART OF THE MATURA EXAM

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK 372.83:373.547(497.4) UDC 372.83:373.547(497.4)
DESKRIPTORJI: sociologija, zunanje preverjanje, strukturirana vprašanja, ocenjevanje, učni cilji, taksonomija, testne norme, uspešnost kandidatov
DESCRIPTORS: sociology, external examinations, structured questions, assessment, learning goals, taxonomy, test norms, candidates' achievement
POVZETEK - Prispevek se ukvarja z eksternim ocenjevanjem sociologije v srednji šoli. Najbolj celovito izoblikovan sistem eksternega preverjanja znanja predmeta na tej ravni predstavlja maturitetni izpit iz sociologije kot izbirnega predmeta. Dosedanje izkušnje že ponujajo možnost presoje tovrstnega preverjanja in ocenjevanja z vsebinskega in pedagoškega vidika. Članek izpostavlja razpravo o zahtevnostnih ravneh, zajetih v eksterno preverjanje, in s tem preverjanje doseženih učnih ciljev pouka sociologije, predstavi tudi doslej izmerjene testne norme preverjanja, predvsem objektivnost, težavnost in diskriminativnost izpitne pole s strukturiranimi vprašanji. Prikazana je tudi uspešnost kandidatov na tem delu izpita. ABSTRACT - The article discusses external exami-nations in the subject of sociology in secondary schools. The most comprehensively developed external examinations system of the subjects at this level is the Matura exam, within which sociology is one of the elective subjects. The present experience can serve as a starting point for evaluating such assessment from the aspect of content and teaching. The article discusses the different requirement levels of the external examinations and the evaluation of achieved learning goals in sociology. It also presents the assessment test norms, above all objectivity, difficulty level and discrimination of the exam sheet with structured questions. The achievement of candidates in this part of the exam is also a topic of discussion.

Dr. Marko Stevanović

UČBENIK V FUNKCIJI RAZVIJANJA USTVARJALNEGA MIŠLJENJA PRI POUKU MATEMATIKE

TEXTBOOK IN THE FUNCTION OF DEVELOPING CREATIVE THINKING IN MATH LESSONS

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK 372.851(075.2):159.955 UDC 372.851(075.2):159.955
DESKRIPTORJI: ustvarjalnost, divergentno mišlje-nje, fluentnost, fleksibilnost, originalnost, matematika, učbeniki
DESCRIPTORS: creativity, divergent thinking, fluency, flexibility, originality, mathematics, textbooks
POVZETEK - Avtor poroča o raziskavi aktualnih učbenikov za predmet matematika za šolsko leto 2001/02, ki so izšli pri založbah Školska knjiga, Alfa in Profil. V okviru svoje raziskave je zasledoval predvsem možnost uveljavljanja in razvijanja ustvarjalnosti učencev petega razreda osnovne šole. Ustvarjalnost je proučeval z vidika možnosti razvoja divergentnega ustvarjalnega mišljenja učencev s pomočjo tistih vsebin, ki jih lahko povežemo s fluentnostjo, fleksibilnostjo in originalnostjo. Ob uporabi znanstvenih raziskovalnih metod (metoda analize teorije, deskriptivno-analitična in kvantitativna metoda) je ugotovil, da učbeniki proučevanih založnikov s svojo vsebino in didaktično-metodično zasnovanostjo ne omogočajo razvoja ustvarjalnosti učencev pri pouku matematike. ABSTRACT - The author reports about a research on textbooks for the subject of mathematics for the academic year 2001/02 and published by the Školska knjiga, Alfa and Profil. The research deals mainly with the possibility of implementing and developing the fifth grader's creativity. Creativity was examined from the aspect of the development of divergent creative thinking in students with the help of those contents that can be linked with fluency, flexibility and originality. By applying scientific research methods (the method of theory analysis, descriptive-analytical and quantitative method) and examining the contents and the teaching concepts in the discussed textbooks he established that they do not allow for the development of student's creativity in math lessons.

Mag. Jasmina Starc

VPLIV NOTRANJIH IN ZUNANJIH MOTIVOV NA ODRASLE PRI NJIHOVEM IZOBRAŽEVANJU NA SAMOSTOJNIH VISOKOŠOLSKIH ZAVODIH

IMPACT OF INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL MOTIVES ON ADULTS INVOLVED IN EDUCATION AT INDEPENDENT HIGH EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK 374.7:378.094 UDC 374.7:378.094
DESKRIPTORJI: odrasli v izobraževanju, samostojni visokošolski zavodi, notranji motivi, zunanji motivi
DESCRIPTORS: adults in the process of education, independent high education institutions, internal motives, external motives
POVZETEK - Avtorica poroča o rezultatih raziskave o nekaterih pomembnih notranjih in zunanjih motivih, ki spodbujajo odrasle k študiju na samostojnih visokih strokovnih šolah v Sloveniji. Ugotovila je, da med motivi za izobraževanje prevladujejo notranji motivi, kot so postati samostojen in neodvisen, postati usposobljen za življenje, preizkusiti svoje sposobnosti in želja pridobiti si nov poklic, v manjši meri pa tudi zunanji motivi, kot so kvalitetnejše delo v poklicu, zboljšati svoj materialni položaj in priti na boljše delovno mesto. ABSTRACT - The author reports on research results dealing with important internal and external motives which encourage adults to take up studies at independent high education institutions in Slovenia. She established that among the motives for education the internal ones such as the wish to become self-confident and independent, to become educated for life, to test one's abilities and to acquire a new profession predominate while there are also less strong external motives such as work of higher quality, improvement of one's material conditions and the acquisition of a better work post.

Irena Adlešič

POMEMBNOST ŠOLSKE KLIME V DELOVANJU ŠOLE

THE IMPORTANCE OF SCHOOL CLIMATE FOR THE FUNCTIONING OF A SCHOOL

Pregledni znanstveni članek Review
UDK 373.32/.34 UDC 373.32/.34
DESKRIPTORJI: šola, učenci, učitelji, ravnatelj, razred, klima
DESCRIPTORS: school, students, teachers, headmaster, class, climate
POVZETEK - Prispevek govori o pomembnosti šolske klime za delovanje v razredu oziroma za razredno klimo. Kot primer prikazujem šolski klimi dveh osnovnih šol. Podatki so dobljeni le na osnovi opazovanja, za korektnejše zaključke pa bi bili potrebni še merski instrumenti, ki jih navajajo različni avtorji. Se pa že ti podatki vklapljajo v teoretična izhodišča razmišljanj o šolski klimi in stilih vodenja šole, kjer se z različno mero poudarjajo storilnostni in socialni elementi v vzgojnoizobraževalnem delu šole kot predvsem formalne institucije. ABSTRACT - The article discusses the importance of the school climate for good functioning in the class or for the class climate. For the presentation of the school climate at two primary schools we used the data gathered on the basis of observation. For more exact conclusions we would need to apply measuring instruments cited by various authors. These data can serve as the basis for reflecting about the school climate and management styles whereby the efficiency and the social elements of the educational work of the school as a primarily formal institution are emphasised to a different extent.

Jožica Čampa

RAČUNALNIŠKI DIDAKTIČNI PROGRAMI - AKTUALNA, ZANIMIVA IN INDIVIDUALIZIRANA POT DO ZNANJA

COMPUTER TEACHING PROGRAMS - TOPICAL, INTERESTING AND INDIVIDUALISED PATH TO KNOWLEDGE

Referat na znanstvenem posvetovanju Conference paper
UDK 371.68 UDC 371.68
DESKRIPTORJI: izobraževalna tehnologija, računalniški programi, diferenciacija, evalvacija, nadarjeni učenci
DESCRIPTORS: teaching technology, computer programs, differentiation, evaluation, gifted children
POVZETEK - Nadarjeni otroci se pri klasičnem pouku pogosto dolgočasijo. Uporaba sodobne tehnologije nadarjene otroke privlači, saj jim ponuja obilo možnosti za realizacijo lastnih interesov. Didaktični računalniški programi omogočajo otroku svobodno izbiro, hitrejše napredovanje, diferenciacijo, individualizacijo, zagotavljajo večje pomnjenje, razumevanje, predstavljivost. Z njihovo pomočjo lahko spoznavajo tudi pojave, ki so nevarni, nedosegljivi ali težko vidljivi. Poveča se motivacija za učenje, samostojnost učencev pri učenju, spodbuja se spontano sodelovanje in razvijanje komunikacijskih spretnosti. Tudi povratna informacija je hitra, omogoča popravljanje zmot in napak. Pomembno je sodelovanje v internetnih projektih, ki že majhne otroke spodbujajo h komuniciranju, k pridobivanju in širjenju informacij preko spleta. Uporaba nove tehnologije, metod, oblik in tehnik učenja in poučevanja dviguje tudi učiteljevo uspešnost in ustvarjalnost. ABSTRACT - Gifted children are frequently bored in class. They are, however, attracted by modern technology since it can offer them possibilities for satisfying their interests. Educational software offers children choices, it enables faster progress, differentiation, and individualisation, and ensures better memory, understanding and imagination. It also helps them to learn about the phenomena which are dangerous, unachievable or observable only with difficulty. The motivation for learning is enhanced, students become more independent in their learning, spontaneous collaboration and development of communication skills improve. Quick feedback information allows for the correction of mistakes. Another dimension is collaboration in internet projects, where small children are encouraged to communicate, acquire and disseminate information through websites. The use of new technology, methods, educational techniques and teaching raises teacher's performance and creativity.

Nataša Platiše

NOTRANJA DIFERENCIACIJA IN INDIVIDUALIZACIJA ZA NADARJENE UČENCE

INTERNAL DIFFERENTIATION AND INDIVIDUALISATION OF GIFTED STUDENTS

Referat na znanstvenem posvetovanju Conference paper
UDK 37.043 UDC 37.043
DESKRIPTORJI: organizacijski modeli, notranja diferenciacija in individualizacija, nadarjeni učenci
DESCRIPTORS: organisational models, inner differentiation and individualisation, gifted children
POVZETEK - Temeljna pogoja za razvoj nadarjenih učencev sta učna diferenciacija in individualizacija. V svetu ju upošteva vrsta različnih organizacijskih modelov, od katerih v naših šolah močno prevladuje notranja diferenciacija. Gre za različno kombiniranje učnih metod in oblik ter s tem sprotno prilagajanje učnim razlikam med učenci. Učitelji se vsekakor zavedajo pomena diferenciacije in individualizacije in posamezne oblike tudi vnašajo v vzgojno-izobraževalno delo, vendar ne v vse stopnje učnega procesa. Na razredni stopnji se prilagajajo šele ob utrjevanju, le redki učitelji pa prilagodijo zmožnostim posameznega učenca tudi preverjanje in ocenjevanje. Za uspešnejše uresničevanje diferenciranega in individualiziranega dela bi po mnenju učiteljev morali zagotoviti manjše število učencev v oddelku, dodatne vire in druga učna sredstva ter poskrbeti za dodatno izobraževanje. ABSTRACT - The fundamental conditions that enable the development of gifted students are teaching differentiation and individualisation. They are included in several different organisational models, from which those with internal differentiation predominate in our schools. There exist various combinations of teaching approaches and forms, with ongoing adjustments to the learning differences among the students. The teachers are aware of the importance of differentiation and individualisation and include individual elements into their teaching, however, not into all the stages of the teaching process. At the lower primary level, they adjust only in the consolidation part of the process, and only few teachers adjust the evaluation and assessment part to the abilities of individual students. In order to implement these principles more successfully, the teachers believe the number of students in a class should be smaller, additional sources and teaching materials would need to be made available, alongside additional training for themselves.

Terezija Zamuda

ALI SPREMEMBE V ŠOLI VPLIVAJO NA UČITELJEV PROFESIONALIZEM

DO SCHOOL CHANGES INFLUENCE TEACHER'S PROFESSIONALISM?

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 371.214:37.001.7 UDC 371.214:37.001.7
DESKRIPTORJI: učitelj, šola, profesionalni razvoj, vloga ravnatelja
DESCRIPTORS: teacher, school, professional development, headmaster's role
POVZETEK - Avtorica obravnava spremembe v šoli, ki ob splošnem napredku družbe, kopičenju novih informacij in spoznanj povečujejo pričakovanja do šol glede vseživljenjskega učenja in izobraževanja strokovnih delavcev ter drugih zaposlenih na šoli. Človek z znanjem in informacijami postaja najpomembnejši "socialni kapital" družbe v 21. stoletju. Spremembe so stalnica v razvojnem procesu šole. Neprestano se pojavljajo na vseh ravneh odprtega sistema v šoli. Uvajamo jih lahko hitro ali počasi pri organizaciji, vodenju, načrtovanju, komunikaciji in spremljanju dela. Pripravljenost in usposobljenost posameznikov za izvajanje sprememb sta pomembna dejavnika, ki odločilno vplivata na uvajanje sprememb. ABSTRACT - The author presents school changes which, alongside general social progress, accumulation of new information and knowledge, increase the expectations society has towards a school in the direction of life-long learning and education of professionals and other school staff. A person with knowledge and information has become the most important 'social capital' of the 21st century society. In the process of development of a school, changes represent a constant factor. They can either be implemented slowly or fast into the organisation, management, planning, communication and monitoring. The willingness and competence of individuals for the implementation of changes are two important factors which play a decisive role in their implementation.

Anton Pajk

POMEN IN VPLIV IGRAČ IN IGER NA OTROKA

IMPORTANCE AND IMPACT OF TOYS AND PLAY ON A CHILD

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 796.1-053.4 UDC 796.1-053.4
DESKRIPTORJI: igra, igrača, medkulturne razlike, ustvarjalnost, razvoj
DESCRIPTORS: play, toy, intercultural differences, creativity, development
POVZETEK - Igra in igrače so nepogrešljivi dejavniki v otrokovem razvoju, zlasti v zgodnjem obdobju. Na igralne aktivnosti močno vplivajo tudi medkulturne razlike. Avtor ugotavlja, da si otroci z igranjem razvijajo svoje telesne in umske sposobnosti ter komunikacijske spretnosti. Natančneje obravnava igre glede na kraj igranja in glede na vsebino. ABSTRACT - Play and toys are indispensable elements of child's development especially in early years. The play activities are strongly influenced by intercultural differences. The author believes that by playing the children develop their physical and mental abilities as well as their communication skills. He discusses play in more detail with regard to place and content.