2002 - LETNIK 17
POVZETKI ŠTEVILKE 1

Dr. Branka Čagran, dr. Majda Schmidt

FORMATIVNA EVALVACIJA PROJEKTA INTEGRACIJE OTROK Z MOTNJO SLUHA V OSNOVNI ŠOLI Z VIDIKA SOCIALNE INTEGRACIJE

FORMATIVE EVALUATION OF THE PROJECT INVOLVING PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN WITH A HEARING IMPAIRMENT FROM THE ASPECT OF SOCIAL INTEGRATION

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK 376.3.009.2:373.32 UDC 376.3.009.2:373.32
DESKRIPTORJI: otroci z motnjo, otroci brez motenj, socialna integracija, evalvacija
DESCRIPTORS: children with disorders, children without disorders, social integration, evaluation
POVZETEK - V prispevku je predstavljena empirična raziskava, ki sodi v sklop formativnih evalvacijskih raziskav proučevanja učinkov projekta integracije otrok z motnjo sluha v osnovno šolo. Njen osnovni namen je proučevanje poteka socialne integracije. V raziskovalni vzorec so zajeti vsi slišeči učenci 3. razreda osnovne šole, v katerem so trije neslišeči učenci. Anketni vprašalnik, ki smo ga uporabili, je sestavljen iz vprašanj zaprtega in odprtega tipa. Podatki, ki so pridobljeni z vprašanji zaprtega tipa, so obdelani kvantitativno na deskriptivnem nivoju. Kvalitativno pa so obdelani odgovori na odprta vprašanja. Proces socialne integracije treh otrok z motnjo sluha poteka glede na spol slišečih in neslišečih različno. Tako se na eni strani kaže, da slišeči dečki bolje sprejemajo neslišeče učence kot deklice, ter na drugi, da imata oba neslišeča dečka ugodnejši položaj v razredu kot deklica, in sicer z njima slišeči (predvsem dečki) sklepajo prijateljstva, se igrajo v odmorih ter radi sedijo skupaj pri pouku. ABSTRACT - The article introduces the empirical research which is part of a formative evaluation measuring the effects of the project called Integration of Hearing Impaired Children into Primary School. Its basic aim is to analyse the process of social integration. Our research sample includes all hearing pupils of a third grade, in which there are also three non-hearing pupils. The questionnaire consists of close and open type questions. The data acquired by close type questions were analysed quantitatively at a descriptive level; answers to open type questions were analysed qualitatively. The process of social integration of three hearing impaired children takes place differently with regard to the gender aspect of hearing and non-hearing pupils. On the one hand, non-hearing pupils are better received by hearing boys than by girls, while, on the other hand, both non-hearing boys have a more favourable social status in the class than the girl. Hearing pupils (mostly boys) establish friendships with non-hearing pupils, they play with them during school breaks and they like to sit together through lessons.

Dr. Jana Bezenšek

DRUŽINA IN NEKATERI VIDIKI DOŽIVLJANJA SMRTI

FAMILY AND THE EXPERIENCE OF DEATH

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK 173:393.7 UDC 173:393.7
DESKRIPTORJI: smrt, umiranje, družina, življenje, starši, otrok, dokončnost
DESCRIPTORS: death, dying, family, life, parents, child, finality
POVZETEK - Avtorica v prispevku obravnava doživljanje smrti v družini in ugotavlja, da je strah pred smrtjo za človeka primaren in univerzalen. Človek je v različnih kulturah izoblikoval načine, s katerimi blaži občutenje tesnobe in osmišlja svoje življenje. V sodobnih intenzivnih procesih razvijajočih se (sicer različnih) družb opažamo dereligionizacijo in zamiranje tradicij ob doživljanju smrti, ki še nikoli prej ni bila tako odtujena od ljudi. Zanje so pogovori o smrti neprijetni, zato se jim, tudi v komunikaciji s svojimi otroki in drugimi člani družine, izogibajo. Tudi otrok čuti ob soočanju s smrtjo nelagodje, jezo, žalost in strah, saj se mu zdi smrt nejasna in jo težko sprejme kot nekaj dokončnega in normalnega. Potrjuje se bojazen, da se (tudi) otrok ne more več nasloniti ne na religijo ne na tradicijo, ker ljudje v intenzivnih procesih sodobnega življenja doživljamo in nosimo breme smrti vedno bolj le v krogu družine.Tako družinski člani razosebljen odnos do smrti doživljajo kot posledico intenzivnega družbenega razvoja: naraščajočega potrošništva, karierizma, individualizacije, kompetativnosti, krize (različnih tipov) družine, tradicionalnih vrednot in še nekaterih drugih družbenih dejavnikov. ABSTRACT - The author discusses the experience of death within the child's/pupil's family and claims that for a human being fear of death is primary and universal. In different cultures and societies man has developed methods and ways by which he has learned to soothe the feelings of anxiety and make sense of his life. In contemporary, intensely developing societies, however, one cannot fail to observe secularisation and disappearance of traditions accompanying the experience of death, which has never before been so alienated from people. Talking about death is something unpleasant, therefore the topic is avoided in communication with children and between adults within the family. The child feels discomfort, anger, sadness and fear because experiencing death seems to him unclear and indistinct so that s/he has difficulty accepting it as something final and normal. The fact that the child cannot find solace in religion or tradition has also become part of the intensive process of contemporary life. Children thus carry the burden of death and their experience of it solely within their families. The impersonal attitude towards death can be considered a consequence of intensive social development including the following elements: rising consumption, careerism, individualisation, rivalry, competitiveness, different family crises, traditional values and other.

Dr. Mateja Horvat Pšunder

VPOGLED V PREVENTIVNO DISCIPLINO V OSNOVNI ŠOLI

DISCIPLINE AS A PREVENTION TOOL IN PRIMARY SCHOOL

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK 371.5 UDC 371.5
DESKRIPTORJI: disciplinski problemi, kršitve, osnovna šola, pravilnik, preventivna disciplina, razredni management
DESCRIPTORS: discipline problems, breaches of discipline, primary school, school regulations, preventive discipline, classroom management
POVZETEK - Sodobne raziskave kažejo, da učinkovit pristop k obvladovanju disciplinskih problemov ne vsebuje le premišljenih reakcij, ko se problemi pojavijo, ampak deluje tudi v smeri preprečevanja disciplinskih problemov. Preventivna disciplina se tako kaže kot neizogiben segment pri obvladovanju disciplinskih problemov.
V teoretičnem delu prispevka podajamo vidike učinkovitega pristopa k obvladovanju disciplinskih problemov, ki nujno vsebujejo tudi strategije preventivne discipline. V empiričnem delu prispevka prikazujemo rezultate empirične raziskave o tem, kako se v šolski praksi uresničuje tisti del preventivne discipline, ki se nanaša na sodelovanje učencev pri obravnavanju kršitev šolskih pravil, načinih ukrepanja in preventivnem delovanju.
ABSTRACT - Modern research points to the fact that an effective approach to solving discipline problems does not only include weighed reactions as the problems arise but also preventive measures. Preventive discipline can thus be considered as a necessary segment of solving disciplinary problems.
The theoretical part presents aspects of an effective approach using preventive discipline strategies. Results of the empirical study show how preventive discipline has become part of school practice where pupils participate in the discussions about violations of school rules, measures to be taken and possible preventive action.

Dr. Karmen Kolenc Kolnik

VPLIV STEREOTIPOV NA MLADOSTNIKOVO VREDNOTENJE PROSTORA

IMPACT OF STEREOTYPES ON SPATIAL IDENTIFICATION BY YOUTH

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK 165.4 UDC 165.4
DESKRIPTORJI: avtostereotipi, nacionalni stereotipi, sosednji narodi, srednješolci, študenti, javno mnenje, geografsko izobraževanje
DESCRIPTORS: auto-stereotype, national stereotype, neighbouring nations, secondary-school pupils, students, public opinion, geographical education
POVZETEK - V mnenjski raziskavi o prostorski identifikaciji mladih, ki je bila opravljena pred štirimi leti na izbranem vzorcu slovenskih tretješolcev v gimnazijskem programu, smo z anketiranjem pridobili tudi del podatkov, ki so predstavljeni v tem članku. Podatke smo želeli primerjati z mnenji študentske populacije. Leta 2001 smo na Pedagoški fakulteti v Mariboru izvedli anketiranje naključno izbranih študentov in jim zastavili enaka vprašanja kot srednješolcem. V članku so poleg primerjalne analize mnenj predstavljene tudi nekatere osnovne značilnosti narodnostnih stereotipov. ABSTRACT - The article presents data acquired in the research about spatial identification by youth that was performed on a chosen sample of Slovenian third-year secondary-school pupils of a gymnasium programme four years ago. We wanted to compare their answers with the opinions of the student population. In the year 2000, we thus ran a survey at the Faculty of Education, University of Maribor, where we asked randomly chosen students exactly the same questions that had been administered to the secondary-school pupils two years earlier. Beside the comparative analysis of opinions, the article also presents the basic characteristics of national stereotypes.

Dr. Janja Črčinovič Rozman

DIDAKTIČNI KOMPLETI ZA POUK GLASBE V PRVEM RAZREDU DEVETLETNE OSNOVNE ŠOLE V OČEH UČITELJIC IN ŠTUDENTK

TEACHING MATERIALS FOR MUSIC EDUCATION IN THE FIRST GRADE OF THE NINE-YEAR PRIMARY SCHOOL FROM THE VIEWPOINTS OF TEACHERS AND STUDENTS

Izvirni znanstveni članek Original scientific paper
UDK 372.878:373.32 UDC 372.878:373.32
DESKRIPTORJI: didaktični kompleti za pouk glasbe v prvem razredu osnovne šole, merila za izbiro glasbenih materialov in gradiv učiteljic in študentk, mnenja učiteljic o didaktičnih pripomočkih za pouk glasbe, odnos učencev do glasbenih dejavnosti in vsebin
DESCRIPTORS: teaching materials for music education in the first grade of the nine-year primary school, teachers' and students' criteria for selecting music materials, teachers' opinions about materials for music education, attitudes of pupils towards music activities and contents
POVZETEK - Prenova programov in uvajanje devetletnega osnovnega izobraževanja sta spodbudila avtorje k pisanju učbenikov, oblikovanju delovnih zvezkov in zvočnih posnetkov. Trenutno so na tržišču na voljo kar štirje didaktični kompleti za glasbeno vzgojo v prvem razredu devetletne osnovne šole. Med njimi obstajajo določene podobnosti, pa tudi razlike. Ob široki ponudbi glasbenih materialov se postavljajo vprašanja, katera merila uporabljajo ob izbiri učiteljice s prakso in katera študentke Pedagoške fakultete, za kateri komplet bi se odločile in zakaj prav zanj ter kako so z njim zadovoljne. Ob tem je zelo pomembno vedeti, kako sprejemajo glasbene dejavnosti in vsebine učenci. Na zastavljena vprašanja bomo odgovorili s pomočjo rezultatov izvedene empirične raziskave. ABSTRACT - The contents and teaching methods of the renovated primary school programmes represent a challenge when creating new music textbooks, exercise books and recordings. At the moment, there are four teaching components of music education in the first class of primary school available in Slovenia. There are some similarities among them as well as some differences. Among the wide offer of music materials one should ask which criteria experienced teachers use and which criteria the Faculty of Education students use when they select music materials, e.g. which music component they will select, why that particular one, and how they are satisfied with it. It is also very important to know how pupils respond to music activities and contents. The answers are presented in the empirical part of the research.

Dr. Marjan Blažič

VPETOSTI DIDAKTIKE MED TEORIJO IN PRAKSO

TEACHING METHODOLOGY BETWEEN THEORY AND PRACTICE

Pregledni znanstveni članek Review
UDK 37.02 UDC 37.02
DESKRIPTORJI: splošna in posebna didaktika, teorija, praksa, didaktični modeli in koncepti, didaktične raziskave
DESCRIPTORS: general and specific teaching methodology, theory, practice, teaching models and concepts, research into teaching methods
POVZETEK - Pobude za nadaljnji razvoj šolskega poučevanja in učenja zahtevajo presojo z ustrezne razdalje in na osnovi ustreznih parametrov splošne didaktike. Avtor ugotavlja, da v zadnjem desetletju ni zaznati novih usmeritev v splošni didaktiki, pojavljajo pa se nekatere razprave o nekaterih didaktičnih modelih in konceptih, ki se v neposredni pedagoški praksi niso uveljavili, ker so praviloma formulirani zelo abstraktno, njihovo izhodišče pa je zelo oddaljeno od konkretnih problemov v učnem procesu. Relacijo med teorijo in prakso nedvomno določa razmerje med stopnjo razvoja didaktične teorije in didaktičnimi raziskavami, ki z rezultati povečujejo učiteljevo kompetenco. ABSTRACT - Incentives for further development of teaching and learning in a school context require sound judgement made from a proper distance and based on the right parameters of general teaching methodology. In the last ten years the author has not noticed any new developments within the general teaching methodology, however, there have been some discussions about specific teaching models and concepts that had not been implemented and had not won much recognition because they were formulated very abstractly, and were with their starting point far removed from concrete issues of the teaching process. The relation between theory and practice is undoubtedly defined by the relationship between the stage of development of teaching theory and the research done in the field, the results of which can increase teacher's competence.

Dr. Samo Fošnarič

ŠVEDSKI MODEL RAZVOJA TEHNIČNEGA IZOBRAŽEVANJA V OSNOVNI ŠOLI

THE SWEDISH MODEL OF THE PRIMARY SCHOOL TECHNICAL EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT

Pregledni znanstveni članek Review
UDK 372.862(485) UDC 372.862(485)
DESKRIPTORJI: šola, vzgoja in izobraževanje, Švedska, tehnika in tehnologija, ročne spretnosti
DESCRIPTORS: school and education, Sweden, technical education and technology, manual skills
POVZETEK - Danes je izobraževanje za ustvarjalno življenje ključnega pomena v vsaki državi. Pri takšnem izobraževanju še posebej izstopa Švedska, saj ponuja prilagodljive programe, ki se lahko vsebinsko in časovno dopolnjujejo tako na lokalni kot na regijski ravni. Pri tem je zelo zanimiv vpogled v izobraževanje "ročnih spretnosti", ki imajo za Švede še poseben nacionalni pomen. Mladega človeka je namreč treba izobraziti in seznaniti z materiali, orodji, skratka z vsem, kar ga obdaja. Vse to pa opravljajo izključno skozi delovni proces. ABSTRACT - Nowadays, education is of key importance for creative life in every country. This is especially true of Sweden, where they offer adaptable programmes which can be complemented in content and time, at the local as well as at the regional level. Within these programmes, "manual skills" are almost of national importance. The young person needs to be educated and trained in the use of materials, tools and everything that surrounds him/her. This is achieved exclusively through the work process.

Dr. Amand Papotnik

PREUČEVANJE IN RAZISKOVANJE UPORABE RAČUNALNIKA PRI TEHNIČNI VZGOJI

USE OF COMPUTERS IN TECHNICAL EDUCATION

Pregledni znanstveni članek Review
UDK 372.862:004 UDC 372.862:004
DESKRIPTORJI: učni pripomočki, računalniški programi, strategije učnega dela, spretnosti, interesne tehnične dejavnosti
DESCRIPTORS: teaching aids, computer programs, learning strategies, skills, interest activities in the field of technical education
POVZETEK - Prispevek obravnava uporabo raču-nalnika pri pouku in interesnih tehničnih dejavnostih. Podatki in izsledki so iz vzorca učiteljev tehnične vzgoje R Slovenije. S pomočjo neeksperimentalne kavzalne metode in akcijskega raziskovanja smo preverjali hipoteze o vlogi in pomenu računalnika kot učnega pripomočka. Ugotavljamo, da je računalnik pomemben pripomoček za motivacijo, pridobivanje znanja, spretnosti, navad in predstav. Računalniška tehnologija in računalniški programi omogočajo lažje pridobivanje pojmov, nazornejše prikazovanje potekov in procesov. Ugotovili smo tudi, da v šolah delujejo številni tehniški krožki, kjer učitelji - mentorji in učenci uporabljajo računalniško tehnologijo in računalniške programe. ABSTRACT - The article discusses the application of computers in interest activities in the field of technical education. The data were collected from Slovene teachers for technical education. We applied the non-experimental causal method and action research to prove the hypothesis about the role of computers as a teaching aid. The computer is an important teaching aid for enhancing motivation and for the acquisition of knowledge, skills, habits and ideas. Computer technology and software facilitate the acquisition of concepts and can illustrate processes more efficiently. Schools have numerous technical clubs where teachers - mentors and their students make use of computer hardware and software.

Gregor Torkar, dr. Tatjana Verčkovnik, dr. Zdenka Zalokar Divjak

METODA DOŽIVLJAJSKE PREDSTAVITVE ŽIVALI - SPOZNAVNI IN ČUSTVENI VPLIVI NA OTROKE RAZLIČNIH STAROSTI

THE EXPERIENTIAL METHOD OF LEARNING ABOUT ANIMALS - COGNITIVE AND EMOTIONAL IMPACT ON CHILDREN OF DIFFERENT AGES

Pregledni znanstveni članek Review
UDK 372.857 UDC 372.857
DESKRIPTORJI: doživljanje, izkušenjsko učenje, živali, biološka didaktika, biološke metode, razvojna psihologija
DESCRIPTORS: experiencing, experiential learning, animals, biological teaching methods, developmental psychology
POVZETEK - Doživljajska predstavitev živali je specialna metoda izkušenjskega učenja. V članku učno metodo podrobneje predstavljamo in ugotavljamo, kakšne spoznavne in čustvene vplive ima na različno stare otroke. Pred in po doživljajski predstavitvi živali smo anketirali učence drugega in sedmega razreda osnovne šole. Ugotovili smo, da je učna metoda doživljajske predstavitve živali najprimernejša za predšolsko obdobje in nižjo stopnjo osnovne šole, ko so otroci še vedoželjni in celostno zaznavajo okolico. Vsi otroci, ne glede na starost, imajo najraje tople živali z dlako. Mlajši otroci tudi lažje premagajo predsodke do živali, kar povečuje kvaliteto otrokovega življenja. ABSTRACT - Experiential animal presentation is a special method of experiential learning. The article offers a detailed presentation of this method and discusses its cognitive and emotional impacts on children of different ages. The second- and seventh-graders were interviewed before and after the application of this method. It was established that the method is most appropriate for the pre-school and lower primary level where the children still possess an inquisitive mind and perceive the environment as a whole. Regardless of age, all children prefer warm-blooded animals with fur. Younger children can also easily overcome the prejudices about animals, which further increases the quality of child's experience.

Sonja Breznik Apostolovič

ALTERNATIVNI KONCEPTI IN PREDŠOLSKA VZGOJA

ALTERNATIVE CONCEPTS AND PRE-SCHOOL EDUCATION

Pregledni znanstveni članek Review
UDK 373.23/.24 UDC 373.23/.24
DESKRIPTORJI: predšolska vzgoja, demokratizacija, pedagogika, vrtci
DESCRIPTORS: kindergarten, teaching concept, alternative approach
POVZETEK - Vsak vrtec si v svojem konceptu prizadeva, da zagotavlja otrokom več individualnosti, spoštovanja drugačnosti, zasebnosti in intimnosti. Demokratizacija vsakdanjega življenja se uveljavlja preko različnih teorij in vzgojnih pristopov. Osredotočili smo se na tiste koncepte, elemente tistih alternativnih vzgojno-izobraževalnih pristopov, ki se pojavljajo v naših vrtcih. To so waldorfski vrtci, ustanove pedagogike M. Montessori, pedagogike Reggio, programa Soros - Korak za korakom in novi kurikulum. ABSTRACT - Every kindergarten endeavours to ensure its children proper development of individuality, respect for others, and intimacy. In order to apply concrete measures for democratic everyday life, they make use of various theories and educational approaches. We focused on the concepts and elements of alternative educational approaches present in our kindergartens. These are: the Waldorf kindergarten, Maria Montessori teaching methods, Reggio teaching, the Step by Step Soros programme, and the new curriculum.

Dr. Milena Ivanuš Grmek, Ivana Bizjak

UČBENIŠKI KOMPLETI V PRVEM RAZREDU DEVETLETNE OSNOVNE ŠOLE

TEACHING MATERIALS FOR THE FIRST GRADE OF THE NINE-YEAR PRIMARY SCHOOL

Pregledni znanstveni članek Review
UDK 373.32 (075.2) UDC 373.32 (075.2)
DESKRIPTORJI: učbenik, delovni zvezek, priročnik, učna sredstva, učbeniški komplet, prvi razred devetletke
DESCRIPTORS: student book, work book, manual, teaching aids, teaching materials, first grade of the nine-year primary school
POVZETEK - V prispevku opredelimo učbeniški komplet, pojasnimo vlogo učbeniškega kompleta v šoli, opozarjamo na pomen ustrezne oblikovanosti učbeniških gradiv in prikazujemo vlogo učbenikov v 21.stoletju. Empirično smo ovrednotili učbeniške komplete za prvi razred devetletne osnovne šole, ki jih je potrdil Strokovni svet Republike Slovenije za splošno izobraževanje. ABSTRACT - The article defines teaching materials, explains their role in school, the importance of appropriate design, and what role they play in the 21. century. The article presents an empirical evaluation of the teaching materials for the first grade of the nine-year primary school, approved by the Slovene Professional Council for General Education.

Dr. Barbara Bajd, Polona Grošelj

PREDSTAVE OTROK ČETRTEGA RAZREDA O OLJKI

FOURTH-GRADERS' CONCEPTIONS OF AN OLIVE TREE

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 372.857:373.32 UDC 372.857:373.32
DESKRIPTORJI: oljka, proizvodi iz plodov, gospodarski pomen
DESCRIPTORS: olive tree, products from fruits, economic importance
POVZETEK - V članku so opisane otroške predstave o oljki, kje raste, kakšne liste ima, ali liste jeseni odvrže, kakšne ima plodove in kako lahko uporabljamo plodove in vejice. V raziskavo sta bili vključeni dve skupini učencev četrtega razreda osemletke. Eno skupino so predstavljali učenci iz osrednje Slovenije, kjer ne raste oljka, v drugi pa so bili učenci iz slovenske Istre, kjer raste oljka kot ena od značilnih sredozemskih rastlin. Rezultati so pokazali zanimive otroške predstave in tudi razlike med otroki, ki živijo v različnih okoljih. Rezultati so nam lahko v pomoč pri organiziranju naravoslovnega dne v slovenskem Primorju. ABSTRACT - The article describes children's conceptions of the olive tree, where it grows, what kind of leaves it has, whether it sheds them in autumn, what its fruits are, and how the fruits and the branches can be used. The research included two groups of fourth-graders. In one group there were students from central Slovenia, where olive trees do not grow, while the other group included children from Slovene Istria, where the olive tree is one of the characteristic Mediterranean plants. The results show interesting conceptions as well as differences among the children of different environments. The information can well be used when organising a natural science outing to the Slovene Littoral area.

Dr. Tatjana Ferjan

INOVATIVNE METODE UČENJA NA PRIMERU SPOZNAVANJA LJUBLJANE

INNOVATIVE TEACHING METHODS - CASE STUDY OF LJUBLJANA

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 371.32 UDC 371.32
DESKRIPTORJI: raziskovalno učenje, izkustveno učenje, projektno delo, nove poti do znanja
DESCRIPTORS: research learning, experiential learning, project work, new ways to knowledge
POVZETEK - Sestavek prikazuje nove metode učenja na primeru študije Ljubljane. Namen uporabe novih metod učenja je uvajanje učencev v samostojno učenje ob množici informacij, ki jih predelajo v zaključke. ABSTRACT - The article treats new methods of learning based on a case study of the city of Ljubljana. Through using these new methods students can acquire a lot of information and produce their own reports.

Dr. Alojzija Židan

PRIMER DIDAKTIČNE UČNE ENOTE "STRPNOST KOT VREDNOTA"

AN EXAMPLE OF THE TEACHING UNIT "TOLERANCE AS A VALUE"

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 372.83 UDC 372.83
DESKRIPTORJI: strpnost, državotvornost, demokracija, odgovornost, svoboda, vrednota
DESCRIPTORS: tolerance, state, democracy, responsibility, freedom, value
POVZETEK - V prispevku avtorica ppredstavlja didaktični vzorec možne obravnave "strpnih" učnih vsebin na osnovnošolski stopnji. Pri didaktizaciji svojega vzorca izhaja iz zahteve, da mora učitelj svojo odprto profesionalnost stalno dograjevati ter kakovostno izboljševati tako strokovno kot didaktično. ABSTRACT - The article presents a possible treatment of "tolerant" teaching contents at the primary level. The teacher must constantly upgrade his/her open professionalism and strive to improve the quality of his/her teaching.

Marija Šabeder

IZOBRAŽEVANJE UČITELJEV

TEACHER EDUCATION

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 371.13/16 UDC 371.13/16
DESKRIPTORJI: seminar, učenje ob delu, mentor
DESCRIPTORS: seminar, in-service training, mentor
POVZETEK - Od učiteljev se dandanes veliko priča-kuje. Mnogi kritizirajo šole, da ne nudijo znanja, ki bi učencem kasneje koristilo. Učitelji bi naj bili krivi tudi za nekulturno vedenje dijakov, naj ne bi znali motivirati dijakov za delo in še kaj. Vsekakor pa so možnosti za uspeh bistveno večje, če smo dobro pripravljeni. Pri tem so nam v pomoč različni seminarji, na katerih nas vzpodbudijo tudi k drugačnemu na-činu razmišljanja, analiziranja, debatiranja. V pri-spevku predstavljam modernejše načine dela na seminarjih, ki sem se jih sama udeležila. ABSTRACT - Nowadays a lot is expected of teachers and schools are being criticised for not providing the knowledge students will need later on. The teachers are also considered to be responsible for students' inappropriate behaviour and incapable of motivating them for work. If, on the other hand, teachers are really well-prepared, the possibilities of success are higher. Various seminars can encourage us to start thinking differently, to analyse and discuss about things. The article presents modern teaching approaches that one meets at these seminars.

Marija Štefančič

TEK KOT OBLIKA GIBANJA PREDŠOLSKIH OTROK

RUNNING AS A FORM OF MOVEMENT OF PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN

Strokovni članek Professional paper
UDK 372.3 UDC 372.3
DESKRIPTORJI: predšolska vzgoja, vrtec, telesna aktivnost, hoja, tek
DESCRIPTORS: pre-school education, kindergarten, physical activity, walking, running
POVZETEK - Gibanje je za človeka zelo pomembno, zlasti za otroke v predšolskem obdobju. Med gibalnimi potrebami prednjačita hoja in tek. Avtorica poroča o rezultatih merjenja srčnega utripa po teku in ugotavlja razlike med dečki in deklicami. ABSTRACT - For a human being movement is extremely important, even more so for the children in the pre-school period. The predominant needs for movement are walking and running. The author presents the results of measuring heart beat following the activity of running and establishes differences between boys and girls.